OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cluster randomized controlled trial (conducted in 2012 to 2014), with 100 schools randomly selected from 721 schools, then assigned to 50 intervention schools and 50 control schools. A Healthy Eating and Be Active among Teens (HEBAT) module was developed for pretrained teachers to deliver a Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents. Eating behaviors of the respondents was determined using Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Linear Mixed Model analysis and χ2 test were used to determine within- and between-group effects of studied variables.
RESULTS: A total of 4277 respondents participated in this study, with 2635 samples involved in the final analysis, comprised of 921 intervention and 1714 control respondents. There were 32.4% (36.4%) males and 67.6% (63.6%) females in the intervention (control) group. Mean age was comparable between the groups (intervention = 12.98 years; control = 12.97 years). Majority of the respondents skipped meals at baseline (intervention = 74.7%; control = 79.5%). After the program, intervention respondents had higher consumption frequency of lunch, dinner, and mid-morning snack but a lower consumption frequency of late-evening snack and meal skipping behaviors than their control counterparts.
CONCLUSION: The teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program was effective in reducing meal-skipping behaviors among Malaysian adolescents.
METHODS: Therefore, using linear programming, this study is aimed to develop a healthy and balanced menu with minimal cost in accordance to individual needs that could in return help to prevent cancer. A cross sectional study involving 100 adults from a local university in Kuala Lumpur was conducted in 3 phases. The first phase is the data collection for the subjects, which includes their socio demographic, anthropometry and diet recall. The second phase was the creation of a balanced diet model at a minimum cost. The third and final phase was the finalization of the cancer prevention menu. Optimal and balanced menus were produced based on respective guidelines of WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research) 2007, MDG (Malaysian Dietary Guidelines) 2010 and RNI (Recommended Nutrient Intake) 2017, with minimum cost.
RESULTS: Based on the diet recall, most of subjects did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake for fiber, calcium, potassium, iron, B12, folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and beta-carotene. While, the intake of sugar (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%) and sodium (2585 ± 544 g) was more than recommended. From the optimization model, three menus, which met the dietary guidelines for cancer prevention by WCRF/AICR 2007, MDG 2010 and RNI 2017, with minimum cost of RM7.8, RM9.2 and RM9.7 per day were created.
CONCLUSION: Linear programming can be used to translate nutritional requirements based on selected Dietary Guidelines to achieve a healthy, well-balanced menu for cancer prevention at minimal cost. Furthermore, the models could help to shape consumer food choice decision to prevent cancer especially for those in low income group where high cost for health food has been the main deterrent for healthy eating.
DESIGN: A qualitative study involving eight focus groups and twelve in-depth interviews. Focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data.
SETTING: Four secondary schools in Perak and Selangor states (two urban and two rural schools) in Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Focus groups were conducted with seventy-six adolescents aged 13-14 years, and in-depth interviews were conducted with four headmasters, four PA education teachers and four food canteen operators.
RESULTS: Stakeholders thought that adolescents' misperceptions, limited availability of healthy options, unhealthy food preferences and affordability were important challenges preventing healthy eating at school. Low-quality physical education (PE) classes, limited adolescent participation and teachers' commitment during lessons were perceived as barriers to adolescents being active at school. Affordability was the main challenge for adolescents from rural schools. Stakeholders perceived that a future school-based intervention should improve the availability and subsidies for healthy foods, provide health education/training for both adolescents and PE teachers, enhance active adolescent participation in PE and develop social support mechanisms to facilitate engagement with PA.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide important insights into developing school-based lifestyle interventions to improve healthy eating and strengthening PA of Malaysian adolescents.
DESIGN: Food choice was assessed using the validated New Zealand Adolescent FFQ. Principal components analysis was used to determine dietary patterns. Trained research assistants measured participants' height and body mass. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed in a subset of participants using the multistage 20 m shuttle run. The level and stage were recorded, and the corresponding VO2max was calculated. Differences in mean VO2max according to sex and BMI were assessed using t tests, while associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns were examined using linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, school attended, socio-economic deprivation and BMI.
SETTING: Secondary schools in Otago, New Zealand.
SUBJECTS: Students (n 279) aged 14-18 years who completed an online lifestyle survey during a class period.
RESULTS: Principal components analysis produced three dietary patterns: 'Treat Foods', 'Fruits and Vegetables' and 'Basic Foods'. The 279 participants who provided questionnaire data and completed cardiorespiratory fitness testing had a mean age of 15·7 (sd 0·9) years. Mean VO2max was 45·8 (sd 6·9) ml/kg per min. The 'Fruits and Vegetables' pattern was positively associated with VO2max in the total sample (β=0·04; 95%CI 0·02, 0·07), girls (β=0·06; 95% CI 0·03, 0·10) and boys (β=0·03; 95% CI 0·01, 0·05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that increase in cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, suggesting both should be targeted as part of a global lifestyle approach. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this association in relation to health outcomes in New Zealand adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the diet quality of households by their type of engagement in homestead aquaculture and/or horticulture. Socio-demographic determinants of diet quality were also studied.
