Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Rahman K, Abdul Ghani N, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Chowdhury MA
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0133229.
    PMID: 26196124 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133229
    Pedestrian overflow causes queuing delay and in turn, is controlled by the capacity of a facility. Flow control or blocking control takes action to avoid queues from building up to extreme values. Thus, in this paper, the problem of pedestrian flow control in open outdoor walking facilities in equilibrium condition is investigated using M/M/c/K queuing models. State dependent service rate based on speed and density relationship is utilized. The effective rate of the Poisson arrival process to the facility is determined so as there is no overflow of pedestrians. In addition, the use of the state dependent queuing models to the design of the facilities and the effect of pedestrian personal capacity on the design and the traffic congestion are discussed. The study does not validate the sustainability of adaptation of Western design codes for the pedestrian facilities in the countries like Bangladesh.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  2. Abd Samad NA, Said I, Abdul Rahim A
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 2018;256:367-377.
    PMID: 30371497
    Access to our buildings relies to the accessibility of its external environment and the route taken. Developments and planning in urban areas has many several requirements and restrictions. Planning accessibility for Malaysian built environment is achievable by designing in compliance to the requirements enforced by authorities. Accessible design is commonly associated with providing facilities for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs), the issue that is often brought up is the inaccessibility of the external environment and lacking of seamless connectivity between buildings and the outdoor. The intention is to formulate accessibility strategies and work out planning process on how accessibility can be achieved. Universal Design will be the basis for the design and planning concept to accommodate all users to enjoy our urban built environment. It is notable that developed countries advances more in terms of implementing and enforcing accessibility measures via legislative and regulatory documents, government strategies and initiatives within its planning approach than the developing nations. The methodology will be looking into the establishment of strategies and measures of international and local planning policy, local and action plans of City of London as selected Local Authority to be analyzed its inclusive policy has been successfully implemented in their jurisdiction. The findings, discussions and result will be an outcome of generating a framework of accessibility strategies that is derived from interviews and government documents accordingly to targeted Malaysian urban areas focusing the City of Petaling Jaya and Putrajaya and how it can be improvised. Therefore, an interpretation of adopting accessibility planning strategies of developed country, to be adapted locally according to Malaysian legislation, culture and lifestyles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  3. Ibrahim MKA, Hamid H, Law TH, Wong SV
    Accid Anal Prev, 2018 Feb;111:63-70.
    PMID: 29172046 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.023
    Construction of exclusive motorcycle lanes is one of the measures to reduce motorcycle fatalities. Previous studies highlighted the risk of crashes with roadside objects and the tendency of motorcyclists to ride with excessive speed on exclusive motorcycle lanes. However, the risk of same-direction crashes on exclusive motorcycle lanes was not explored in much detail, especially on the impact of lane geometry and roadside configurations. This study used naturalistic riding data to determine the effects of lane width and roadside configurations on overtaking speed, lateral position and likelihood of comfortable overtaking on tangential sections of an exclusive motorcycle lane. Twenty-nine recruited motorcyclists rode the instrumented motorcycles along a 20km stretch of an exclusive motorcycle lane along a major urban road. Results revealed that both the roadside configurations and lane width significantly affect the participants' lateral position, while the roadside configurations only affects the overtaking speed. Participants' overtaking speeds and the front motorcycles' lateral position contribute significantly to the likelihood of comfortable overtaking in exclusive motorcycle lanes. The findings highlight the importance of micro-level behavior indicators in improving the design and overall safety of the exclusive motorcycle facility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  4. Nabilah Zainal Abidin, Fawazul Khair Ibrahim, Raja Nafida Raja Shahminan
    This paper describes the culture of Traditional Malays, in particular the use of sustainable furniture inside a Traditional Malay House (TMH). The sample houses for this study were retrieved from archived reports, from the Centre for Built Environment in the Malay World (KALAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Data collected were analysed using Componential Analysis for the presence of components (based on drawings of archival reports as well as photographic evidence from site visits). The findings showed that the Malays used a variety ofsustainable furniture in their houses. Additionally, their homes had built-in furniture, which indicated the houses were pre-designed based on its user.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design
  5. Soltani M, Moghaddam TB, Karim MR, Sulong NH
    Accid Anal Prev, 2013 Oct;59:240-52.
