Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

  1. George E, Ann TJ
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Dec;65(4):256-60.
    PMID: 21901940 MyJurnal
    The haemoglobinopathies and thalassemias represent the most common inherited monogenic disorders in the world. Beta-thalassaemia major is an ongoing public health problem in Malaysia. Prior to 2004, the country had no national policy for screening and registry for thalassemia. In the absence of a national audit, the true figure of the extent of thalassemia in the Malaysian population was largely presumptive from micro-mapping studies from various research workers in the country. The estimated carrier rate for beta-thalassemia in Malaysia is 3.5-4%. There were 4768 transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients as of May 2010 (Data from National Thalassemia Registry).
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  2. Teh LK, George E, Lai MI, Tan JA, Wong L, Ismail P
    J Hum Genet, 2014 Mar;59(3):119-23.
    PMID: 24369358 DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2013.131
    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited diseases and a public health problem in Malaysia. Malaysia is geographically divided into West and East Malaysia. In Sabah, a state in East Malaysia, there are over 1000 estimated cases of β-thalassemia major patients. Accurate population frequency data of the molecular basis of β-thalassemia major are needed for planning its control in the high-risk population of Sabah. Characterization of β-globin gene defects was done in 252 transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients incorporating few PCR techniques. The study demonstrates that β-thalassemia mutations inherited are ethnically dependent. It is important to note that 86.9% of transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major patients in Sabah were of the indigenous population and homozygous for a single mutation. The Filipino β(0)-deletion was a unique mutation found in the indigenous population of Sabah. Mutations common in West Malaysia were found in 11 (4.3%) patients. Four rare mutations (Hb Monroe, CD 8/9, CD 123/124/125 and IVS I-2) were also found. This study is informative on the population genetics of β-thalassemia major in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  3. Harano K, Harano T
    Rinsho Byori, 2013 Mar;61(3):217-23.
    PMID: 23785790
    This study was done to detect and diagnose beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal) gene quickly. We applied sequence specific Amplification (SSA) method to the analysis. 13 kinds of beta-Thal and two kinds of hemoglobin variants were able to detect under the same PCR condition. These mutations were found frequently in ten countries of Asian region (the southern part of China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Pakistan, India), and 15 kinds in total (-28CapA-->G, CD5-CT, CD8/9+-G, CD15G-->A, CD17A-->T, IVSI-1G-->T, CD41/42-4del, CD16-C, CD26G-->A(betaE), IVSI-5G-->C, CD35C-->A, CD71/72 +A, CD6A-->T (betaS), -619del, IVSII-654C-->T). More than 80% of patients are included in these mutations. To make the reagents a kit, the procedure became simple and rapid. DNA was extracted by salting out method. The PCR product was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The confirmation of the variant was done by the PCR-direct sequencing method. It took approximately six hours for PCR reaction, electrophoresis and staining. This method made us to detect and diagnose beta-Thal in one day.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  4. Sivalingam M, Looi ML, Zakaria SZ, Hamidah NH, Alias H, Latiff ZA, et al.
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2012 Aug;34(4):377-82.
    PMID: 22335963 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-553X.2012.01405.x
    INTRODUCTION: To study the ß-gene mutations spectrum, the genotype/phenotype correlation, the modulatory effect of co-inherited factors such as α-gene mutations and of Xmn1 polymorphism in a large cohort of Malaysian patients.
    METHODS: A total of 264 cases clinically diagnosed as Thalassemia major (TM) (111), Thalassemia intermedia (21), HbE-β Thalassemia (131), and 1 HbE homozygous were studied. The detection of α and ß gene mutations and characterization of Xmn1 polymorphism were performed by multiplex PCR, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), DNA sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR.
    RESULTS: A total of 19 ß Thalassemia mutations were characterized. CD26 and CD41/42 were the most common found in the Malay and Chinese population, respectively. The sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis for β TM, thalassemia intermedia, and HbE/β thalassemia was 94.0%, 15.2%, and 89.2%, respectively. Patients with Xmn1 heterozygosity [+/-] required less frequent transfusion compared with those without the polymorphism. Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia alleviates the severity of HbE-β thalassemia in our cohort.
