In this study, the unaffected, affected and heavily affected teeth were studied by using X-Ray diffraction method. The D-values, which are related to the crystallite size of the apatite crystals, were calculated according to the Sherrer equation. The crystallite size of unaffected enamel was found to be 1530.95Å, while the affected enamel was 1490.22Å and the heavily affected enamel was 1484.16Å respectively. This study showed that the unaffected enamel has greater crystallite size as compared to the affected and heavily affected enamel.
Ninety-seven specimens of sympatric monkeys and apes from East Malaysia and 115 monkeys and apes from West Africa are examined in order to evaluate the magnitude and nature of the great ape-monkey linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) 'dichotomy'. This study demonstrates that great apes from both regions have a higher incidence of LEH and repetitive LEH than do gibbons and monkeys. However, the authors find that the dichotomy is not as clear-cut as previous research suggests, since some monkey samples exhibit high LEH frequencies. The authors evaluate the potential influence of great ape-monkey differences in crown height on this dichotomy. They show that canine crown height variation is weakly associated with LEH variation. Differences between monkeys and great apes in their crown formation spans and in their experience of environmental stress may be more likely causes of the dichotomy.
The prevalence and symmetrical distribution of enamel defects were studied in 218 Malaysian school children aged 11-12 years old. The tooth prevalence of enamel defect was 40.3 per cent. The first permanent molars were the most severely affected, whereas the lower incisors were the least severely affected. Overall there was no sex difference. Distribution of symmetry was assessed between the right and left tooth pairs as well as for upper and lower teeth. A higher proportion of symmetry was observed for the right and left tooth pairs and the lingual surfaces showed a greater percentage of bilateral distribution.
This study was designed to identify surface and subsurface microscopic changes in different carious lesions by using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and Image analyzer (light microscopy). Thirty extracted carious posterior teeth were fixed, embedded and polymerized in plastic fixation medium. The final thin sections (80mm) were stained with H&E and Masson Goldner's Tricome while others were left unstained. Under Confocal, marked differences between control sound enamel and dentin, and carious area of the samples were observed which illustrated that a correlation existed between the zone of autofluoresence, demineralization and carious enamel and dentin. Compared to CLSM, Image Analyzer only produce two-dimensional images but the histopathological changes were better appreciated by using various staining methods.
Objectives: To evaluate the marginal microleakage of Class II cavities restored with various types of composite resins.
Materials and Methods: Standard Class II slot cavities were prepared at the proximal surfaces of 40 intact premolars which were divided into 4 groups. Four types of composite resins (Esthet-X-Denstply, USA, FiltekTMZ350- 3M ESPE, USA, Beautifil- Shofu, Japan and Solare P-GC, Japan) were used to restore the slot cavities. All the specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 hours. The specimens were then sectioned in mesio-distal direction. The marginal microleakage at the occlusal and cervical margin was scored using the ISO microleakage scoring system. Data was entered using SPSS Version 12.0 and analyzed using STATA software programme.
Results and discussion: All composite resins exhibited worse microleakage at the cervical margin compared to occlusal margin. Esthet-X showed significantly better microleakage score at the occlusal margin compared to Beautifil and Solare P. FiltekTMZ350 and Beautifil showed mainly microleakage into enamel only at the occlusal margin. Solare P demostrated better resistance against microleakage at the cervical margin compared to other composite resin tested. Esthet-X, Filtek Z350 and Beautiful is not significantly different from each other in terms of microleakage at the cervical margin.
Conclusion: This study showed that none of the materials used in this study is able to eliminate microleakage. Composite resin restorations exhibited worse micorleakage at cervical margin in comparison to occlusal margin.
The root canal walls of twenty -five deciduous molar teeth with exposed and necrotic pulps were examined using thescanning electronmicroscope. Immediately after extraction, all teeth were fixed in Kamosky's solution. The coronal portion of the tooth was sectioned at about 2mm above the enamel cemental junction.The mesial and distal roots were separat~d and either split in the mesio-distal or bucco-lingual direction. All specimens were prepared for SEM. Obsevations showed that all roots were infected with organisms consisting of cocciand short rods. Some of the coccihad penetrated the dentine layer. However, the distribution of organisms is. not uniform throughout thecanals. Bacterialinvasion ismostinthecoronal region and reduces towards the apical region: Accompanying bacterial invasion is root canal walls deterioration. The odontoblastic processes are the first to deteriorate followed by the predentine layer.
