Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Kan SK, Kay RW, Lim TW, Chew V
    Med J Malaysia, 1978 Jun;32(4):289-91.
    PMID: 732623
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/immunology*
  2. Lim TW, Burhainuddin M, Abbas A
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Dec;27(2):147-9.
    PMID: 4268041
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections*
  3. Weaver SC, Reisen WK
    Antiviral Res, 2010 Feb;85(2):328-45.
    PMID: 19857523 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.10.008
    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. All arboviruses circulate among wild animals, and many cause disease after spillover transmission to humans and agriculturally important domestic animals that are incidental or dead-end hosts. Viruses such as dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) that have lost the requirement for enzootic amplification now produce extensive epidemics in tropical urban centers. Many arboviruses recently have increased in importance as human and veterinary pathogens using a variety of mechanisms. Beginning in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) underwent a dramatic geographic expansion into the Americas. High amplification associated with avian virulence coupled with adaptation for replication at higher temperatures in mosquito vectors, has caused the largest epidemic of arboviral encephalitis ever reported in the Americas. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the most frequent arboviral cause of encephalitis worldwide, has spread throughout most of Asia and as far south as Australia from its putative origin in Indonesia and Malaysia. JEV has caused major epidemics as it invaded new areas, often enabled by rice culture and amplification in domesticated swine. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), another arbovirus that infects humans after amplification in domesticated animals, undergoes epizootic transmission during wet years following droughts. Warming of the Indian Ocean, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific, leads to heavy rainfall in east Africa inundating surface pools and vertically infected mosquito eggs laid during previous seasons. Like WNV, JEV and RVFV could become epizootic and epidemic in the Americas if introduced unintentionally via commerce or intentionally for nefarious purposes. Climate warming also could facilitate the expansion of the distributions of many arboviruses, as documented for bluetongue viruses (BTV), major pathogens of ruminants. BTV, especially BTV-8, invaded Europe after climate warming and enabled the major midge vector to expand is distribution northward into southern Europe, extending the transmission season and vectorial capacity of local midge species. Perhaps the greatest health risk of arboviral emergence comes from extensive tropical urbanization and the colonization of this expanding habitat by the highly anthropophilic (attracted to humans) mosquito, Aedes aegypti. These factors led to the emergence of permanent endemic cycles of urban DENV and CHIKV, as well as seasonal interhuman transmission of yellow fever virus. The recent invasion into the Americas, Europe and Africa by Aedes albopictus, an important CHIKV and secondary DENV vector, could enhance urban transmission of these viruses in tropical as well as temperate regions. The minimal requirements for sustained endemic arbovirus transmission, adequate human viremia and vector competence of Ae. aegypti and/or Ae. albopictus, may be met by two other viruses with the potential to become major human pathogens: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, already an important cause of neurological disease in humans and equids throughout the Americas, and Mayaro virus, a close relative of CHIKV that produces a comparably debilitating arthralgic disease in South America. Further research is needed to understand the potential of these and other arboviruses to emerge in the future, invade new geographic areas, and become important public and veterinary health problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology*; Arbovirus Infections/veterinary*
    J Med Entomol, 1965 Jan;1:335-47.
    PMID: 14280485
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections*
  5. Vasilakis N, Tesh RB, Popov VL, Widen SG, Wood TG, Forrester NL, et al.
    Viruses, 2019 05 23;11(5).
    PMID: 31126128 DOI: 10.3390/v11050471
    In recent years, it has become evident that a generational gap has developed in the community of arbovirus research. This apparent gap is due to the dis-investment of training for the next generation of arbovirologists, which threatens to derail the rich history of virus discovery, field epidemiology, and understanding of the richness of diversity that surrounds us. On the other hand, new technologies have resulted in an explosion of virus discovery that is constantly redefining the virosphere and the evolutionary relationships between viruses. This paradox presents new challenges that may have immediate and disastrous consequences for public health when yet to be discovered arboviruses emerge. In this review we endeavor to bridge this gap by providing a historical context for the work being conducted today and provide continuity between the generations. To this end, we will provide a narrative of the thrill of scientific discovery and excitement and the challenges lying ahead.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/history; Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology; Arbovirus Infections/virology*
  6. Ching CY, Casals J, Bowen ET, Simpson DI, Platt GS, Way HJ, et al.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1970 Sep;64(3):263-8.
