Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 855 in total

  1. Aziz T, Haq F, Farid A, Kiran M, Faisal S, Ullah A, et al.
    Environ Res, 2023 Apr 15;223:115429.
    PMID: 36746207 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.115429
    Cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide on earth. It has a large number of desirable properties. Its low toxicity makes it more useful for a variety of applications. Nowadays, its composites are used in most engineering fields. Composite consists of a polymer matrix and use as a reinforcing material. By reducing the cost of traditional fibers, it has an increasing demand for environment-friendly purposes. The use of these types of composites is inherent in moisture absorption with hindered natural fibers. This determines the reduction of polymer composite material. By appropriate chemical surface treatment of cellulose composite materials, the effect could be diminished. The most modern and advanced techniques and methods for the preparation of cellulose and polymer composites are discussed here. Cellulosic composites show a reinforcing effect on the polymer matrix as pointed out by mechanical characterization. Researchers tried their hard work to study different ways of converting various agricultural by-products into useful eco-friendly polymer composites for sustainable production. Cellulose plays building blocks, that are critical for polymer products and their engineering applications. The most common method used to prepare composites is in-situ polymerization. This help to increase the yields of cellulosic composites with a significant enhancement in thermal stability and mechanical properties. Recently, cellulose composites used as enhancing the incorporation of inorganic materials in multi-functional properties. Furthermore, we have summarized in this review the potential applications of cellulose composites in different fields like packaging, aerogels, hydrogels, and fibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers*
  2. Salleh MH, Glidle A, Sorel M, Reboud J, Cooper JM
    Chem Commun (Camb), 2013 Apr 18;49(30):3095-7.
    PMID: 23396529 DOI: 10.1039/c3cc38228a
    We demonstrate a polymer resonator microfluidic biosensor that overcomes the complex manufacturing procedures required to fabricate traditional devices. In this new format, we show that a gapless light coupling photonic configuration, fabricated in SU8 polymer, can achieve high sensitivity, label-free chemical sensing in solution and high sensitivity biological sensing, at visible wavelengths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  3. Chan BQ, Low ZW, Heng SJ, Chan SY, Owh C, Loh XJ
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 04 27;8(16):10070-87.
    PMID: 27018814 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b01295
    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart and adaptive materials able to recover their shape through an external stimulus. This functionality, combined with the good biocompatibility of polymers, has garnered much interest for biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the design considerations critical to the successful integration of SMPs for use in vivo. We also highlight recent work on three classes of SMPs: shape memory polymers and blends, shape memory polymer composites, and shape memory hydrogels. These developments open the possibility of incorporating SMPs into device design, which can lead to vast technological improvements in the biomedical field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers*
  4. Zakaria ND, Yusof NA, Haron J, Abdullah AH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Jan;10(1):354-65.
    PMID: 19333450 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10010354
    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed that nitrophenol adsorption follows a second order adsorption rate and the adsorption isotherm data is explained well by the Langmuir model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemical synthesis*; Polymers/chemistry
  5. Yana J, Chiangraeng N, Nimmanpipug P, Lee VS
    J Mol Graph Model, 2021 09;107:107946.
    PMID: 34119952 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2021.107946
    Conformational search for the most stable geometry connection of 16 sets of polydopamine (PDA) tetramer subunits has been systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results indicated that the more planar subunits are, the more stable they are. This finding is in good agreement with recent experimental observations, which have suggested that PDA are composed of the nearly planar subunits that appear to be stacked together via the π-π interactions to form graphite-like layered aggregates associated with the balance of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds and steric effects from the indole and catechol moieties. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 16 spherical clusters of the tetramer subunits of PDA in the gas and aqueous phase were performed at 298 K and confirmed the stability of supramolecular tetramer aggregates. The complex formation and binding energy of all 16 clusters are very strong although the shapes of the clusters in aqueous solution are not spherical and are very much different from those in the gas phase. The aggregations of all 16 clusters in aqueous solution were also confirmed from the profiles of the Kratky plot and the radius of gyration of all clusters. Our MD results in both gas phase and aqueous solution pointed out that there are high possibilities of aggregations of the 16 kinds of tetramer subunits although the conformations of each tetramer subunit are not flat. In summary, this work brings an insight into the controversial structure of PDA tetramer units and explains some of the important structural features found in the aqueous phase in comparison to the gas phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers*
  6. Shi L, Liu J, Gao B, Sillanpää M
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Mar 20;813:152397.
