Objective: To study the association of IL-1 (A and B) gene polymorphisms with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyp (CRSsNP), and other factors related.
Methods: This is a case-controlled study which include a total of 138 subjects recruited from Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Genotyping of the IL-1A (+4845G, +4845T) and IL-1B (-511C, -511T) were performed with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
Results: There was a statistical significant association between IL-1B (-511C, -511T) polymorphism with CRSwNP and CRSsNP (p < 0.001). The CT genotype of IL-1B was markedly increased in CRSwNP subjects (52.2%). However, there was no significant association found between IL-1A (+4845G, +4845T) with CRSwNP and CRSsNP (p = 0.093). No association was found in factors related to CRS, which included asthma, atopy, allergy, aspirin sensitivity, and family history of nasal polyp (p value of 0.382, 0.382, 0.144, >0.95, and 0.254, respectively).
Conclusion: This study indicates an association of IL-1B (-511C, -511T) polymorphism with CRSwNP and CRSsNP in our population, hence there is a possibility of IL-1B involvement in modulating pathogenesis of CRS. There was no significant association of IL-1A (+4845G, +4845T) polymorphism with CRSwNP and CRSsNP, and other factors related.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Transverse aortic constriction (TAC)/sham surgery were carried out in both IL-33 and WT-littermates. Echocardiographic measurements were performed at frequent interval during the study period. Heart was harvested for RNA and histological measurements. Following mechanical overload by TAC, myocardial mRNA expressions of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α were enhanced in IL-33(-/-) mice than in WT mice. After 8-weeks, IL-33(-/-) mice exhibited exacerbated left ventricular hypertrophy, increased chamber dilation, reduced fractional shortening, aggravated fibrosis, inflammation, and impaired survival compared with WT littermates. Accordingly, myocardial mRNA expressions of hypertrophic (c-Myc/BNP) molecular markers were also significantly enhanced in IL-33(-/-) mice than those in WT mice.
CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time that ablation of IL-33 directly and significantly leads to exacerbate cardiac remodeling with impaired cardiac function and survival upon mechanical stress. These data highlight the cardioprotective role of IL-33/ST2 system in the stressed myocardium and reveal a potential therapeutic role for IL-33 in non-ischemic HF.