    PMID: 5500097
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/immunology
  7. Hill MN, Varma MG, Mahadevan S, Meers PD
    J Med Entomol, 1969 Oct;6(4):398-406.
    PMID: 4391230
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology*
  8. Lam SK
    Emerg Infect Dis, 1998 Apr-Jun;4(2):145-7.
    PMID: 9621184
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology*; Arbovirus Infections/transmission
  9. Olliaro P, Fouque F, Kroeger A, Bowman L, Velayudhan R, Santelli AC, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 02;12(2):e0005967.
    PMID: 29389959 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005967
    BACKGROUND: Research has been conducted on interventions to control dengue transmission and respond to outbreaks. A summary of the available evidence will help inform disease control policy decisions and research directions, both for dengue and, more broadly, for all Aedes-borne arboviral diseases.

    METHOD: A research-to-policy forum was convened by TDR, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, with researchers and representatives from ministries of health, in order to review research findings and discuss their implications for policy and research.

    RESULTS: The participants reviewed findings of research supported by TDR and others. Surveillance and early outbreak warning. Systematic reviews and country studies identify the critical characteristics that an alert system should have to document trends reliably and trigger timely responses (i.e., early enough to prevent the epidemic spread of the virus) to dengue outbreaks. A range of variables that, according to the literature, either indicate risk of forthcoming dengue transmission or predict dengue outbreaks were tested and some of them could be successfully applied in an Early Warning and Response System (EWARS). Entomological surveillance and vector management. A summary of the published literature shows that controlling Aedes vectors requires complex interventions and points to the need for more rigorous, standardised study designs, with disease reduction as the primary outcome to be measured. House screening and targeted vector interventions are promising vector management approaches. Sampling vector populations, both for surveillance purposes and evaluation of control activities, is usually conducted in an unsystematic way, limiting the potentials of entomological surveillance for outbreak prediction. Combining outbreak alert and improved approaches of vector management will help to overcome the present uncertainties about major risk groups or areas where outbreak response should be initiated and where resources for vector management should be allocated during the interepidemic period.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Forum concluded that the evidence collected can inform policy decisions, but also that important research gaps have yet to be filled.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control*; Arbovirus Infections/transmission*
  10. Le Bras J, Larouze B, Geniteau M, Andrieu B, Dazza MC, Rodhain F
    Lab. Anim., 1984 Jan;18(1):61-4.
    PMID: 10628790
    Naturally occurring malaria, arbovirus infection and hepatitis in monkeys can be a hazard for the investigator and might interfere with the outcome of experiments. 63 young adult Macaca fascicularis from Malaysia were screened for these infections. About 1 year after their arrival in France, parasitaemia due to Plasmodium spp., was present in 6.4% of the animals and specific antibodies in 55.5%. 19 of 35 initially positive monkeys were tested again 2 years later. Parasitaemia was found in 1 of 4 monkeys and antibodies in 11 of 19 monkeys which were initially positive. 9 of the monkeys initially tested had low titres of antibodies to the Flavivirus genus. All animals were negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBc. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against hepatitis A was 46.0%. The implications in terms of control are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology; Arbovirus Infections/veterinary*
  11. Shafie A, Roslan MA, Ngui R, Lim YA, Sulaiman WY
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2016 Dec;32(4):273-281.
