Anthropometric Test Devices (ATDs) of different nominal percentile values have long been used as human surrogates in automotive crash testing. The Hybrid III family, which is one of the widely used ATDs in frontal crash test, was designed based on the anthropometry dimensions of US adults. Thus, this paper aims to assess the anthropometric differences between Malaysian adults and Hybrid III dummies in terms of 5th percentile (small female), 50th percentile (midsize male) and 95th percentile (large male). A series of anthropometric parameters of Malaysian adults was obtained from a database of 1321 subjects with 708 males and 613 females. The results revealed that the current midsize male population differs from the ATD’s statures and body weights by about 35 and 40 percentile points, respectively. This demonstrates that the current ATDs are not truly representative of the current Malaysian adults, which may potentially lead to different injury responses in road traffic crashes. Thus, car manufacturers may as well consider this discrepancy issue in developing their future models especially with regards to safety.
The best commonly applied approach in seating ergonomics is the concept that the seat must fit the sitter.
Understanding of population anthropometry is necessary because, in the mass vehicle market, a single seat should fit
a huge portion of the population. This research work proposes some automotive seat fit parameters based on a
representative Nigerian anthropometric data, to ensure an optimum fit between the vehicle seats and the occupants,
as well as providing adequate accommodation. Anthropometric data of 863 Nigerians captured with special emphasis
on the dimensions that are applicable in automotive seat design. A comparison made between the data obtained and
that of five other countries. The proposed dimensions includes: seat cushion width (475mm); seat cushion length
(394mm); seat height (340mm); seat lateral location (583mm); seat back height (480mm); seat back width (427mm);
armrest height (246mm); headrest height (703mm); armrest surface length (345mm); backrest width (thoracic level)
(524mm); seat adjustment (186mm); backrest width (lumbar level) (475mm) and distance between armrests
(475mm). A comparison made between the proposed dimensions and those recommended by four other scholars for
other populations. Finally, an ergonomic automotive seat suitable for the Nigerian population was designed using
AutoCAD 2016 software based on the proposed established dimensions.
The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia. Over 21,000 children aged 0-17.9 years were measured for body weight and stature according to the protocol of the World Health Organization. This article describes the nutritional status of children aged 0-59.9 months. Mean z score for weightfor-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age were compared with the z-scores tables of the WHO standards. The overall prevalence of underweight and stunting of the children were 12.9% and 17.2% respectively. These levels included 2.4% severe underweight and 6.0% severe stunting. In terms of z scores, the age group of 0-5.9 months showed the best nutritional status with mean WAZ of -0.33 (95%CI: -0.52, 0.15) and -0.40 (-0.57, 0.24) for boys and girls respectively, while mean HAZ was 0.64 (0.38, 0.89) for boys and 0.76 (0.54, 0.98) for girls. Mean HAZ and WAZ status was least satisfactory after about 6 months, suggesting a faltering in growth rate at an age that coincides with dependence on complementary feeding. Prevalence of overweight based on BMI-for-age for the sexes combined was 6.4%, while that based on WAZ was 3.4%. The NHMS III results indicate that Malaysian children have better nutritional status compared to children under 5 years in neighbouring countries. In order to meet the targets set in the National Plan of Nutrition (2006-2015), more effective intervention programmes are needed to accelerate the reduction of underweight and stunting, and to arrest the rise of overweight in young children.
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seat pressure distribution measurements based on a specific posture to predict the pressure felt level when seated. [Subjects and Methods] To examine the relationship between body pressure data and the driver's perception, eleven subjects were selected to participate in a simulated driving experiment using a pressure mat as a direct measurement method to measure the seat pan's pressure distribution. The buttock-popliteal length was measured using an anthropometer, and the pressure felt ratings evaluated after the body pressure measurements were recorded. Accordingly, this was then followed by performing statistical analysis using seat pressure measurements, and the buttock-popliteal length as independent variables along with subjective ratings selected of the pressure felt by the drivers' as dependent variables. [Results] The findings of this study suggest that the direct measurements and anthropometric body data are positively correlated with the predictive model thereby confirming the validity of the model with an R2 value of 0.952. [Conclusion] The proposed model is expected to provide a useful reference value for new vehicle drivers by providing the pressure felt level based on direct and body measurements in a specific posture.
This paper presents the results of an anthropometric data collected from polytechnic students in Malaysia. A total of 1032 (595 males and 437 females) students participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 24 years. A total of 34 anthropometric dimensions were measured. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum and percentile for each parameter were estimated. In addition, the comparison between Malaysia anthropometric data and Thailand (South) anthropometric data were also presented. The results show that there is a total of 12 and 11 (of dimensions parameters) significant differences (p < 0.05) between the male and female adults respectively.
Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries.