    PMID: 23820073 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.05.029
    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/standards*
  6. Asadi-Shekari Z, Moeinaddini M, Zaly Shah M
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2015;16:283-8.
    PMID: 24983474 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2014.936010
    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/standards*
  7. Swami V, Pickering M, Barron D, Patel S
    Body Image, 2018 Sep;26:70-73.
    PMID: 29906631 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.06.002
    Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type. Results indicated that exposure to the film of a natural environment resulted in significantly elevated state body appreciation (d = 0.66). There was no significant change in state body appreciation following exposure to the film of the built environment (d = 0.14). These findings suggest that exposure to films depicting the natural environment may promote immediate, moderate-sized improvements in state body image.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  8. Fazlena Abd. Rahim, Norsidah Ujang, Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said
    The lack of understanding of Islamic principles in the design of public spaces has led to
    the weakness of the function, aesthetic value and the identity of urban places. The study
    seeks to identify the characteristics and elements of the Islamic urban space in
    Putrajaya base on publics and expert perception and preference. A questionnaire
    survey was conducted with approximately 500 civilians to analyse the public perception
    of Putra Square and Astaka Moroco. A photo base interview was carried out with
    approximately 100 professionals in the built environment field to evaluate the quality
    of Astaka Moroco in comparison to Islamic gardens in the Middle East based on their
    perception. The results indicate that the style of the Dataran Putra is the most preferred
    by the public compared to the Astaka Morocco. The professionals inform that Astaka
    Morocco is not comparable to the quality of Islamic gardens in the Middle East either
    in terms of function or aesthetic value due to the lack of understanding of the Islamic gardens elements and principles. In addition, the public liked the Islamic garden style
    that reflects the local identity and the functions as public spaces instead of just as an
    exhibit or a model. The findings can be a good guide in designing the Islamic public
    spaces which are favoured by the public.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design
  9. Hosseinpour M, Yahaya AS, Sadullah AF
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Jan;62:209-22.
    PMID: 24172088 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.10.001
    Head-on crashes are among the most severe collision types and of great concern to road safety authorities. Therefore, it justifies more efforts to reduce both the frequency and severity of this collision type. To this end, it is necessary to first identify factors associating with the crash occurrence. This can be done by developing crash prediction models that relate crash outcomes to a set of contributing factors. This study intends to identify the factors affecting both the frequency and severity of head-on crashes that occurred on 448 segments of five federal roads in Malaysia. Data on road characteristics and crash history were collected on the study segments during a 4-year period between 2007 and 2010. The frequency of head-on crashes were fitted by developing and comparing seven count-data models including Poisson, standard negative binomial (NB), random-effect negative binomial, hurdle Poisson, hurdle negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial models. To model crash severity, a random-effect generalized ordered probit model (REGOPM) was used given a head-on crash had occurred. With respect to the crash frequency, the random-effect negative binomial (RENB) model was found to outperform the other models according to goodness of fit measures. Based on the results of the model, the variables horizontal curvature, terrain type, heavy-vehicle traffic, and access points were found to be positively related to the frequency of head-on crashes, while posted speed limit and shoulder width decreased the crash frequency. With regard to the crash severity, the results of REGOPM showed that horizontal curvature, paved shoulder width, terrain type, and side friction were associated with more severe crashes, whereas land use, access points, and presence of median reduced the probability of severe crashes. Based on the results of this study, some potential countermeasures were proposed to minimize the risk of head-on crashes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/statistics & numerical data*
  10. Hosseinpour M, Pour MH, Prasetijo J, Yahaya AS, Ghadiri SM
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2013;14(6):630-8.