    PMID: 28206867 DOI: 10.2987/16-6604.1
    Mosquito-borne diseases have been increasing at an alarming rate over the past decades. In Malaysia, one finds several important mosquito-borne diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. Mosquito surveillance and control programs are the most effective way of detecting and controlling mosquito-borne diseases, but these programs are less effective without an aware and well-informed general public. In 2014 we used a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of awareness of basic mosquito biology and mosquito-borne diseases in 6 villages, Kampung Masjid, Kampung Teluk Gedung, Kampung Teluk Dalam, Kampung Ujung Kelawai, Kampung Sungai Pinang Besar, and Kampung Sungai Pinang Kechil on Pangkor Island, Malaysia. A total of 1,012 individuals responded to the questionnaire, consisting of 790 Malay (78.1%), 164 Chinese (16.2%), and 58 Indian (5.7%). More than 60% (Malay = 73.7%, Chinese = 64.0%, Indian = 79.3%) of the respondents were familiar with basic mosquito biology and practiced personal protection against mosquito bites, and the association was statistically significant (P = 0.02). However, the majority of the respondents had limited knowledge on mosquito-borne diseases, and this varied significantly among the 3 ethnic groups (P = 0.0001). Our recommendations are to improve and intensify public health education outreach programs to the island residents and to encourage community participation in vector control programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/psychology*
  12. Platt GS, Way HJ, Bowen ET, Simpson DI, Hill MN, Kamath S, et al.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1975 Mar;69(1):65-71.
    PMID: 235907
    Thirty isolations of Tembusu virus and four of Sindbis virus were obtained from approximately 280 000 mosquitoes collected between October 1968 and February 1970 in Sarawak, particularly from K. Tijirak, a Land Dyak village 19 miles South of Kuching. Twenty-two isolations of Tembusu virus and two of Sindbis virus were from Culex tritaeniorhynchus; two of Tembusu virus and two of Sindbis virus came from Culex gelidus. Tembusu virus was active throughout the year at K. Tijirak, the highest infection rates in C. tritaeniorhynchus being in January-March and May-August, when the C. tritaeniorhynchus population was declining and ageing. These results confirm that C. tritaeniorhynchus is the principal arthopod host of Tembusu virus in Sarawak. Antibody studies suggest that birds, particularly domestic fowl, are probably vertebrate maintenance hosts of Tembusu and Sindbis viruses in Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology*
  13. Simpson DI, Way HJ, Platt GS, Bowen ET, Hill MN, Kamath S, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1975;69(1):35-8.
    PMID: 238314
    14 strains of Getah virus were isolated from a variety of mosquito species collected in Sarawak between October 1968 and February 1970. Ten strains were isolated from C. tritaeniorhynchus 7 of them at K. Tijirak. Single strains were isolated from C. gelidus, C. pseudovishnui, M. bonneae/dives and Aanopheles species. 6 of the isolates were obtained in October 1968 when Japanese encephalitis, Tembusu and Sindbis viruses were also very active. The available evidence suggest that Getah virus in Sarawak is maintained in a cycle similar to that of Japanese encephalitis virus and involves C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. gelidus and domestic pigs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/history*
  14. Simpson DI, Smith CE, Marshall TF, Platt GS, Way HJ, Bowen ET, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1976;70(1):66-72.
    PMID: 1265821
    The possible role of pigs as arbovirus maintenance hosts and their importance as amplifier hosts was studied. Blood samples from 464 pigs of all ages collected in 1962 and 1964 were tested against 10 arboviruses. Antibodies to Japanese encephalitis and Getah viruses were particularly prevalent and their calculated monthly infection rates were 19-5% and 13-3% respectively. In 1969, 447 pigs were bled monthly throughout the year and the infection rates for Japanese encephalitis virus were calculated in pigs during the first year of life. Infection rates were not uniform throughout the year; the rate increases as the pig grew older and there was a marked seasonal increase in the infection rate in the period from November to January. This coincided with the seasonal major population peak of Culex tritaeniorhynchus following intense breeding of this mosquito prior to rice planting. It is suggested that, in Sarawak, the pig acts as a maintenance host of Japanese encephalitis in a cycle involving C. gelidus mosquitoes and also acts as an important amplifier host towards the end of the year in a cycle involving C. tritaeniorhynchus. It is further suggested that Getah virus is maintained in a similar cycle between C. tritaeniorhynchus and pigs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis*
  15. Solomon T
    Curr. Opin. Neurol., 2003 Jun;16(3):411-8.
    PMID: 12858080
    The exotic and emerging viral encephalitides are caused by animal or human viruses and characterised by sudden unexpected outbreaks of neurological disease, usually in tropical and sub-tropical regions, but sometimes spreading to temperate areas. Although a wide range of viruses come within this label, as this review highlights, there are common research questions as to the origin and spread of the viruses, the contribution of viral and host factors to the clinical presentations and outcome, and the possibilities for treatment and vaccination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology; Arbovirus Infections/pathology
  16. Simpson DI, Bowen ET, Way HJ, Platt GS, Hill MN, Kamath S, et al.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1974 Dec;68(4):393-404.