    CONCLUSION: Molecular analysis should be used for a better diagnosis and management of β thalassemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  5. Thong MK, Rudzki Z, Hall J, Tan JA, Chan LL, Yap SF
    Hum Mutat, 1999;13(5):413.
    PMID: 10338100 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1999)13:5<413::AID-HUMU15>
    Beta-thalassemia major is one of the commonest genetic disorders in South-East Asia. The spectrum of beta-thalassemia mutations in the various ethnic sub-populations on the island of Borneo is unknown. We studied 20 Dusun children from the East Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo) with a severe beta-thalassemia major phenotype, using a combination of Southern analysis, polymerase chain reaction analysis and direct sequencing. We found the children to be homozygous for a large deletion, which has a 5' breakpoint at position -4279 from the cap site of the beta-globin gene (HBB) with the 3' breakpoint located in a L1 family of repetitive sequences at an unknown distance from the beta-globin gene. This was similar to a recent finding of a large deletion causing beta-thalassemia first described in unrelated beta-thalassemia heterozygotes of Filipino descent. This report describes the first 20 families with homozygosity of the deletion causing a severe phenotype. It provides the first information on the molecular epidemiology of beta-thalassemia in Sabah. This finding has implications for the population genetics and preventative strategies for beta-thalassemia major for nearly 300 million individuals in South-East Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  6. George E
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56(4):397-400.
    PMID: 12014756
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  7. Ismail JB
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Jun;47(2):98-102.
    PMID: 1494340
    One thousand consecutive Brunei Darussalam patients referred with low Hb, and/or low MCV and MCH (Hb < 12.5g/dl, MCV < 76fl, MCH < 27pg) were studied in the laboratory for underlying haemoglobinopathies. 30.0% of such patients were proved to have either beta-thalassaemia trait, beta-thalassaemia major, Hb AE, Hb EE, Hb E beta-thalassaemia or Hb H disease. In some, the haemoglobin abnormality was not identified precisely. Alpha-thalassaemia was suspected in an additional 4.3% of cases but confirmation study by globin-chain synthesis was not available. Beta-thalassaemia trait which was the predominant disorder was equally distributed among the three major race groups of Brunei Darussalam. Hb E was found exclusive among the Malay population. Hb H disease appeared as more common among the Chinese or the Malays (p > 0.05). This study reveals that thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies are prevalent in Brunei Darussalam.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  8. Che Yaacob NS, Islam MA, Alsaleh H, Ibrahim IK, Hassan R
    Int J Hematol, 2020 Mar;111(3):352-359.
    PMID: 31894534 DOI: 10.1007/s12185-019-02806-8
    Hemoglobin (Hb) is an iron-containing metalloprotein that transports oxygen molecules from the lungs to the rest of the human body. Among the different variants of Hb, HbA1 is the most common and is composed of two alpha (αHb) and two beta globin chains (βHb) constructing a heterotetrameric protein complex (α2β2). Due to the higher number of AHSP genes, there is a tendency to produce approximately twice as much of α subunit as β subunit. Therefore, there is a chance of presenting excess α subunit leftover in human blood plasma; excess subunits subsequently bind with each other and aggregates β-thalassemia occurs due to lack of or reduced numbers of βHb subunit. Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) is a scavenger protein which acts as a molecular chaperon by reversibly binding with free αHb forming a complex (AHSP-αHb) that prevents aggregation and precipitation preventing deleterious effects towards developing serious human diseases including β-thalassemia. Clinical severity worsens if mutations in AHSP gene co-occur in patients with β-thalassemia. Considering the mechanism of action of AHSP and its contribution to ameliorating β-thalassemia severity, it could potentially be used as a modulatory agent in the treatment of β-thalassemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  9. Mahmud N, Maffei M, Mogni M, Forni GL, Pinto VM, Barberio G, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2021 11 19;12(11).
