Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Vengathajalam S, Maruthamuthu T, Nik Hassan NFH, Mohamad I
    Gulf J Oncolog, 2020 May;1(33):80-83.
    PMID: 32476655
    Post chemoradiation vocal cord immobility is a rare complication and this maybe life threatening when patients present with severe aspiration and recurrent pneumonia or even worse if they have an upper airway obstruction. We report a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient whom after receiving curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy, presented with episodes of shortness of breath and aspiration pneumonia finally diagnosed with bilateral vocal cord immobility. She had no evidence of tumour recurrence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects*
  2. Tan SH, Chong AW, Nazarina AR, Prepageran N
    Otolaryngol Pol, 2014 Sep-Oct;68(5):268-70.
    PMID: 25283325 DOI: 10.1016/j.otpol.2013.09.003
    We describe a rare case of BSCC in the retromolar trigone with only 3 other cases in the literature and also compare the differences between 2 cases of BSCC in terms of presentation and progression. The first patient had a markedly slower progression with painful retromolar trigone swelling over 4 months without nodal metastases. In contrast, the second patient gave a 2-week history of neck swelling with nodal involvement, indicating extremely rapid progression. Our management was tailored accordingly with the first patient undergoing intraoral excision of tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy while the other had bilateral neck dissection with postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Both patients achieved good outcome and are free from disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  3. Azhani C., Azmi M.N., David O.
    Jehovah’s Witness followers pose a clinical dilemma to the medical practitioners due to their religious belief of an absolute prohibition of blood transfusion under any circumstances. We present a case of Jehovah’s Witness follower who underwent an ultra-low anterior resection for rectal cancer after neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. The challenges in the perioperative management are highlighted and managed accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  4. Wong M.P.K
    The incidence of rectal dissection is increasing with the rise of rectal cancer all over the world. This
    technique has been used regularly to provide a reasonable quality of life for patients. The concern raised
    was the functions of these neorectum to replace the original rectum. Several configurations have been
    suggested namely the straight end-to-end coloanal anastomosis, side-to-end coloanal anastomosis, colonic Jpouch and the transverse coloplasty to suit the anatomy of the deep pelvis. Apparently, there was no
    difference in terms of functional outcome among all these four types of reconstructions. However, these
    configurations have seen the emergence of anterior resection syndrome or a pragmatic defaecatory
    dysfunction as their complications. Furthermore, the neorectum functions are affected by many other
    factors such as preoperative chemoradiotherapy, septic complications, and others more.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  5. H'ng MWC, Dennien B
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):754-755.
    PMID: 33219194
    Patients with malignancy who develop superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction may require stenting to relieve their symptoms. Some of these individuals also have an indwelling chemoport for concomitant chemotherapy. We present a case where stenting was accomplished after catheter-assisted deflection of the chemoport catheter tubing via a single groin access. It can save procedure time whilst salvaging the device.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  6. Jee SL, Amin-Tai H, Fathi NQ, Jabar MF
    ACG Case Rep J, 2018;5:e21.
    PMID: 29577055 DOI: 10.14309/crj.2018.21
    Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma (PMA) is an oncologic rarity that poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for treating clinicians because there are few reported cases and an absence of definitive guidelines. We report a patient who had been treated with local surgery for recurrent perianal abscess with fistula for 3 years. Biopsy of the indurated tissue overlying his surgical scars revealed PMA. Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by abdominoperineal resection was planned to address the locally advanced disease and ongoing sepsis. Our case is unique in that the fistula preceded carcinoma by only 3 years instead of the typical 10 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  7. Mosiun JA, Idris MSB, Teoh LY, Teh MS, Chandran PA, See MH
    Int J Surg Case Rep, 2019;64:109-112.
    PMID: 31629292 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.10.003
    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is rare and occurs more frequently in invasive lobular carcinoma. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with variable vague symptoms that may be mistakenly attributed to side effects of chemotherapy or other benign GI diseases. Treatment follows the principles of systemic disease and includes hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and signal transduction inhibitors, with surgical intervention indicated for complications such as obstruction, perforation and hemorrhage.

    PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of a female patient with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma who had undergone mastectomy and axillary dissection, followed by chemoradiotherapy. Over the next nine years, she developed ovarian and bone metastases for which appropriate treatment was provided. A right iliac fossa mass was discovered during routine clinic review, though she remained asymptomatic. Computed tomography scan showed ileocecal intussusception. Histopathological examination of the right hemicolectomy specimen following emergency surgery confirmed metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma to the GI tract.

    DISCUSSION: GI tract metastasis may present 30 years after the primary breast cancer. Up to 20% of patients may be asymptomatic as shown by Montagna et al. When present, symptoms are commonly non-specific and vague. Histological diagnosis is challenging. GI metastasis typically appears as intramural infiltration of the bowel wall by small cells arranged in cords.

    CONCLUSION: It is important to maintain a suspicion for GI tract metastasis in breast cancer patients who present with abdominal mass or GI symptoms, as this aids in prompt institution of accurate and appropriate management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  8. Yousaf A, Hamid SA, Bunnori NM, Ishola AA
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:2831-8.
    PMID: 26082613 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S83213
    Research on the therapeutic applications of calixarene derivatives is an emerging area of interest. The anticancer activity of various functionalized calixarenes has been reported by several research groups. Due to their superior geometric shape, calixarenes can accommodate drug molecules by forming inclusion complexes. Controlled release of anticancer drugs by calixarenes might help in targeted chemotherapy. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of the calixarenes and their drug loading properties. The potential use of calixarenes in chemoradiotherapy is also highlighted in brief.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/methods
  9. Lorna Ting KN, Liew YT, Abu Bakar Z, Narayanan P
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2019 Jun;46(3):469-473.
    PMID: 30049634 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2018.07.002
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a neoplasm commonly found in population of South East Asia. The mainstay of treatment is high dose irradiation. Complications from radiotherapy are not uncommon especially to those nearby structures such as vertebrae and spinal cord. A 57 year-old gentleman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who was treated with chemo-radiation (total of 35 fractions,70Gy) presented to us 6 months post therapy with bilateral nasal discharge and progressive neck stiffness. Nasoendoscopy showed inflamed nasophayngeal mucosa and Computed Tomography (CT) brain and cervical spine showed retropharyngeal and anterior epidural collection with extension into atlantoaxial bone and spinal cord compression. Histopathological specimen revealed features of chronic inflammations with multiple actinomycetes colonies. Our patient suffered severe neck stiffness and loss of sensations on both upper limbs. He was treated conservatively with Halo vest and intravenous antibiotics for 8 weeks and recovered fully. Irradiation in NPC is known to cause devastating complications to cervical spine such as osteoradionecrosis, osteomyelitis. It also renders tissues hypoxic and risk of getting rare infection like actinomycosis. This report can represent a great diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with differentials of tumor recurrence, osteoradionecrosis or osteomyelitis. Patients must be regularly followed up to look for possible cervical complications as a result from irradiation, to prevent devastating outcome or prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy*
  10. Abdullah MM, Foo YC, Yap BK, Lee CML, Hoo LP, Lim TO
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 06 01;20(6):1701-1708.
    PMID: 31244290 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1701
    Objective: This report focuses on a private medical centre cancer care performance as measured by patient survival
    outcome for up to 5 years. Methods: All patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at SJMC between 2008 and 2012
    were enrolled for this observational cohort study. Mortality outcome was ascertained through record linkage with
    national death register, linkage with hospital registration system and finally through direct contact by phone. Result:
    266 patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were included for survival analysis. 31% of patients were diagnosed with
    Early NPC Cancer (Stage I or II), another 44% with Locally Advanced Cancer (Stage III) and 25% with late stage IV
    metastatic cancer. 2%, 27% and 67% had WHO Class I, II and III NPC respectively. The overall survival at 5 years
    was 100% for patients with Stage I disease, 91% for Stage II disease, 72% for Stage III disease, and decreasing to
    44% for Stage IV disease. Overall survival at 5 years for all stages was 73%. Conclusion: SJMC is among the first