    PMID: 34923007 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152397
    The generation of free radicals is the key to the photocatalytic efficiency. In this study, the degradation mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) membrane could be adequately explained by exploring the generation pathway of different free radicals. The PEC membrane was prepared by gas phase polymerization of poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on non-woven fabric, industrial filter cloth, ceramic membrane and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, respectively. Three-dimensional fluorescence test showed that the optimal degradation of mixed or monomer contamination (bovine serum protein, sodium humate, and sodium alginate) was achieved by modified ceramic membrane under PEC condition. As for self-cleaning experiment, the membrane resistance decreased 65.7% when the reaction conditions changed from dark to PEC for 30 min. Combined with the characterization results, PEDOT as photocapacitance extended electron lifetime and promoted free radical generation. This system was mainly dependent on superoxide free radicals (0.01 mmol/L) and singlet oxygen (0.10 mmol/L), which came from energy and electron transfer. Oxygen vacancy could adsorb oxygen to produce superoxide radicals, which was further oxidized to singlet oxygen. In addition, the π-electron conjugated system of PEDOT accelerated the hole transfer and the separation of electrons and holes. Also, this study provided a new view of reactive oxygen species generation mechanism from PEDOT modified membrane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers*
  7. Shakoor A, Khan AL, Akhter P, Aslam M, Bilad MR, Maafa IM, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Mar;28(10):12397-12405.
    PMID: 32651793 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10044-3
    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by the hydrothermal synthesis of ordered mesoporous KIT-6 type silica and incorporating in polyimide (P84). KIT-6 and MMMs were characterized to evaluate morphology, thermal stability, surface area, pore volume, and other characteristics. SEM images of synthesized MMMs and permeation data of CO2 suggested homogenous dispersion of mesoporous fillers and their adherence to the polymer matrix. The addition of KIT-6 to polymer matrix improved the permeability of CO2 due to the increase in diffusivity through porous particles. The permeability was 3.2 times higher at 30% loading of filler. However, selectivity showed a slight decrease with the increase in filler loadings. The comparison of gas permeation results of KIT-6 with the well-known MCM-41 revealed that KIT-6 based MMMs showed 14% higher permeability than that of MMMs composed of mesoporous MCM-41. The practical commercial viability of synthesized membranes was examined under different operating temperatures and mixed gas feeds. Mesoporous KIT-6 silica is an attractive additive for gas permeability enhancement without compromising the selectivity of MMMs. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers*
  8. Ramachandran H, Iqbal NM, Sipaut CS, Abdullah AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Jul;164(6):867-77.
    PMID: 21302147 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9180-8
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer was produced using Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 via one-step cultivation process through combination of various carbon sources such as 1,4-butanediol or γ-butyrolactone with either 1-pentanol, valeric acid, or 1-propanol. Oleic acid was added to increase the biomass production. The composition of 3HV and 4HB monomers were greatly affected by the concentration of 1,4-butanediol and 1-pentanol. Terpolymers with 3HV and 4HB molar fractions ranging from 2 to 41 mol.% and 5 to 31 mol.%, respectively, were produced by varying the concentration of carbon precursors. The thermal and mechanical properties of the terpolymers containing different proportions of the constituent monomers were characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), DSC, and tensile machine. GPC analysis showed that the molecular weights (M (w)) of the terpolymer produced were within the range of 346 to 1,710 kDa. The monomer compositions of 3HV and 4HB were also found to have great influences on the thermal and mechanical properties of the terpolymer P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/metabolism*; Polymers/chemistry*
  9. Abd Rashid MY, Abu Bakar A, Mohd Asri MT, Iskandar SM
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:135-6.
    PMID: 15468855
    Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) was synthesized from p-xylylene bis(tetrahydrothiophenium chloride) using the Wessling route and characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and UV-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopic techniques. The significance of thermal treatment along with evolution of precursor polymer to polymer PPV was also studied through these spectroscopic techniques. Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements indicated the presence of crystallization, sulphonium group which occurred through the evolution from precursor polymer to polymer PPV during thermal treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/analysis; Polymers/chemical synthesis*
  10. Kyaw Oo M, Mandal UK, Chatterjee B
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2017 Feb;22(1):2-12.
    PMID: 26616399 DOI: 10.3109/10837450.2015.1116568
    High melting point polymeric carrier without plasticizer is unacceptable for solid dispersion (SD) by melting method. Combined polymer-plasticizer carrier significantly affects drug solubility and tableting property of SD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  11. Khaledi H, Olmstead MM, Fukuda T, Ali HM
    Inorg Chem, 2014 Nov 3;53(21):11348-50.