    PMID: 34828427 DOI: 10.3390/genes12111821
    BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin A (Hb A) (α2β2) in the normal adult subject constitutes 96-98% of hemoglobin, and Hb F is normally less than 1%, while for hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) (α2δ2), the normal reference values are between 2.0 and 3.3%. It is important to evaluate the presence of possible delta gene mutations in a population at high risk for globin gene defects in order to correctly diagnose the β-thalassemia carrier.

    METHODS: The most used methods for the quantification of Hb A2 are based on automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). In particular Hb analyses were performed by HPLC on three dedicated devices. DNA analyses were performed according to local standard protocols.

    RESULTS: Here, we described eight new δ-globin gene variants discovered and characterized in some laboratories in Northern Italy in recent years. These new variants were added to the many already known Hb A2 variants that were found with an estimated frequency of about 1-2% during the screening tests in our laboratories.

    CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge recognition of the delta variant on Hb analysis and accurate molecular characterization is crucial to provide an accurate definitive thalassemia diagnosis, particularly in young subjects who would like to ask for a prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  10. Thong MK, Soo TL
    Singapore Med J, 2005 Jul;46(7):340-3.
    PMID: 15968446
    Beta-thalassaemia major is one of the commonest genetic disorders in South East Asia. The strategy for the community control of beta-thalassaemia major requires the characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in any multi-ethnic population. There is only a single report of mutation analyses of the beta-globin gene in an isolated Kadazandusun community in Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia, which showed the presence of a common 45 kb deletion.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  11. Rozitah R, Nizam MZ, Nur Shafawati AR, Nor Atifah MA, Dewi M, Kannan TP, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Dec;49(12):1046-9.
    PMID: 19122960
    Beta-thalassaemia major is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in severe microcytic, hypochromic, haemolytic anaemia among affected patients. Beta-thalassaemia has emerged as one of the most common public health problems in Malaysia, particularly among Malaysian Chinese and Malays. This study aimed to observe the spectrum of mutations found in Kelantan Malay beta-thalassaemia major patients who attended the Paediatrics Daycare Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, the data of which was being used in establishing the prenatal diagnosis in this Human Genome Centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  12. Alauddin H, Mohamad Nasir S, Ahadon M, Raja Sabudin RZ, Ithnin A, Hussin NH, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Dec;37(3):287-92.
    PMID: 26712677
    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two α-globin and two δβ-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/β-thalassaemia and co-inheritance α+-thalassaemia (-α3.7). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  13. Teh LK, Lee TY, Tan JA, Lai MI, George E
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2015 Feb;37(1):79-89.
    PMID: 24725998 DOI: 10.1111/ijlh.12240
    In Malaysia, β-thalassaemia is a common inherited blood disorder in haemoglobin synthesis with a carrier rate of 4.5%. Currently, PCR-incorporating techniques such as amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) or reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) are used in β-thalassaemia mutation detection. ARMS allows single-mutation identification using two reactions, one for wild type and another for mutant alleles. RDBH requires probe immobilization and optimization of hybridization and washing temperatures which is time consuming. The aim of our study was to investigate whether β-thalassaemia mutations can be identified in samples with low DNA concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  14. Yatim NF, Rahim MA, Menon K, Al-Hassan FM, Ahmad R, Manocha AB, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(5):8835-45.
    PMID: 24857915 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15058835
    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. --SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are --SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  15. Karthipan SN, George E, Jameela S, Lim WF, Teh LK, Lee TY, et al.
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2011 Oct;33(5):540-4.
    PMID: 21884505 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-553X.2011.01304.x
    Dried blood spots (DBS) are currently the recommended sample collection method for newborn screening programmes in America. Early diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia screening is essential as it provides an added advantage especially in sickle cell disease. Beta-thalassaemia frequency is high in many poor countries, and the cost of using commercial DNA extraction kits can be prohibitive. Our study assessed three methods that use minimal reagents and materials to extract DNA from DBS for beta-thalassaemia identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  16. Harano K, Harano T
    Rinsho Byori, 2010 Apr;58(4):325-31.
