Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

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  1. Mousavi SM, Milajerdi A, Pouraram H, Saadatnia M, Shakeri F, Keshteli AH, et al.
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2021 Jan;91(1-2):48-55.
    PMID: 31259666 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000603
    Background: Stroke is a major global health problem that contributes to a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. The association of several foods and nutrients with stroke has been well-established. However, the effect of the whole diet on stroke is poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to examine the association between the quality of whole diet, as measured using Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and risk of stroke in Iranian adults. Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, 193 stroke patients (diagnosed based on clinical and brain CT findings) and 193 controls with no history of cerebrovascular diseases or neurologic disorders were included. The participants' dietary intakes were examined using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. AHEI-2010 was constructed based on earlier studies. Participants were classified according to tertiles of AHEI-2010 scores and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between whole diet quality and risk of stroke. Results: Individuals with greater adherence to AHEI-2010 had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains and carbohydrate, and a lower intake of trans-fatty acids, sugar-sweetened beverages, total energy and fat (P diet and stroke.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  2. Mohammadi S, Su TT, Jalaludin MY, Dahlui M, Azmi Mohamed MN, Papadaki A, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:549637.
    PMID: 33072694 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.549637
    Introduction: School environments can influence students' dietary habits. Hence, implementing a healthy canteen intervention programme in schools is a recommended strategy to improve students' dietary intake. This study will evaluate the feasibility of providing healthier food and beverage options in selected secondary schools in Malaysia by working with canteen vendors. It also will assess the changes in food choices before and after the intervention. Methods: A feasibility cluster randomised controlled study will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention, n = 4; control, n = 2) comprising of rural and urban schools located in Selangor and Perak states in Malaysia. Four weeks of intervention will be conducted among Malaysian adolescents aged 15 years old. Two interventions are proposed that will focus on providing healthier food options in the canteen and convenience shops in the selected schools. Interventions 1 and 2 will entail training the canteen and school convenience shop operators. Intervention 2 will be applied to subsidise the cost of low energy-dense kuih (traditional cake), vegetables, and fruits. The control group will continue to sell the usual food. Trained dietitians will audit the canteen menu and food items sold by the school canteen and convenience shops in all schools. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and dietary assessment will be collected at baseline and at the end of 4-week intervention. Focus group discussions with students and in-depth interviews with headmasters, teachers, and school canteen operators will be conducted post-intervention to explore intervention acceptability. Under this Healthy School Canteen programme, school canteens will be prohibited from selling "red flag" foods. This refers to foods which are energy-dense and not nutritious, such as confectionery and deep-fried foods. They will also be prohibited from selling soft drinks, which are sugar-rich. Instead, the canteens will be encouraged to sell "green flag" food and drinks, such as fruits and vegetables. Conclusion: It is anticipated that this feasibility study can provide a framework for the conception and implementation of nutritional interventions in a future definitive trial at the school canteens in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  3. Ng CM, Satvinder K, Koo HC, Yap RWK, Mukhtar F
    Matern Child Nutr, 2020 12;16 Suppl 3:e13054.
    PMID: 33347728 DOI: 10.1111/mcn.13054
    The involvement of children in healthy meal preparation activities has emerged as a potential strategy to promote healthy eating behaviour among children. However, there is a lack of understanding of children's internal (psychosocial factors) and external factors (home food availability) that may support the practice of preparing healthy meals. This study aimed to determine children's psychosocial factors of healthy meal preparation within themselves and their external environment of home food availability as predictors for the practice of healthy meal preparation. Public schools (n = 8) from all three zones (Bangsar-Pudu, Keramat and Sentul) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected through stratified random sampling. Two hundred children aged 9-11 and their parents participated. Children's psychosocial factors towards healthy meal preparation and their home food availability were assessed through children and parents, respectively, using validated questionnaires. Majority of the schoolchildren (86.5%) had poor practice of healthy meal preparation. Increased attitude (r = 0.344, P < 0.001) and self-efficacy (r = 0.501, P < 0.001) of healthy meal preparation and the availability of fruits (r = 0.304, P < 0.001), vegetables (r = 0.243, P < 0.001) and healthful ready-to-eat foods (r = 0.227, P = 0.001) at home were positively correlated with the practice of preparing healthy meals. After adjusting for age, sex and monthly household income, increased self-efficacy (P < 0.001), availability of fruits (P = 0.01) and lower availability of less healthful ready-to-eat food (P = 0.01) were associated with better healthy meal preparation practices. Outcomes revealed that positive self-efficacy of healthy meal preparation, home food availability of fruits and less healthful alternatives were associated with the practice of healthy meal preparation and thus should be targeted in future health-promotion strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  4. Teng CY, Chin YS, Taib MNM, Chan YM
    Food Nutr Bull, 2018 12;39(4):595-607.
    PMID: 30407077 DOI: 10.1177/0379572118795358
    BACKGROUND: Independence gained during adolescence may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. Although malnutrition among adolescents is evident, studies on eating behaviors among adolescents are scarce.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a cluster randomized controlled trial (conducted in 2012 to 2014), with 100 schools randomly selected from 721 schools, then assigned to 50 intervention schools and 50 control schools. A Healthy Eating and Be Active among Teens (HEBAT) module was developed for pretrained teachers to deliver a Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents. Eating behaviors of the respondents was determined using Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Linear Mixed Model analysis and χ2 test were used to determine within- and between-group effects of studied variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 4277 respondents participated in this study, with 2635 samples involved in the final analysis, comprised of 921 intervention and 1714 control respondents. There were 32.4% (36.4%) males and 67.6% (63.6%) females in the intervention (control) group. Mean age was comparable between the groups (intervention = 12.98 years; control = 12.97 years). Majority of the respondents skipped meals at baseline (intervention = 74.7%; control = 79.5%). After the program, intervention respondents had higher consumption frequency of lunch, dinner, and mid-morning snack but a lower consumption frequency of late-evening snack and meal skipping behaviors than their control counterparts.