The National Health and Morbidity Survey III 2006 wanted to perform anthropometric measurements (length and weight) for children in their survey. However there is limited literature on the reliability, technical error of measurement (TEM) and validity of these two measurements. This study assessed the above properties of length (LT) and weight (WT) measurements in 130 children age below two years, from the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) paediatric outpatient clinics, during the period of December 2005 to January 2006. Two trained nurses measured WT using Tanita digital infant scale model 1583, Japan (0.01kg) and Seca beam scale, Germany (0.01 kg) and LT using Seca measuring mat, Germany (0.1cm) and Sensormedics stadiometer model 2130 (0.1cm). Findings showed high inter and intra-examiner reliability using 'change in the mean' and 'intraclass correlation' (ICC) for WT and LT. However, LT was found to be less reliable using the 'Bland and Altman plot'. This was also true using Relative TEMs, where the TEM value of LT was slightly more than the acceptable limit. The test instruments were highly valid for WT using 'change in the mean' and 'ICC' but was less valid for LT measurement. In spite of this we concluded that, WT and LT measurements in children below two years old using the test instruments were reliable and valid for a community survey such as NHMS III within the limits of their error. We recommend that LT measurements be given special attention to improve its reliability and validity.
Study site: Paediatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia.
Correlation analysis of mid-arm circumference (MAC), weight-for-age and weight-for-height obtained from 807 Malay preschool children aged 12-71 months show that MAC had a relatively low correlation with weight-for-age (r = 0.59, P <0.001) and weight-for-height (r = 0.63, P<0.001). MAC percentiles and sensitivity-specificity analysis indicate that when weight-for-age and weight-for-height were used separately to define 'true' malnutrition, MAC was not sensitive enough to detect Malaysian children with only mild to moderate protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). The value of MAC as a screening measure in malnutrition is only limited to identifying the more severe forms of PEM in young children and the present study indicates that a MAC of 13.0-13.7 cm may be used for identifying moderate to severe PEM and under 13.0 cm for severe PEM.
Measurements of child growth have become the most accepted means of assessing the protein-calorie nutritional status of economically developing populations. International reference standards have been suggested for a number of body measurements, but there has been little evaluation of their applicability in South-East Asia.In order to delineate the present range of nutritional standards in West Malaysia, and to aid in the development of guidelines for further nutritional work in this region, anthropometric tests were made on 3 groups of children below school age belonging to the Malay ethnic group and living under diverse conditions. Children of Malaysian Army personnel differed significantly in most measurements from rural village children in Trengganu and children from a small urban elite in Kuala Lumpur. Measurements for the latter group approximated to internationally used standards of height and weight. Parental height data suggest that these differences are not primarily genetic. Anaemia, malaria, and ascariasis were common among the Trengganu children.Weight and height emerge as the measurements that are most sensitive in differentiating between the groups; arm circumferences and skinfold measurements are also useful because they are relatively independent of age. Measurement of chest and head circumferences and of crown-rump lengths appeared to be of little value.
Along with the increasing popularity of taekwondo, there is a need of evidence-based talent identification (TID) and development programs based upon profiles of future elite athletes. This study first aims to investigate the differences between elite and non-elite taekwondo athletes in anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination. The second aim is to demonstrate the applicability of z-scores in TID research. A total of 98 Taekwondo athletes between 12 and 17 years old were tested using a generic test battery consisting of four anthropometrical (Height, Weight, Fat Percentage, BMI), six physical performance (Sit & Reach, Sprint 5m, Sprint 30m, Counter Movement Jump, Squat Jump, Endurance Shuttle Run) and three motor coordination tests (Moving Sideways, Jumping Sideways, Walking Backwards). Based on the individual success at international competition level, 18 were categorised as elite athletes and 80 were considered as non-elite. T-tests (step 1) on raw test scores and MANOVAs on z-scores (step 2) were conducted to examine differences between the elite and non-elite taekwondo athletes for anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination tests. Finally, z-scores were reconverted to raw scores to demonstrate practical significance for coaches. Overall, elite taekwondo athletes score better compared to the non-elite group. The MANOVA analysis better scores for elites on fat percentage (-0.55 versus 0.12;p = 0.006), BMI (-0.37 versus 0,08;p = 0.067) sprint speed 30m (-0.48 versus 0.11;p = 0.029), counter movement jump (0.79 versus -0.18;p = 0.000), squat jump (0.42 versus -0.11;p = 0.041), moving sideways (0.79 versus -0.18;p = 0.000) and walking backwards (0.54 versus -0.12;p = 0.006). This study confirms our knowledge on physical profiles of elite taekwondo athletes and expands our knowledge to the domain of motor coordination. This study showed how the z-score method can be used to distinguish between elite and non-elite athletes, the former being low in number by definition.