    PMID: 20496759
    Hb and gene analyses of a Malaysian mother and her two daughters with microcytic anemia living in Japan were performed. Hb analyses of their hemolysates by IEF and DEAE-HPLC revealed high values of Hb A2 and HbF, but abnormal Hbs such as Hb E and Hb Constant Spring, which cause beta- and alpha-thalassemia traits, were not detected. From these data, they were suspected to be beta-thalassemia carriers. The thalassemic mutations commonly found in the Asian area by ARMS and nucleotide sequencing methods were not detected, and the frameworks of the beta-globin gene and the haplotypes of the beta-like globin gene cluster between the mother and daughters were not identical. These results led us to conclude that there was a beta(0)-thalassemia mutation with a large deletion from the beta-globin gene beyond the 3'beta/BamHI polymorphic site 3' downstream to the beta-globin gene. However, the range of the deletion from the beta-like globin gene cluster has not yet been completed in detail. Recently, there have been many foreigners mainly from Asian countries in Japan. We may encounter people with the rare type thalassemic mutation described in the text besides the mutations frequently found in Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  17. Wong YC, George E, Tan KL, Yap SF, Chan LL, Tan JA
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Jun;28(1):17-21.
    PMID: 17694955
    The molecular basis of variable phenotypes in P-thalassaemia patients with identical genotypes has been associated with co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia and persistence of HbF production in adult life. The Xmn I restriction site at -158 position of the Ggamma-gene is associated with increased expression of the Ggamma-globin gene and higher production of HbF This study aims to determine the frequency of the digammaferent genotypes of the Ggamma Xmn I polymorphism in P-thalassaemia patients in two ethnic groups in Malaysia. Molecular characterisation and frequency of the Ggamma Xmn I polymorphism were studied in fifty-eight Chinese and forty-nine beta-thalassaemia Malay patients by Xmn I digestion after DNA amplification of a 650 bp sequence. The in-house developed technique did not require further purification or concentration of amplified DNA before restriction enzyme digestion. The cheaper Seakem LE agarose was used instead of Nusieve agarose and distinct well separated bands were observed. Genotyping showed that the most frequent genotype observed in the Malaysian Chinese was homozygosity for the absence of the Xmn I site (-/-) (89.7%). In the Malays, heterozygosity of the Xmn I site (+/-) was most common (63.3%). Homozygosity for the Xmn I site (+/+) was absent in the Chinese, but was confirmed in 8.2% of the Malays. The ratio of the (+) allele (presence of the Xmn I site) to the (-) allele (absence of the Xmn I site)) was higher in the Malays (0.66) compared to the Chinese (0.05). The (+/-) and (+/+) genotypes are more commonly observed in the Malays than the Chinese in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  18. Hafiza A, Malisa MY, Khirotdin RD, Azlin I, Azma Z, Thong MC, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Dec;34(2):161-4.
    PMID: 23424780
    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a new system that utilizes the principle of electrokinetic separation of molecules in eight electrolyte buffer-filled silica capillaries. In this study, we established the normal ranges of haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) and haemoglobin F (HbF) levels for normal individuals using this system and also the HbA2 level in beta thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (HbE) individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  19. Kho SL, Chua KH, George E, Tan JA
    Sensors (Basel), 2013;13(2):2506-14.
    PMID: 23429513 DOI: 10.3390/s130202506
    β-Thalassemia is a public health problem where 4.5% of Malaysians are β-thalassemia carriers. The genetic disorder is caused by defects in the β-globin gene complex which lead to reduced or complete absence of β-globin chain synthesis. Five TaqMan genotyping assays were designed and developed to detect the common β-thalassemia mutations in Malaysian Malays. The assays were evaluated with 219 "blinded" DNA samples and the results showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The in-house designed TaqMan genotyping assays were found to be cost- and time-effective for characterization of β-thalassemia mutations in the Malaysian population. 
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
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