    CONCLUSION: The teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program was effective in reducing meal-skipping behaviors among Malaysian adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  5. Ahmad N, Shariff ZM, Mukhtar F, Lye MS
    Nutr J, 2018 08 02;17(1):74.
    PMID: 30071855 DOI: 10.1186/s12937-018-0379-1
    BACKGROUND: Social media may be an effective medium by which parents could be trained to promote healthy eating behaviour and physical activity for their children. This trial evaluates the effectiveness of a family-based intervention using social media in combination with face-to-face sessions - the REDUCE (REorganise Diet, Unnecessary sCreen time and Exercise) programme - on adiposity of Malay children.
    METHODS: Five primary schools in an urban area in Selangor, Malaysia participated in this two-arm randomized controlled field trial. Participants were parents (n = 134) and their primary school-going children 8-11 years of age who were either overweight or obese. These parent-child dyads were randomly allocated to intervention and wait-list control groups and were blinded to group assignment. The intervention was a four-week training programme using two face-to-face sessions and two Facebook sessions followed by weekly booster sessions over a three-month period using WhatsApp. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI) z-score. Height, body weight, waist circumference and percentage of body fat were measured by blinded assessors. Data were collected at baseline (T1), immediately post-training (T2) and at three- (T3) and six-month post training (T4) and were analysed using generalized linear mixed modelling adjusted for covariates to estimate the intervention effects. Subgroup analysis was conducted for overweight and obese children.
    RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of parents completed the study, 64 in intervention group and 58 in wait-list group. At the sixth month post-training, BMI z-scores were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the wait-list group, for the all children (overweight and obese children) and within the obese subgroup ((F(6, 517) = 2.817, p = 0.010) and (F(6, 297) = 6.072, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/methods; Healthy Diet/psychology
  6. Alaini R, Rajikan R, Elias SM
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):546.
    PMID: 31196148 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6872-4
    BACKGROUND: Poor dietary habits have been identified as one of the cancer risks factors in various epidemiological studies. Consumption of healthy and balance diet is crucial to reduce cancer risk. Cancer prevention food plan should consist of all the right amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients. Although dietary habits could be changed, affordability of healthy foods has been a major concern, as the price of healthy foods are more expensive the unhealthy counterparts.

