PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of a female patient with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma who had undergone mastectomy and axillary dissection, followed by chemoradiotherapy. Over the next nine years, she developed ovarian and bone metastases for which appropriate treatment was provided. A right iliac fossa mass was discovered during routine clinic review, though she remained asymptomatic. Computed tomography scan showed ileocecal intussusception. Histopathological examination of the right hemicolectomy specimen following emergency surgery confirmed metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma to the GI tract.
DISCUSSION: GI tract metastasis may present 30 years after the primary breast cancer. Up to 20% of patients may be asymptomatic as shown by Montagna et al. When present, symptoms are commonly non-specific and vague. Histological diagnosis is challenging. GI metastasis typically appears as intramural infiltration of the bowel wall by small cells arranged in cords.
CONCLUSION: It is important to maintain a suspicion for GI tract metastasis in breast cancer patients who present with abdominal mass or GI symptoms, as this aids in prompt institution of accurate and appropriate management.
METHODS: Surgeons in the APFCP completed an Institutional Review Board-approved anonymous e-survey and/or printed letters (for China) containing 19 questions regarding nonsurgical close observation in patients who achieved clinical complete response (cCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT).
RESULTS: Of the 417 responses, 80.8% (n = 337) supported the W&W approach and 65.5% (n = 273) treated patients who achieved cCR after nCRT. Importantly, 78% of participants (n = 326) preferred a selective W&W approach in patients with old age and medical comorbidities who achieved cCR. In regard to restaging methods after nCRT, the majority of respondents based their decision to use W&W on a combination of magnetic resonance imaging results (94.5%, n = 394) with other test results. For interval between nCRT completion and tumor response assessment, most participants used 8 weeks (n = 154, 36.9%), followed by 6 weeks (n = 127, 30.5%) and 4 weeks (n = 102, 24.5%). In response to the question of how often responders followed-up after W&W, the predominant period was every 3 months (209 participants, 50.1%) followed by every 2 months (75 participants, 18.0%). If local regrowth was found during follow-up, most participants (79.9%, n = 333) recommended radical surgery as an initial management.
CONCLUSION: The W&W approach is supported by 80% of Asia-Pacific surgeons and is practiced at 65%, although heterogeneous hospital or society protocols are also observed. These results inform oncologists of future clinical study participation.
METHODOLOGY: In this open labelled randomized clinical trial, 40 participants aged between 18 and 65 with head and neck cancer who completed chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in Hospital USM, Kelantan Malaysia or Hospital Taiping were recruited and randomized into two groups: Tualang honey (experimental) group or Vitamin C (control) group. They were prescribed with either daily oral Tualang honey 20mg or vitamin C tablet 100 mg for 8 weeks. Level of fatigue and quality of life were measured using FACIT-Fatigue and FACT H&N questionnaires at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The white cell count and C-reactive protein level were also measured at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks.
RESULTS: After four and eight weeks of treatment with Tualang honey or Vitamin C, the fatigue level for experimental group was better than in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Statistically significant improvements were seen on quality of life (p<0.05) for the experimental group at week 8, however, no significant improvements were seen in white cell count and C-reactive protein level between control and experimental group.
CONCLUSION: Our research provided support for the use of Tualang honey to improve CRF and QOL in head and neck cancer patients post chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 60 patients with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer who were treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin followed by intracavitary brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) boost between November 2001 and May 2008 were analysed. Patients were initially treated with weekly intravenous cisplatin (40 mg/m2) concurrent with daily EBRT to pelvis of 45-50 Gy followed by low dose rate brachytherapy or EBRT boost to tumour. Local control rate, progression free survival, overall survival and treatment related toxicities graded by the RTOG criteria were evaluated.
RESULTS: The mean age was 56. At the median follow-up of 72 months, the estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (median PFS 39 months) and the 5-year overall survival (OS) (median OS 51 months) were 48% and 50% respectively. The 5-year local control rate was 67.3%. Grade 3-4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity occurred in 9.3% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year PFS and the 5-year OS in this cohort were lower than in other institutions. More advanced stage at presentation, longer overall treatment time (OTT) of more than fifty-six days and lower total dose to point A were the potential factors contributing to a lower survival.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: FORUM is a randomized, controlled, open-label, international, multicenter, phase III, noninferiority study. Patients ≤ 18 years at diagnosis, 4-21 years at HSCT, in complete remission pre-HSCT, and with an HLA-compatible related or unrelated donor were randomly assigned to myeloablative conditioning with fractionated 12 Gy TBI and etoposide versus fludarabine, thiotepa, and either busulfan or treosulfan. The noninferiority margin was 8%. With 1,000 patients randomly assigned in 5 years, 2-year minimum follow-up, and one-sided alpha of 5%, 80% power was calculated. A futility stopping rule would halt random assignment if chemoconditioning was significantly inferior to TBI (EudraCT: 2012-003032-22; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949129).
RESULTS: Between April 2013 and December 2018, 543 patients were screened, 417 were randomly assigned, 212 received TBI, and 201 received chemoconditioning. The stopping rule was applied on March 31, 2019. The median follow-up was 2.1 years. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher following TBI (0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.95; P < .0001) versus chemoconditioning (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81). Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse and treatment-related mortality were 0.12 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.17; P < .0001) and 0.02 (95% CI, < 0.01 to 0.05; P = .0269) following TBI and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.40) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14) following chemoconditioning, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Improved OS and lower relapse risk were observed following TBI plus etoposide compared with chemoconditioning. We therefore recommend TBI plus etoposide for patients > 4 years old with high-risk ALL undergoing allogeneic HSCT.
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