    PMID: 23859313 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2012.736649
    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of various roadway characteristics on the incidence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes by developing a set of crash prediction models on 543 km of Malaysia federal roads over a 4-year time span between 2007 and 2010.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Saimon R, Choo WY, Chang KH, Ng CJ, Bulgiba A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):33S-40S.
    PMID: 25900978 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515582220
    This study explores the rural environmental factors that influence adolescents' participation in physical activities (PA). Thirty-six indigenous adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years from rural communities of East Malaysia were involved in the photovoice procedures: photo-taking, selecting, contextualizing, and codifying themes. Despite being endowed with natural resources such as river, forest, hills, and so on, the adolescents and the community did not capitalize on these rich resources to promote and engage in PA. Poor maintenance of natural resources, the lack of pedestrian infrastructures and road safety, the lack of PA facilities, and negative perception of ancestors' agricultural activities were among factors that constrained adolescents' PA. Although basic amenities such as play spaces and pedestrian infrastructures are necessary to increase adolescents' PA, any intervention should make the most of the natural resources, which are cheaper, environment friendly, and sustainable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Tey LS, Zhu S, Ferreira L, Wallis G
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Oct;71:177-82.
    PMID: 24929822 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.05.014
    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Abdul Manan MM
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Sep;70:301-13.
    PMID: 24831271 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.009
    This paper uses data from an observational study, conducted at access points in straight sections of primary roads in Malaysia in 2012, to investigate the effects of motorcyclists' behavior and road environment attributes on the occurrence of serious traffic conflicts involving motorcyclists entering primary roads via access points. In order to handle the unobserved heterogeneity in the small sample data size, this study applies mixed effects logistic regression with multilevel bootstrapping. Two statistically significant models (Model 2 and Model 3) are produced, with 2 levels of random effect parameters, i.e. motorcyclists' attributes and behavior at Level 1, and road environment attributes at Level 2. Among all the road environment attributes tested, the traffic volume and the speed limit are found to be statistically significant, only contributing to 26-29% of the variations affecting the traffic conflict outcome. The implication is that 71-74% of the unmeasured or undescribed attributes and behavior of motorcyclists still have an importance in predicting the outcome: a serious traffic conflict. As for the fixed effect parameters, both models show that the risk of motorcyclists being involved in a serious traffic conflict is 2-4 times more likely if they accept a shorter gap to a single approaching vehicle (time lag <4s) and in between two vehicles (time gap <4s) when entering the primary road from the access point. A road environment factor, such as a narrow lane (seen in Model 2), and a behavioral factor, such as stopping at the stop line (seen in Model 3), also influence the occurrence of a serious traffic conflict compared to those entering into a wider lane road and without stopping at the stop line, respectively. A discussion of the possible reasons for this seemingly strange result, including a recommendation for further research, concludes the paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  14. Teh L, Cabanban AS
    J. Environ. Manage., 2007 Dec;85(4):999-1008.
    PMID: 17204361
    A priori assessments of a site's biophysical and socio-economic capacity for accommodating tourism are less common than tourism impact studies. A priori evaluations can provide a contextual understanding of ecological, economic and socio-cultural forces, which shape the prospects for sustainable tourism development at the host destination, and can avert adverse impacts of tourism. We conduct an a priori assessment of the biophysical environment of Pulau Banggi, in the Malaysian state of Sabah for sustainable tourism development. We characterise baseline conditions of the island's marine biodiversity, seasonality, and infrastructure. We then evaluate how existing biophysical conditions will influence options for sustainable tourism development. In particular, we suggest conditions, if there are any, which constitute a limit to future tourism development in terms of compatibility for recreation and resilience to visitor impacts. We find that the biggest constraint is the lack of adequate water and sanitation infrastructure. Blast fishing, although occurring less than once per hour, can potentially destroy the major attraction for tourists. We conclude that while Pulau Banggi possesses natural qualities that are attractive for ecotourism, financial and institutional support must be made available to provide facilities and services that will enable local participation in environmental protection and enhance prospects for future sustainable tourism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/economics
  15. Naser MM, Zulkiple A, Al Bargi WA, Khalifa NA, Daniel BD
    J Safety Res, 2017 12;63:91-98.