    METHODS: Therefore, using linear programming, this study is aimed to develop a healthy and balanced menu with minimal cost in accordance to individual needs that could in return help to prevent cancer. A cross sectional study involving 100 adults from a local university in Kuala Lumpur was conducted in 3 phases. The first phase is the data collection for the subjects, which includes their socio demographic, anthropometry and diet recall. The second phase was the creation of a balanced diet model at a minimum cost. The third and final phase was the finalization of the cancer prevention menu. Optimal and balanced menus were produced based on respective guidelines of WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research) 2007, MDG (Malaysian Dietary Guidelines) 2010 and RNI (Recommended Nutrient Intake) 2017, with minimum cost.

    RESULTS: Based on the diet recall, most of subjects did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake for fiber, calcium, potassium, iron, B12, folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and beta-carotene. While, the intake of sugar (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%) and sodium (2585 ± 544 g) was more than recommended. From the optimization model, three menus, which met the dietary guidelines for cancer prevention by WCRF/AICR 2007, MDG 2010 and RNI 2017, with minimum cost of RM7.8, RM9.2 and RM9.7 per day were created.

    CONCLUSION: Linear programming can be used to translate nutritional requirements based on selected Dietary Guidelines to achieve a healthy, well-balanced menu for cancer prevention at minimal cost. Furthermore, the models could help to shape consumer food choice decision to prevent cancer especially for those in low income group where high cost for health food has been the main deterrent for healthy eating.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/economics; Healthy Diet/methods*
  7. Mohammadi S, Su TT, Papadaki A, Jalaludin MY, Dahlui M, Mohamed MNA, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2021 06;24(8):2273-2285.
    PMID: 32744217 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980020002293
    OBJECTIVE: To conduct formative research using qualitative methods among stakeholders of secondary schools to explore their perceptions, barriers and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among Malaysian adolescents.

    DESIGN: A qualitative study involving eight focus groups and twelve in-depth interviews. Focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data.

    SETTING: Four secondary schools in Perak and Selangor states (two urban and two rural schools) in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Focus groups were conducted with seventy-six adolescents aged 13-14 years, and in-depth interviews were conducted with four headmasters, four PA education teachers and four food canteen operators.

    RESULTS: Stakeholders thought that adolescents' misperceptions, limited availability of healthy options, unhealthy food preferences and affordability were important challenges preventing healthy eating at school. Low-quality physical education (PE) classes, limited adolescent participation and teachers' commitment during lessons were perceived as barriers to adolescents being active at school. Affordability was the main challenge for adolescents from rural schools. Stakeholders perceived that a future school-based intervention should improve the availability and subsidies for healthy foods, provide health education/training for both adolescents and PE teachers, enhance active adolescent participation in PE and develop social support mechanisms to facilitate engagement with PA.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide important insights into developing school-based lifestyle interventions to improve healthy eating and strengthening PA of Malaysian adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet
  8. Howe AS, Skidmore PM, Parnell WR, Wong JE, Lubransky AC, Black KE
    Public Health Nutr, 2016 May;19(7):1279-87.
    PMID: 26347042 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980015002566
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns in adolescents.

    DESIGN: Food choice was assessed using the validated New Zealand Adolescent FFQ. Principal components analysis was used to determine dietary patterns. Trained research assistants measured participants' height and body mass. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed in a subset of participants using the multistage 20 m shuttle run. The level and stage were recorded, and the corresponding VO2max was calculated. Differences in mean VO2max according to sex and BMI were assessed using t tests, while associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns were examined using linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, school attended, socio-economic deprivation and BMI.

    SETTING: Secondary schools in Otago, New Zealand.

    SUBJECTS: Students (n 279) aged 14-18 years who completed an online lifestyle survey during a class period.