    hospitals in Malaysia to embark on routine measurement of the performance of its cancer care services and its results
    are comparable to any leading centers in developed countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/mortality*
  11. Dualim DM, Loo GH, Suhaimi SNA, Md Latar NH, Muhammad R, Abd Shukor N
    Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2019 Aug;44:57-61.
    PMID: 31312445 DOI: 10.1016/j.amsu.2019.06.013
    Thyroid carcinoma showing thymic-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare malignancy of the thyroid gland, and it accounts for 0.1-0.15% of all thyroid cancers. As the name suggests, it has a histological and immunophenotypic resemblance to thymic carcinoma. Preoperative diagnosis of CASTLE can be difficult as its clinical manifestations, and histological characteristic resembles other aggressive and advanced thyroid carcinomas. It is essential to distinguish CASTLE from other aggressive neoplasms as the former has a more favourable prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can help to differentiate thyroid CASTLE from other aggressive thyroid neoplasms. Due to the rarity of this disease, there is no clear definitive treatment strategy. Surgical resection of CASTLE is usually attempted initially. Nodal involvement and extrathyroidal extension are shown to be the main prognostic factors that influenced the survival of patients. Therefore, complete resection of the tumour is vital to reduce local recurrence rates and to improve the chance of long-term survival. Radiotherapy (RT) for CASTLE is an effective treatment. Curative surgery followed by adjuvant RT should be considered in cases with extrathyroidal extension and nodal metastases. With RT, shrinkage of the tumour and reduction of local recurrence rate is possible. With that in mind, we present a case of CASTLE who presented with airway compression symptoms three years after thyroid surgery. He subsequently underwent tumour debulking surgery and a tracheostomy. The patient refused adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and during our serial follow-up, he is well and symptom-free.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
  12. Azna Aishath Ali, Syamim Johan, Chiak, Yot Ng, Firdaus Hayati
    The CECT scan of the abdomen at axial and coronal views show gas bubbles tracking along the inner wall of the ascending colon and hepatic flexure, which is separated from the intraluminal gas within the bowel. These intramural gas bubbles appear to be outlining the bowel wall circumferentially. The bowel wall appears to be thickened however the inner mucosa is not enhanced. There are no ascites in the images provided. The colon of the hepatic flexure and transverse colon appears dilated. No significant atherosclerotic plaque in the visualised arteries. Based on the clinical presentations and CECT features in Figure 1 and Figure 2, the best diagnosis for him is benign pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) secondary to obstructed low rectal cancer. He was subjected for a trephine transverse colostomy to relieve the obstruction with simultaneous transanal rectal mass biopsy. Once the histology is available, he subsequently will be referred for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment and later for a low anterior resection, provided that it is a localized disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  13. Nornazirah Azizan, Nor Haizura Ab Rani, Ahmad Toha Samsudin, Fadhli Mustaffa, Firdaus Hayati
    Gliosarcoma is a rare primary malignant tumour of the central nervous system. A 28-year-old radiographer without a history of neurological disorder, malignancy or trauma presented with unprovoked seizures. He was symptom-free for 3 years but developed relapsed. Computed tomography of the brain was consistent with anaplastic convexity meningioma which was identical via intraoperative findings. However, the final histology revealed gliosarcoma of the brain. He recovered well postoperatively without any neurological deficit and had completed adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. He was asymptomatic during follow up with no tumour recurrence. Gliosarcoma with predominant sarcomatous component mimicking a meningioma has prolonged survival as compared to a case with predominant glioblastoma component. Hence, the discordance between clinical, radiological, intraoperative and histopathological findings is a challenge in establishing a diagnosis of gliosarcoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  14. Huh JW, Maeda K, Liu Z, Wang X, Roslani AC, Lee WY
    Ann Coloproctol, 2020 Apr;36(2):70-77.
    PMID: 32054250 DOI: 10.3393/ac.2020.01.19
    PURPOSE: Current acceptance of the watch-and-wait (W&W) approach by surgeons in Asia-Pacific countries is unknown. An international survey was performed to determine status of the W&W approach on behalf of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Coloproctology (APFCP).

    METHODS: Surgeons in the APFCP completed an Institutional Review Board-approved anonymous e-survey and/or printed letters (for China) containing 19 questions regarding nonsurgical close observation in patients who achieved clinical complete response (cCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT).