    PMID: 4155608
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/microbiology; Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology*
  17. Vythilingam I, Sam JI, Chan YF, Khaw LT, Sulaiman WY
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:1452.
    PMID: 27679623 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01452
    Zika virus (ZIKV) has now become a global public health concern. The vectors for ZIKV are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Both these mosquitoes are predominant in Southeast Asia and are also responsible for the spread of other arboviral diseases like dengue virus and chikungunya virus. The incidence of dengue has been increasing over the years and this is of concern to public health workers. Simple laboratory tools for the detection of ZIKV is also lacking. In the absence of drugs and vaccine for these arboviral diseases, vector control is the main option for surveillance and control. Aedes larval surveys have been the hallmark of dengue control along with larviciding and fogging when cases are reported. However, we need new paradigms and options for control of these vectors. The current situation in Southeast Asia clearly proves that effective strategies for vector control need to be proactive and not reactive. This will be the way forward to control epidemics of these diseases inclusive of ZIKV until a vaccine becomes available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections
  18. Sekaran SD
    Dengue is an arthropod borne disease that has become important worldwide. There is still no specific drug available for treatment and also no protective vaccine that can be used. As such, specific diagnosis is essential to enable good management and prevention of large outbreaks. Diagnosis today in many countries is still based on serology though the detection of NS1 has slowly become incorporated. Diagnosis is critical for early intervention with specific preventive health measures to prevent fatalities and also to curtail spread and reduce economic losses. Serological assays mainly detect IgM which now as a single test is invalid unless a second sample is taken to confirm. As such to effectively diagnose dengue at all stages of infection, assays with two or more markers are required or two samples taken a few days apart. Other commonly used tests include NS1 detection, nucleic acid amplification and IgG detection. However the sensitivities of the current commercial kits vary quite considerably and have to be interpreted with caution. Hence knowledge of this disease is essential when conducting diagnostics for dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections
  19. Marchette NJ, Rudnick A, Garcia R
    PMID: 7403943
    A serum survey of several characteristic groups of humans in urban, rural, and forested areas of Peninsular Malaysia for evidence of infection with three alphaviruses (Sindbis, getah, and chikungunya) was made on 4384 specimens collected between 1965 and 1969. Analysis of the serological results indicated that 1) persons residing in predominantly rural and forested areas have higher frequencies of specific alphavirus antibody of all three viruses than persons residing in urban areas, 2) human infection with chikungunya virus appears to be at a low level of activity but is widespread, although more common and recent in the northern part of the country, and 3) Sindbis and getah viruses probably do not represent a threat to the public health, but chikungunya virus remains a potential menance and may be responsible for future epidemics transmitted by A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/immunology*
  20. Rao TR
    Bull World Health Organ, 1971;44(5):585-91.
    PMID: 4400821
    Serological surveys have been widely used in South-East Asia to determine the presence and activity of arboviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test has been most frequently employed but complement-fixation and neutralization tests have also been used in some investigations.Although virus isolations provide the most conclusive evidence, they can be carried out in a few specialized centres only, and serological surveys are very important for studying the distribution of arboviruses.The surveys have shown that group B arboviruses (principally all four types of dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile) are widely prevalent. Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are more widespread than West Nile virus, which was not known previously to extend east of India although recent survyes have shown that its range extends to Burma. Japanese encephalitis is frequent in most of South-East Asia but in India is found mainly in eastern and south-eastern parts of the country. Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) and Langat viruses are the only tick-borne group B arboviruses definitely known to occur in the region, the former in India, the latter in Malaysia. KFD virus has been isolated only from a small focus in Mysore, although human and animal sera containing neutralizing antibodies to this virus have been found sporadically in widely scattered areas. Among the group A arboviruses, chikungunya and Sindbis have been detected in serological surveys, but the former has not yet been found in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arbovirus Infections/immunology*
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