    RESULTS: Principal components analysis produced three dietary patterns: 'Treat Foods', 'Fruits and Vegetables' and 'Basic Foods'. The 279 participants who provided questionnaire data and completed cardiorespiratory fitness testing had a mean age of 15·7 (sd 0·9) years. Mean VO2max was 45·8 (sd 6·9) ml/kg per min. The 'Fruits and Vegetables' pattern was positively associated with VO2max in the total sample (β=0·04; 95%CI 0·02, 0·07), girls (β=0·06; 95% CI 0·03, 0·10) and boys (β=0·03; 95% CI 0·01, 0·05).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that increase in cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, suggesting both should be targeted as part of a global lifestyle approach. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this association in relation to health outcomes in New Zealand adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  9. Petit O, Merunka D, Anton JL, Nazarian B, Spence C, Cheok AD, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(7):e0156333.
    PMID: 27428267 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156333
    Taking into account how people value the healthiness and tastiness of food at both the behavioral and brain levels may help to better understand and address overweight and obesity-related issues. Here, we investigate whether brain activity in those areas involved in self-control may increase significantly when individuals with a high body-mass index (BMI) focus their attention on the taste rather than on the health benefits related to healthy food choices. Under such conditions, BMI is positively correlated with both the neural responses to healthy food choices in those brain areas associated with gustation (insula), reward value (orbitofrontal cortex), and self-control (inferior frontal gyrus), and with the percent of healthy food choices. By contrast, when attention is directed towards health benefits, BMI is negatively correlated with neural activity in gustatory and reward-related brain areas (insula, inferior frontal operculum). Taken together, these findings suggest that those individuals with a high BMI do not necessarily have reduced capacities for self-control but that they may be facilitated by external cues that direct their attention toward the tastiness of healthy food. Thus, promoting the taste of healthy food in communication campaigns and/or food packaging may lead to more successful self-control and healthy food behaviors for consumers with a higher BMI, an issue which needs to be further researched.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  10. Koo HC, Lee CL, Nur Hidayah AS, Nurain Hazwani AR
    Appetite, 2018 04 01;123:256-263.
    PMID: 29309853 DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.002
    Whole grains play an important role in regulating body weight. However, interventions aimed to increase whole grains consumption have had limited impact on body mass index for age z-score (BAZ) due to insufficient understanding of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward whole grains. This survey aimed to evaluate whole grains KAP among schoolchildren, as well as to investigate the associations of whole grains KAP with BAZ among the schoolchildren in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 380 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years, cluster sampled from six randomly selected schools. Data were collected through a validated self-administered guided questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured. A majority of the schoolchildren had normal body weight (56.6%), moderate whole grains knowledge (42.6%), as well as neutral attitudes (66.1%) and poor practices (58.9%) toward whole grains consumption. Significant positive associations were found between knowledge and attitudes (r = 0.337; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  11. Akter R, Yagi N, Sugino H, Thilsted SH, Ghosh S, Gurung S, et al.
    Nutrients, 2020 Sep 04;12(9).
    PMID: 32899764 DOI: 10.3390/nu12092705
    The consumption of high-quality diverse diets is crucial for optimal growth, health, and wellbeing.

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the diet quality of households by their type of engagement in homestead aquaculture and/or horticulture. Socio-demographic determinants of diet quality were also studied.

    METHOD: Diet quality was assessed using a nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), based on the preceding 7 days' dietary recall at the household level. Adult male equivalent units (AMEs) were used for age- and sex-specific intra-household distribution of household intakes. Mean adequacy ratios (MAR) were computed as an overall measure of diet quality, using NAR.

    RESULTS: Better diet quality (mean ± SD) was associated with households engaged in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture (0.43 ± 0.23; p < 0.001) compared to only one type of agriculture (0.38 ± 0.20) or none (0.36 ± 0.20). Tukey's post-hoc test confirmed significant differences in diet quality between both and either engagement (0.05 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), both and no engagement (0.07 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), and either and no engagement households (0.02 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Beyond farm production of nutrient-rich foods, generalized estimating equations showed that diet quality was influenced by the higher educational level and occupation of adult household members, higher daily per capita food expenditure, sex, family size and region.