    RESULTS: Of the 417 responses, 80.8% (n = 337) supported the W&W approach and 65.5% (n = 273) treated patients who achieved cCR after nCRT. Importantly, 78% of participants (n = 326) preferred a selective W&W approach in patients with old age and medical comorbidities who achieved cCR. In regard to restaging methods after nCRT, the majority of respondents based their decision to use W&W on a combination of magnetic resonance imaging results (94.5%, n = 394) with other test results. For interval between nCRT completion and tumor response assessment, most participants used 8 weeks (n = 154, 36.9%), followed by 6 weeks (n = 127, 30.5%) and 4 weeks (n = 102, 24.5%). In response to the question of how often responders followed-up after W&W, the predominant period was every 3 months (209 participants, 50.1%) followed by every 2 months (75 participants, 18.0%). If local regrowth was found during follow-up, most participants (79.9%, n = 333) recommended radical surgery as an initial management.

    CONCLUSION: The W&W approach is supported by 80% of Asia-Pacific surgeons and is practiced at 65%, although heterogeneous hospital or society protocols are also observed. These results inform oncologists of future clinical study participation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
  15. Nabil S, Samman N
    PMID: 22669065 DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.07.042
    This systematic review aimed to answer the clinical question, "What is the current risk of developing osteoradionecrosis of the jaws among irradiated head and neck cancer patients?"
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects
  16. Ramasamy V, Binti Mat Lazim N, Abdullah B, Singh A
    Gulf J Oncolog, 2019 May;1(30):43-51.
    PMID: 31242981
    INTRODUCTION: Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a problem experienced by head and neck cancer patients, especially those who undergo chemoradiation therapy. CRF may persist for years post chemoradiation therapy and significantly impair their quality of life (QOL). Tualang honey is rich in amino acids, vitamins, minerals and enzymes. It is proven to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tumour properties. As CRF is related to inflammatory mediators, the effects of Tualang Honey may improve CRF. The aim of this study is to determine if Tualang honey has a role in improving CRF and quality of life among head and neck cancer patients post chemoradiation.

    METHODOLOGY: In this open labelled randomized clinical trial, 40 participants aged between 18 and 65 with head and neck cancer who completed chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in Hospital USM, Kelantan Malaysia or Hospital Taiping were recruited and randomized into two groups: Tualang honey (experimental) group or Vitamin C (control) group. They were prescribed with either daily oral Tualang honey 20mg or vitamin C tablet 100 mg for 8 weeks. Level of fatigue and quality of life were measured using FACIT-Fatigue and FACT H&N questionnaires at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The white cell count and C-reactive protein level were also measured at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks.

    RESULTS: After four and eight weeks of treatment with Tualang honey or Vitamin C, the fatigue level for experimental group was better than in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Statistically significant improvements were seen on quality of life (p<0.05) for the experimental group at week 8, however, no significant improvements were seen in white cell count and C-reactive protein level between control and experimental group.