METHOD: Diet quality was assessed using a nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), based on the preceding 7 days' dietary recall at the household level. Adult male equivalent units (AMEs) were used for age- and sex-specific intra-household distribution of household intakes. Mean adequacy ratios (MAR) were computed as an overall measure of diet quality, using NAR.
RESULTS: Better diet quality (mean ± SD) was associated with households engaged in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture (0.43 ± 0.23; p < 0.001) compared to only one type of agriculture (0.38 ± 0.20) or none (0.36 ± 0.20). Tukey's post-hoc test confirmed significant differences in diet quality between both and either engagement (0.05 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), both and no engagement (0.07 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), and either and no engagement households (0.02 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Beyond farm production of nutrient-rich foods, generalized estimating equations showed that diet quality was influenced by the higher educational level and occupation of adult household members, higher daily per capita food expenditure, sex, family size and region.
CONCLUSIONS: Projects that promote and support household engagement in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture have the potential to improve the diet quality of households.
METHODS: A case-control study comprising 134 breast cancer patients and 265 cancer-free controls were conducted. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which the HEI-2015 score was calculated. Logistic regression was used to derive the odds ratios (ORs) for measuring the association between HEI-2015 scores and breast cancer risk.
RESULTS: Subjects in the top quartile of HEI-2015 had a 46% lower chance of breast cancer compared with subjects in the bottom quartile (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.30, 0.98). After adjustment for potential confounders such as age, age at menarche, oral contraceptive drug use, menopausal status, marital status, body mass index, smoking and education level, the association between HEI-2015 score and a lower risk of breast cancer was enhanced (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.16, 0.65).
CONCLUSION: We successfully demonstrated that a higher HEI-2015 score was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our present study is to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive, multidomain intervention on CF; to evaluate its cost effectiveness and the factors influencing adherence toward this intensive intervention.
METHODS: A total of 1,000 community dwelling older adults, aged 60 years and above will be screened for CF. This randomized controlled trial involves recruitment of 330 older adults with CF from urban, semi-urban, and rural areas in Malaysia. Multidomain intervention comprised of physical, nutritional, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects will be provided to participants in the experimental group (n = 165). The control group (n = 165) will continue their usual care with their physician. Primary outcomes include CF status, physical function, psychosocial and nutritional status as well as cognitive performance. Vascular health and gut microbiome will be assessed using blood and stool samples. A 24-month intensive intervention will be prescribed to the participants and its sustainability will be assessed for the following 12 months. The effective intervention strategies will be integrated as a personalized telerehabilitation package for the reversal of CF for future use.
RESULTS: The multidomain intervention developed from this trial is expected to be cost effective compared to usual care as well as able is to reverse CF.
CONCLUSION: This project will be part of the World-Wide FINGERS (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability) Network, of which common identifiable data will be shared and harmonized among the consortia.
Methods: A survey on building students' eating habits was conducted among primary school students of grade 4 (11 years) and 5 (12 years) from Kulim district, Malaysia. Data from 318 respondents were analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to find the present scenario of their knowledge, attitude and practices towards their eating habits while one-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used to find the differences between their practices based on students' gender, parents' educations and incomes.
Results: The study finds that the students have a good knowledge of types of healthy food but yet their preferences are towards the unhealthy food. Though the students' gender and parents' educations are not found significantly related to students' knowledge, attitude and practices towards healthy eating habits, parents' incomes have significant influence on promoting the healthy eating habit.
Discussion: Findings of this study can be useful to guide parents in healthy food choices and suggest them to be models to their children in building healthy eating habits.
METHODS: Individual participant data meta-analysis included 362,114 participants (43% women), from seven prospective cohort studies, free from cancer at enrollment. The WCRF/AICR diet score was based on: (i) energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, (ii) plant foods, (iii) red and processed meat, and (iv) alcoholic drinks. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the diet score and cancer risks. Adjusted, cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk advancement periods (RAP) were calculated to quantify the time period by which the risk of cancer was postponed among those adhering to the recommendations.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11 to 15 years across cohorts, 70,877 cancer cases were identified. Each one-point increase in the WCRF/AICR diet score [range, 0 (no) to 4 (complete adherence)] was significantly associated with a lower risk of total cancer [HR, 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-0.97], cancers of the colorectum (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89) and prostate (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), but not breast or lung. Adherence to an additional component of the WCRF/AICR diet score significantly postponed the incidence of cancer at any site by 1.6 years (RAP, -1.6; 95% CI, -4.09 to -2.16).
CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations is associated with lower risk of cancer among older adults.
IMPACT: Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 136-44. ©2016 AACR.