    PMID: 29203029 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2017.08.005
    INTRODUCTION: There are a variety of challenges faced by pedestrians when they walk along and attempt to cross a road, as the most recorded accidents occur during this time. Pedestrians of all types, including both sexes with numerous aging groups, are always subjected to risk and are characterized as the most exposed road users. The increased demand for better traffic management strategies to reduce the risks at intersections, improve quality traffic management, traffic volume, and longer cycle time has further increased concerns over the past decade.

    METHOD: This paper aims to develop a sustainable pedestrian gap crossing index model based on traffic flow density. It focusses on the gaps accepted by pedestrians and their decision for street crossing, where (Log-Gap) logarithm of accepted gaps was used to optimize the result of a model for gap crossing behavior. Through a review of extant literature, 15 influential variables were extracted for further empirical analysis. Subsequently, data from the observation at an uncontrolled mid-block in Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was gathered and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Binary Logit Model (BLM) techniques were employed to analyze the results.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: From the results, different pedestrian behavioral characteristics were considered for a minimum gap size model, out of which only a few (four) variables could explain the pedestrian road crossing behavior while the remaining variables have an insignificant effect. Among the different variables, age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and crossing were the most influential variables. The study concludes that pedestrians' decision to cross the street depends on the pedestrian age, rolling gap, vehicle type, and size of traffic gap before crossing.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The inferences from these models will be useful to increase pedestrian safety and performance evaluation of uncontrolled midblock road crossings in developing countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  16. Rusli R, Haque MM, Afghari AP, King M
    Accid Anal Prev, 2018 Oct;119:80-90.
    PMID: 30007211 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.07.006
    Road safety in rural mountainous areas is a major concern as mountainous highways represent a complex road traffic environment due to complex topology and extreme weather conditions and are associated with more severe crashes compared to crashes along roads in flatter areas. The use of crash modelling to identify crash contributing factors along rural mountainous highways suffers from limitations in data availability, particularly in developing countries like Malaysia, and related challenges due to the presence of excess zero observations. To address these challenges, the objective of this study was to develop a safety performance function for multi-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia. To overcome the data limitations, an in-depth field survey, in addition to utilization of secondary data sources, was carried out to collect relevant information including roadway geometric factors, traffic characteristics, real-time weather conditions, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To address heterogeneity resulting from excess zeros, three specialized modelling techniques for excess zeros including Random Parameters Negative Binomial (RPNB), Random Parameters Negative Binomial - Lindley (RPNB-L) and Random Parameters Negative Binomial - Generalized Exponential (RPNB-GE) were employed. Results showed that the RPNB-L model outperformed the other two models in terms of prediction ability and model fit. It was found that heavy rainfall at the time of crash and the presence of minor junctions along mountainous highways increase the likelihood of multi-vehicle crashes, while the presence of horizontal curves along a steep gradient, the presence of a passing lane and presence of road delineation decrease the likelihood of multi-vehicle crashes. Findings of this study have significant implications for road safety along rural mountainous highways, particularly in the context of developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  17. Oliveira JA, Doll CN, Siri J, Dreyfus M, Farzaneh H, Capon A
    Cad Saude Publica, 2015 Nov;31 Suppl 1:25-38.
    PMID: 26648361 DOI: 10.1590/0102-311X00010015
    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design
  18. Tung SE, Ng XH, Chin YS, Mohd Taib MN
    Child Care Health Dev, 2016 Jul;42(4):478-85.
    PMID: 27272607 DOI: 10.1111/cch.12355
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate parental perception of neighbourhood environments and safety in association with children's physical activity among primary school children in Klang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 250 children (9-12 years of age) and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Neighbourhood Environmental Walkability Scale as well as questions on constrained behaviours (avoidance and defensive behaviours) were used to assess the children's physical activity and parental perception of neighbourhood environment and safety, respectively.