    CONCLUSION: Our research provided support for the use of Tualang honey to improve CRF and QOL in head and neck cancer patients post chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects*
  17. Zamaniah WI, Mastura MY, Phua CE, Adlinda A, Marniza S, Rozita AM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(20):8987-92.
    PMID: 25374241
    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is well established. We aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy of definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer in the University of Malaya Medical Centre.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 60 patients with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer who were treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin followed by intracavitary brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) boost between November 2001 and May 2008 were analysed. Patients were initially treated with weekly intravenous cisplatin (40 mg/m2) concurrent with daily EBRT to pelvis of 45-50 Gy followed by low dose rate brachytherapy or EBRT boost to tumour. Local control rate, progression free survival, overall survival and treatment related toxicities graded by the RTOG criteria were evaluated.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 56. At the median follow-up of 72 months, the estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (median PFS 39 months) and the 5-year overall survival (OS) (median OS 51 months) were 48% and 50% respectively. The 5-year local control rate was 67.3%. Grade 3-4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity occurred in 9.3% of patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year PFS and the 5-year OS in this cohort were lower than in other institutions. More advanced stage at presentation, longer overall treatment time (OTT) of more than fifty-six days and lower total dose to point A were the potential factors contributing to a lower survival.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy*
  18. Ohno T, Thinh DH, Kato S, Devi CR, Tung NT, Thephamongkhol K, et al.
    J Radiat Res, 2013 May;54(3):467-73.
    PMID: 23192700 DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrs115
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, for the treatment of N2-3 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in Asian countries, especially regions of South and Southeast Asian countries where NPC is endemic. Between 2005 and 2009, 121 patients with NPC (T1-4 N2-3 M0) were registered from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines, China and Bangladesh. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m (2)), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on Day 1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m(2) on Days 1-5) for 3 cycles. Of the 121 patients, 56 patients (46%) required interruption of RT. The reasons for interruption of RT were acute non-hematological toxicities such as mucositis, pain and dermatitis in 35 patients, hematological toxicities in 11 patients, machine break-down in 3 patients, poor general condition in 2 patients, and others in 8 patients. Of the patients, 93% completed at least 4 cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy, and 82% completed at least 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. With a median follow-up time of 46 months for the surviving 77 patients, the 3-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 89%, 74% and 66%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3-4 toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of the patients, respectively. In conclusion, further improvement in survival and locoregional control is necessary, although our regimen showed acceptable toxicities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/mortality*
  19. Peters C, Dalle JH, Locatelli F, Poetschger U, Sedlacek P, Buechner J, et al.
    J Clin Oncol, 2021 02 01;39(4):295-307.
    PMID: 33332189 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.20.02529
    PURPOSE: Total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is efficacious, but long-term side effects are concerning. We investigated whether preparative combination chemotherapy could replace TBI in such patients.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: FORUM is a randomized, controlled, open-label, international, multicenter, phase III, noninferiority study. Patients ≤ 18 years at diagnosis, 4-21 years at HSCT, in complete remission pre-HSCT, and with an HLA-compatible related or unrelated donor were randomly assigned to myeloablative conditioning with fractionated 12 Gy TBI and etoposide versus fludarabine, thiotepa, and either busulfan or treosulfan. The noninferiority margin was 8%. With 1,000 patients randomly assigned in 5 years, 2-year minimum follow-up, and one-sided alpha of 5%, 80% power was calculated. A futility stopping rule would halt random assignment if chemoconditioning was significantly inferior to TBI (EudraCT: 2012-003032-22; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949129).

    RESULTS: Between April 2013 and December 2018, 543 patients were screened, 417 were randomly assigned, 212 received TBI, and 201 received chemoconditioning. The stopping rule was applied on March 31, 2019. The median follow-up was 2.1 years. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher following TBI (0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.95; P < .0001) versus chemoconditioning (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81). Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse and treatment-related mortality were 0.12 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.17; P < .0001) and 0.02 (95% CI, < 0.01 to 0.05; P = .0269) following TBI and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.40) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14) following chemoconditioning, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Improved OS and lower relapse risk were observed following TBI plus etoposide compared with chemoconditioning. We therefore recommend TBI plus etoposide for patients > 4 years old with high-risk ALL undergoing allogeneic HSCT.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy/mortality*
  20. Tsai HJ, Liou B, Li MC
    Malays J Pathol, 2013 Dec;35(2):177-80.
    PMID: 24362481
    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the uterine cervix is a rare malignancy of the female genital tract with a poorer clinical outcome than SCC of the uterine cervix. We report a case of BSCC of the uterine cervix developing rapidly in a young adult Taiwanese. A 35-year-old woman, Para 2, visited the emergency room with severe dizziness, palpitations and sudden excessive vaginal bleeding with hemoglobin of 3.6 g/dl. She had been well and healthy but intermittent vaginal spotting developed for around 6 months previously and was treated as abnormal uterine bleeding by ob-gyn practitioners. She had a repeat cesarean operation 16 months prior to this episode and the last Pap smear showed reactive change 12 months ago at our hospital. On examination, she had an ulcerated, necrotic, and punched-out lesion of 5 cm of the cervix. A cervical biopsy revealed poorly differentiated typical BSCC. Abdominal/pelvic computerized tomography and whole body positron emission tomography confirmed FIGO staging IB2. She responded well to concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Follow-up for the patient is ongoing. This is a rapid developing BSCC of the uterine cervix, although we cannot actually ascertain when it started and how rapidly it progressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemoradiotherapy
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