Unaffected, affected and heavily affected teeth enamel were studied by using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The 14 permanent teeth’s enamel surface were measured randomly, resulting in total n=43 FT-Raman spectra. The results obtained from FT-Raman spectra of heavily affected, affected and unaffected tooth’s enamel surfaces did not show any significant difference. In this study, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the intensity between the categories of enamel as well as the surfaces of teeth samples.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial impact of enamel defects among 16-year-old school children on the island of Penang. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire survey and an oral examination, using the Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index (FDI, 1992). In all, 1024 subjects were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. About two-thirds of the sample (67.1%) had at least one tooth affected by enamel defects. Enamel opacities accounted for 85.6% of the total condition. Diffuse-type opacity predominated (63.5%). Among subjects who expressed dissatisfaction, 18.8% reported covering their mouths when smiling, 8.7% avoided going out with friends and 39.1% had consulted their dentists. About 17% of the subjects reported that their parents had complained about the color of their front teeth but only 5.7% had experienced being teased by their friends about the problem. Two-thirds of the subjects were affected by enamel defects involving at least one tooth; however, the esthetic perception and psychosocial impact of those affected were minor.
The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel was assessed in 4805 16-year-old schoolchildren in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in Malaysia. In this sample, the mouth prevalence was 56.0%; tooth prevalence was 21.8%. There were significant differences between children in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas, urban and rural areas as well as between the ethnic groups. However, there was no significant gender difference. Prevalences were lower than those reported in most other Asiancountries. However, direct comparisons could not be madedue to differences in indices and methodology used.
Direct composite veneers can be used to mask tooth discolorations and/or to correct unaesthetic tooth forms and/or positions. However, these type of restorations are often regarded as one of the most challenging in aesthetic dentistry presumably due to the extent of natural tooth structure that must be recreated. This paper discusses easy application techniques and tips for Ceram.X Duo™, a nano ceramic composite restorative material. Its natural shading system allows the restoration of tooth with both dentine and enamel shade and transforms it into a final direct veneer restoration that mimics a natural tooth.
Decalcified permanent teeth were sectioned and stained with Van Gieson and Gomori trichome dyes. Sections dyed with the Van Gieson dye did not produce any zones in dentine but with the Gomori trichome dye, four different zones of dentine were produced. Zone 1 begins at the predentine-dentine junction while zone 4 ends at the enamel - dentine junction. In zone 1, the intertubular dentine was stained clearly while in zone 3 intense staining of the peritubular dentine was observed. The result of this study supports the previous findings reported by other workers that the formation of intertubular dentine takes place in zone 1 while peritubular dentine occurs in zone 3.
The widespread use of aesthetic fillings has highlighted their advantages and disadvantages. One
of the most troublesome features of earlier aesthetic materials was the difficulty of finishing the restoration surface to decrease adherence of food debris. The rougher the finished surface, the greater the possibility of bacterial accumulation and discolouration of restoration along the restoration margin with secondary caries formation. Aside from these clinical implications, patients are highly discerning and could detect roughness of 0.30 μm with their tongue. The aesthetic restoration should mimic the appearance of natural dentition and should have an enamel-like appearance. An increased demand for superior aesthetics from composite resin has increased the
demand for more eff icient and simple polishing techniques. The development of nanocomposites has given a new perspective to the polishing of composite resins. Nanocomposites claim the advantage of improved gloss, optical characteristics and reduced wear. To date, results of in vitro studies have been equivocal regarding the most efficient and effective polishing system. There is variation in the effects of different finishing and polishing instruments on the surface roughness due to great diversity in size, shape, composition and distribution of the filler particles of composite resins, type of resin and a wide variety of finishing and polishing instruments. This paper will
review the different factors that affect polishing techniques used in achieving the desired polish on
composite resin restorations.
Replacing a single missing anterior tooth can be a challenge. Many factors need to be considered when choosing the appropriate treatment. Several treatment options are well established. This case report is to present the use of a cast cobalt chrome partial denture with custom made porcelain tooth to improve aesthetic. The overall shade of the artificial tooth were nicely matched with the adjacent teeth and definite enamel translucency could be achieved which would not be possible with acrylic or even with readymade porcelain tooth.
Background: The importance of tooth sectioning is realized in disasters such as earthquake, airplane crash investigation, terror, micro leakage studies, age estimation etc. The objective of this study was to develop a simple method to make thin sections (approximately 100 mm) from freshly extracted teeth.
Methods: One hundred and twenty human premolars recently extracted for orthodontic purpose were used for this study. The teeth were stored in 0.5% chorlaramine for 2 weeks and were not allowed to dry at any stage of the experiment. The teeth were thoroughly washed in distilled water teeth and then were sectioned buccolingually from crown to the root portion.