    CONCLUSIONS: Projects that promote and support household engagement in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture have the potential to improve the diet quality of households.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Kord-Varkaneh H, Salehi-Sahlabadi A, Zarezade M, Rahmani J, Tan SC, Hekmatdoost A, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 05 01;21(5):1363-1367.
    PMID: 32458645 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.5.1363
    OBJECTIVE: Diet quality is known to influence cancer risk. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is one of the most frequently used measures of diet quality. However, the association between HEI-2015 and breast cancer risk is not known. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the association between HEI-2015 and breast cancer risk.

    METHODS: A case-control study comprising 134 breast cancer patients and 265 cancer-free controls were conducted. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which the HEI-2015 score was calculated. Logistic regression was used to derive the odds ratios (ORs) for measuring the association between HEI-2015 scores and breast cancer risk.

    RESULTS: Subjects in the top quartile of HEI-2015 had a 46% lower chance of breast cancer compared with subjects in the bottom quartile (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.30, 0.98). After adjustment for potential confounders such as age, age at menarche, oral contraceptive drug use, menopausal status, marital status, body mass index, smoking and education level, the association between HEI-2015 score and a lower risk of breast cancer was enhanced (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.16, 0.65).

    CONCLUSION: We successfully demonstrated that a higher HEI-2015 score was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
  13. Ponvel P, Shahar S, Singh DKA, Ludin AFM, Rajikan R, Rajab NF, et al.
    J Alzheimers Dis, 2021;82(2):673-687.
    PMID: 34092633 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-201607
    BACKGROUND: Cognitive frailty (CF) is identified as one of the main precursors of dementia. Multidomain intervention has been found to delay or prevent the onset of CF.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of our present study is to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive, multidomain intervention on CF; to evaluate its cost effectiveness and the factors influencing adherence toward this intensive intervention.

    METHODS: A total of 1,000 community dwelling older adults, aged 60 years and above will be screened for CF. This randomized controlled trial involves recruitment of 330 older adults with CF from urban, semi-urban, and rural areas in Malaysia. Multidomain intervention comprised of physical, nutritional, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects will be provided to participants in the experimental group (n = 165). The control group (n = 165) will continue their usual care with their physician. Primary outcomes include CF status, physical function, psychosocial and nutritional status as well as cognitive performance. Vascular health and gut microbiome will be assessed using blood and stool samples. A 24-month intensive intervention will be prescribed to the participants and its sustainability will be assessed for the following 12 months. The effective intervention strategies will be integrated as a personalized telerehabilitation package for the reversal of CF for future use.

    RESULTS: The multidomain intervention developed from this trial is expected to be cost effective compared to usual care as well as able is to reverse CF.