    RESULTS: More than one-third (36.0%) of the children were physically inactive compared with only a small percentage (4.8%) who were physically active, with boys achieving higher physical activity levels than girls (t = 2.564, P = 0.011). For the environmental scale, parents' perception of land-use mix (access) (r = 0.173, P = 0.006), traffic hazards (r = -0.152, P = 0.016) and defensive behaviour (r = -0.024, P = 0.143) correlated significantly with children's physical activity. In multiple linear regression analysis, child's gender (β = -0.226; P = 0.003), parent's education (β = 0.140; P = 0.001), household income (β = 0.151; P = 0.024), land-use mix (access) (β = 0.134; P = 0.011) and defensive behaviour (β = -0.017; P = 0.038) were significantly associated with physical activity in children (R = 0.349, F = 6.760; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/statistics & numerical data*
  19. Romli MH, Mackenzie L, Lovarini M, Tan MP
    BMJ Open, 2016 08 16;6(8):e012048.
    PMID: 27531736 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012048
    OBJECTIVE: The relationship between home hazards and falls in older Malaysian people is not yet fully understood. No tools to evaluate the Malaysian home environment currently exist. Therefore, this study aimed to pilot the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify hazards in Malaysian homes, to evaluate the feasibility of using the HOME FAST in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study and to gather preliminary data about the experience of falls among a small sample of Malaysian older people.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted.

    SETTING: An urban setting in Kuala Lumpur.

    PARTICIPANTS: 26 older people aged 60 and over were recruited from the control group of a related research project in Malaysia, in addition to older people known to the researchers.

    PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The HOME FAST was applied with the baseline survey for the MELoR study via a face-to-face interview and observation of the home by research staff.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participants were female, of Malay or Chinese ethnicity and living with others in a double-storeyed house. Falls were reported in the previous year by 19% and 80% of falls occurred at home. Gender and fear of falling had the strongest associations with home hazards. Most hazards were detected in the bathroom area. A small number of errors were detected in the HOME FAST ratings by researchers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The HOME FAST is feasible as a research and clinical tool for the Malaysian context and is appropriate for use in the MELoR study. Home hazards were prevalent in the homes of older people and further research with the larger MELoR sample is needed to confirm the validity of using the HOME FAST in Malaysia. Training in the use of the HOME FAST is needed to ensure accurate use by researchers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Qaid A, Ossen DR
    Int J Biometeorol, 2015 Jun;59(6):657-77.
    PMID: 25108376 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-014-0878-5
    Asymmetrical street aspect ratios, i.e. different height-to-width (H1/W-H2/W) ratios, have not received much attention in the study of urban climates. Putrajaya Boulevard (northeast to southwest orientation) in Malaysia was selected to study the influence of six asymmetrical aspect ratio scenarios on the street microclimate using the Envi-met three-dimensional microclimate model (V3.1 Beta). Putrajaya Boulevard suffers from high surface and air temperature during the day due to the orientation, the low aspect ratio and the wide sky view factor. These issues are a common dilemma in many boulevards. Further, low and high symmetrical streets are incompatible with tropical regions as they offer conflicting properties during the day and at night. These scenarios are examined, therefore, to find asymmetrical streets which are able to reduce the impact of the day microclimate on boulevards, and as an alternative strategy fulfilling tropical day and night climatic conditions. Asymmetrical streets are better than low symmetrical streets in enhancing wind flow and blocking solar radiation, when tall buildings confront winds direction or solar altitudes. Therefore, mitigating heat islands or improving microclimates in asymmetrical streets based on tall buildings position which captures wind or caste shades. In northeast to southwest direction, aspect ratios of 0.8-2 reduce the morning microclimate and night heat islands yet the negative effects during the day are greater than the positive effects in the night. An aspect ratio of 2-0.8 reduces the temperature of surfaces by 10 to 14 °C and the air by 4.7 °C, recommended for enhancing boulevard microclimates and mitigating tropical heat islands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design
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