Results: A detailed embedding-cutting-mounting procedure is described. The prepared thin ground sections were then examined under a Polarised light microscope for the enamel and the dentine, as well as the caries lesions can clearly be distinguished.
Conclusion: This is an effective and efficient method for preparation of ground sections in which the hard tissue details are preserved.
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder resulting in generalized defects in the enamel. The case reported here is of a seven-year-old male child with yellow color of all his teeth. Two of his primary molars were extracted due to dental abscess with advanced root resorption. Histologically hypoplastic enamel layer, positively birefringent, generalized pitting, roughness with irregular general cracked borders were observed. Scanning electron microscope, revealed extensive irregular, disorganized rough superficial enamel layer. The enamel was irregularly decussate with filamentous prisms accompanied by small rounded formations. The morphological and histological examination of the tooth revealed that this patient has the features of AI. For genetic study blood sample were collected from the patient and PCR analysis revealed that there is no mutation in exons 1-7 of AMELX gene on the X chromosome of the patient. Hence, it is probable that the AI of this patient is not X-linked. It is more likely to be an autosomal mutation.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test cutting efficiency of different materials against conventional alumina in an air abrasion system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The powder samples were divided into three groups: Group 1 - alumina (control), Group 2 - 45S5 bioactive glass, and Group 3 - hydroxyapatite. 30 microscope glass slides of 0.5 mm thickness were used as an alternative of human enamel and were also divided randomly into these three groups. The time taken by the abrasive particles to cut a hole through the microscope glass slide was recorded with a stop watch. In addition, morphology of the particles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A t-test was used to compare the times taken to cut a hole through the microscope glass slides, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: The mean time taken to cut a hole through the microscope glass slide was 2.96 s and 23.01s for Groups 1 and 2, respectively, whereas powder of Group 3 did not cut after 120 s. The differences between cutting times of Groups 1 and 2 were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The SEM micrographs revealed coarse angular shape for particles of Groups 1 and 2 but Group 3 particles were with round ends and presence of smaller particles was also observed in Groups 2 and 3.
CONCLUSION: The alumina particles demonstrated excellent cutting efficiency followed by 45S5 particles. The use of bioactive glass particles should be encouraged for cutting purposes whenever a shortage of time for practitioners is not a concern.
Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a condition of hypomineralized enamel of systemic origin affecting first permanent molars and frequently permanent incisors. It is considered a global problem and data from South-East Asian countries, including Malaysia are lacking. Hence the aim of this study were to investigate the distribution and severity of MIH in a group of children aged 7-12 year olds attending pediatric dental clinic at Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia.
The prevalence and distribution patterns of enamel defects in maxillary incisors was assessed in 194 Singaporean children aged 11-15 years and belonging to three different ethnic groups. All were born and continuously resident in Singapore, which has a tropical climate. The water supply was fluoridated in 1957 at a level of 0.7 ppm. The mouth prevalence of defects was 71.5 per cent and the tooth prevalence was 55.9 per cent; 82 per cent of all affected teeth demonstrated white lesions of various forms. Although there was no sex difference in the prevalence and distribution pattern of defects, some racial differences were observed. The results were compared with data from other studies where the same classification of defects was used.
INTRODUCTION: In an attempt to manage noncavitated carious lesions noninvasively through remineralization, a range of novel fluoride varnishes with additional remineralizing agents have been made available for clinical application.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the remineralization potential of three commercially available varnishes on artificial enamel lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study involves eighty intact enamel specimens prepared from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. After specimen preparation, the eighty samples were divided randomly into two groups (n = 40) for measurement of baseline surface Vickers microhardness and baseline calcium/phosphorus ratio (% weight) through EDAX testing. Thereafter, the specimens were subjected to demineralization for 96 h to induce initial enamel lesions and the measurements were repeated. Following demineralization, each of the two groups was divided randomly into four subgroups (n = 10) from which one was used as the control group and the others three were allotted to each of the three test varnishes. After varnish application, all the specimens were subjected to a pH cycling regimen that included alternative demineralization (3 h) and remineralization (21 h) daily, for 5 consecutive days. The Vickers microhardness and EDAX measurements were then repeated.
RESULTS: One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's tests were conducted for multiple group comparison. All the three commercially available varnishes were capable of remineralizing initial enamel lesions that were induced artificially. No difference was noted in the remineralizing efficacy of the varnishes despite their different compositions. MI Varnish™ (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride varnish) showed slightly better recovery in surface microhardness as compared to the other two varnishes.
CONCLUSION: All the varnishes used in this in vitro study are capable of reversing early enamel lesions.