    CONCLUSION: This project will be part of the World-Wide FINGERS (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability) Network, of which common identifiable data will be shared and harmonized among the consortia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/methods*
  14. Koo HC, Poh BK, Talib RA
    Nutrients, 2020 Sep 29;12(10).
    PMID: 33003299 DOI: 10.3390/nu12102972
    Diet composition is a key determinant of childhood obesity. While whole grains and micronutrients are known to decrease the risk of obesity, there are no interventions originating from Southeast Asia that emphasize whole grain as a strategy to improve overall quality of diet in combating childhood obesity. The GReat-Child Trial aimed to improve whole grain intake and quality of diet among overweight and obese children. It is a quasi-experimental intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. It has a 12-week intervention and 6-month follow-up, consisting of three components that address environmental, personal, and behavioral factors. The intervention consists of: (1) six 30 min lessons on nutrition, using the Malaysian Food Pyramid to emphasize healthy eating, (2) daily deliveries of wholegrain foods to schools so that children can experience and accept wholegrain foods, and (3) diet counseling to parents to increase availability of wholegrain foods at home. Two primary schools with similar demographics in Kuala Lumpur were assigned as control (CG) and intervention (IG) groups. Inclusion criteria were: (1) children aged 9 to 11 years who were overweight/obese; (2) who did not consume whole grain foods; and (3) who had no serious co-morbidity problems. The entire trial was completed by 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG). Study outcomes were measured at baseline and at two time points post intervention (at the 3rd [T1] and 9th [T2] months). IG demonstrated significantly higher intakes of whole grain (mean difference = 9.94, 95%CI: 7.13, 12.75, p < 0.001), fiber (mean difference = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.40, 4.73, p = 0.001), calcium (mean difference = 130.27, 95%CI: 74.15, 186.39, p < 0.001), thiamin (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001), riboflavin (mean difference = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.37, 1.32, p = 0.001), niacin (mean difference = 0.35, 95%CI: 1.91, 5.16, p < 0.001), and vitamin C (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001) compared to CG in T1, after adjusting for covariates. However, T1 results were not sustained in T2 when intervention had been discontinued. The findings indicate that intervention emphasizing whole grains improved overall short-term but not long-term dietary intake among schoolchildren. We hope the present trial will lead to adoption of policies to increase whole grain consumption among Malaysian schoolchildren.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/methods*; Healthy Diet/statistics & numerical data
  15. Nurly Diana Jalil, Maslin Masrom, Wan Normeza Wan Zakaria
    MyJurnal
    Adolescents need more attention on eating habits as they go through a critical path
    period of physical, physiological and psychological changes from children to adult.
    Therefore, planning a proper healthy diet menu is important to adolescents to have
    the sufficient nutrients for proper growth. However, manually plan healthy diet menu
    is complicated, inefficient and time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop
    a mathematical model of healthy diet menu plan that minimizes the daily fat intake
    and meets the necessary nutrient intake for adolescents aged 13 between 17 years old
    within the budget provided by Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) for Malaysia adolescent
    in MARA Junior Science College (MJSC) boarding schools. Optimization approach and
    binary integer programming method were used to address the diet problem in this
    study. The finding of the study indicates that the developed mathematical model of
    healthy diet menu plan for MJSC can generate menu plan that minimizes the total fat
    intake at minimum level of requirement per day. This menu plan can be used as a
    guideline for the management of the boarding schools to provide healthy diet meals
    for their students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet
  16. Hoque KE, Hoque KF, A/P Thanabalan R
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e4563.
    PMID: 29736328 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4563
    Background: Building healthy eating habit is essential for all people. School and family are the prime institutions to instill this habit during early age. This study is aimed at understanding the impact of family such as parents' educations and incomes on building students' healthy eating habits.

    Methods: A survey on building students' eating habits was conducted among primary school students of grade 4 (11 years) and 5 (12 years) from Kulim district, Malaysia. Data from 318 respondents were analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to find the present scenario of their knowledge, attitude and practices towards their eating habits while one-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used to find the differences between their practices based on students' gender, parents' educations and incomes.

    Results: The study finds that the students have a good knowledge of types of healthy food but yet their preferences are towards the unhealthy food. Though the students' gender and parents' educations are not found significantly related to students' knowledge, attitude and practices towards healthy eating habits, parents' incomes have significant influence on promoting the healthy eating habit.

    Discussion: Findings of this study can be useful to guide parents in healthy food choices and suggest them to be models to their children in building healthy eating habits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet
  17. Ravichanthiran K, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Cao Y, Wang CW, Muhammad S, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 May 23;7(6).
    PMID: 29789516 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7060071
    Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet
  18. Mikhael EM, Hassali MA, Hussain SA, Shawky N
    PMID: 30588052 DOI: 10.2147/DMSO.S183776
    Background and aim: Diabetes self-management behaviors are necessary to ensure optimum glycemic control. However, limited data were available regarding the practice of self-management by the Iraqi diabetic patients. This study aims to understand the knowledge, behaviors, and barriers of diabetes self-management among Iraqi type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in addition to their opinions and views toward the diabetes self-management educational program.

    Methods: A qualitative method approach was used to obtain the data from T2DM patients recruited from the National Diabetes Center, Baghdad, Iraq. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis approach was used to process the data.

    Results: Most participants agreed to the importance of self-management practices especially healthy eating, exercise, taking medications, and healthy coping with stress to control DM and prevent its complications. Healthy eating and physical activity recommendations were inadequately practiced by most of the participants. Most participants reported irregular self-monitoring of blood glucose. Most of the participants properly adhered to the anti-diabetic medications. They generally lack proper information/knowledge about the importance of self-management practices of foot care and managing diabetes during sick days and how such practices should be implemented. Most participants have positive attitudes toward diabetes self-management practices. Face-to-face educational sessions are preferred by most patients.

    Conclusion: The Iraqi diabetic patients have inadequate self-management behaviors. The main barrier to self-management practices was the lack of knowledge due to the absence of diabetes self-management educational programs in Iraq.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet
  19. Müller AM, Maher CA, Vandelanotte C, Hingle M, Middelweerd A, Lopez ML, et al.
    J Med Internet Res, 2018 04 18;20(4):e122.
    PMID: 29669703 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.8954
    BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) approaches to address low physical activity levels, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy diets have received significant research attention. However, attempts to systematically map the entirety of the research field are lacking. This gap can be filled with a bibliometric study, where publication-specific data such as citations, journals, authors, and keywords are used to provide a systematic overview of a specific field. Such analyses will help researchers better position their work.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to use bibliometric data to provide an overview of the eHealth and mHealth research field related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet.

    METHODS: The Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection was searched to retrieve all existing and highly cited (as defined by WoS) physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet related eHealth and mHealth research papers published in English between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2016. Retrieved titles were screened for eligibility, using the abstract and full-text where needed. We described publication trends over time, which included journals, authors, and countries of eligible papers, as well as their keywords and subject categories. Citations of eligible papers were compared with those expected based on published data. Additionally, we described highly-cited papers of the field (ie, top ranked 1%).

    RESULTS: The search identified 4805 hits, of which 1712 (including 42 highly-cited papers) were included in the analyses. Publication output increased on an average of 26% per year since 2000, with 49.00% (839/1712) of papers being published between 2014 and 2016. Overall and throughout the years, eHealth and mHealth papers related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet received more citations than expected compared with papers in the same WoS subject categories. The Journal of Medical Internet Research published most papers in the field (9.58%, 164/1712). Most papers originated from high-income countries (96.90%, 1659/1717), in particular the United States (48.83%, 836/1712). Most papers were trials and studied physical activity. Beginning in 2013, research on Generation 2 technologies (eg, smartphones, wearables) sharply increased, while research on Generation 1 (eg, text messages) technologies increased at a reduced pace. Reviews accounted for 20 of the 42 highly-cited papers (n=19 systematic reviews). Social media, smartphone apps, and wearable activity trackers used to encourage physical activity, less sedentary behavior, and/or healthy eating were the focus of 14 highly-cited papers.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the rapid growth of the eHealth and mHealth physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet research field, emphasized the sizeable contribution of research from high-income countries, and pointed to the increased research interest in Generation 2 technologies. It is expected that the field will grow and diversify further and that reviews and research on most recent technologies will continue to strongly impact the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet
  20. Jankovic N, Geelen A, Winkels RM, Mwungura B, Fedirko V, Jenab M, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2017 01;26(1):136-144.
    PMID: 27793797 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0428
    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above.

    METHODS: Individual participant data meta-analysis included 362,114 participants (43% women), from seven prospective cohort studies, free from cancer at enrollment. The WCRF/AICR diet score was based on: (i) energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, (ii) plant foods, (iii) red and processed meat, and (iv) alcoholic drinks. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the diet score and cancer risks. Adjusted, cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk advancement periods (RAP) were calculated to quantify the time period by which the risk of cancer was postponed among those adhering to the recommendations.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11 to 15 years across cohorts, 70,877 cancer cases were identified. Each one-point increase in the WCRF/AICR diet score [range, 0 (no) to 4 (complete adherence)] was significantly associated with a lower risk of total cancer [HR, 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-0.97], cancers of the colorectum (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89) and prostate (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), but not breast or lung. Adherence to an additional component of the WCRF/AICR diet score significantly postponed the incidence of cancer at any site by 1.6 years (RAP, -1.6; 95% CI, -4.09 to -2.16).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations is associated with lower risk of cancer among older adults.

    IMPACT: Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 136-44. ©2016 AACR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet*
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