    PMID: 25320842 DOI: 10.1021/ic5019828
    Three isomeric 2[Pd(II)-Ni(II)] metal complexes, derived from indoleninyl meso-substituted dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene, were synthesized. The resulting dimers feature Ni···Ni or, alternatively, Ni···π interactions in staggered or slipped cofacial structures. A remarkable insertion of palladium into two different C-H bonds yielded a 4[Pd(II)-Ni(II)] rectangular complex with dimensions of 8.73 × 10.38 Å.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  12. Low KS, Muniandy S, Naumov P, Shanmuga Sundara Raj S, Fun HK, Razak IA, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2000 Mar 15;56(Pt 3):E113-4.
    PMID: 15263222
    Bis(N,N-dimethylthiocarbamoylthio)acetic acid, [(CH(3))(2)NC(=S)S](2)CHC(=O)OH or C(8)H(14)N(2)O(2)S(4), exists as a centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimer [O.O 2.661 (3) A].
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  13. Rahim M, Mas Haris MRH, Saqib NU
    Biophys Rev, 2020 Oct;12(5):1223-1231.
    PMID: 32901426 DOI: 10.1007/s12551-020-00750-0
    In recent years, controlled drug delivery has become an important area of research. Nano-biocomposites can fulfil the necessary requirements of a targeted drug delivery device. This review describes use of polymeric nano-biocomposites in controlled drug delivery devices. Selection of suitable biopolymer and methods of preparation are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biopolymers; Polymers
  14. Arman HD, Poplaukhin P, Tiekink ERT
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2017 Apr 01;73(Pt 4):488-492.
    PMID: 28435704 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989017003516
    The title compound, {[Cd(C9H11N2S2)2]·C6H7N} n , features two μ2-κ(3)-di-thio-carbamate ligands each of which chelates one Cd(II) atom, via the S atoms, while simultaneously bridging to another via the pyridyl-N atom. The result is a two-dimensional coordination polymer extending parallel to the ab plane with square channels along the b axis. The Cd(II) atom geometry is based on a distorted cis-N2S4 octa-hedron. The 3-methyl-pyridine mol-ecules reside in the channels aligned along the b axis, being held in place by methyl-ene-C-H⋯N(3-methyl-pyridine) and (3-methyl-pyridine)-C-H⋯π(pyrid-yl) inter-actions. Pyridyl-C-H⋯S and di-thio-carbamate-methyl-C-H⋯π(pyrid-yl) inter-actions provide connections between layers along the c axis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  15. Wu Y, Liang Y, Mei C, Cai L, Nadda A, Le QV, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 3):131891.
    PMID: 34416587 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131891
    Nanocellulose based gas barrier materials have become an increasingly important subject, since it is a widespread environmentally friendly natural polymer. Previous studies have shown that super-high gas barrier can be achieved with pure and hierarchical nanocellulose films fabricated through simple suspension or layer-by-layer technique either by itself or incorporating with other polymers or nanoparticles. Improved gas barrier properties were observed for nanocellulose-reinforced composites, where nanocellulose partially impermeable nanoparticles decreased gas permeability effectively. However, for nanocellulose-based materials, the higher gas barrier performance is jeopardized by water absorption and shape deformation under high humidity conditions which is a challenge for maintaining properties in material applications. Thus, numerous investigations have been done to solve the problem of water absorption in nanocellulose-based materials. In this literature review, gas barrier properties of pure, layer-by-layer and composite nanocellulose films are investigated. The possible theoretical gas barrier mechanisms are described, and the prospects for nanocellulose-based materials are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  16. Suresh R, Rajendran S, Gnanasekaran L, Show PL, Chen WH, Soto-Moscoso M
    Chemosphere, 2023 May;322:138152.
    PMID: 36791812 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138152
    Water contamination due to soluble synthetic dyes has serious concerns. Membrane-based wastewater treatments are emerging as a preferred choice for removing dyes from water. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based nanomembranes have gained much popularity due to their favorable features. This review explores the application of PVDF-based nanomembranes in synthetic dye removal through various treatments. Different fabrication methods to obtain high performance PVDF-based nanomembranes were discussed under surface coating and blending methods. Studies related to use of PVDF-based nanomembranes in adsorption, filtration, catalysis (oxidant activation, ozonation, Fenton process and photocatalysis) and membrane distillation have been elaborately discussed. Nanomaterials including metal compounds, metals, (synthetic/bio)polymers, metal organic frameworks, carbon materials and their composites were incorporated in PVDF membrane to enhance its performance. The advantages and limitations of incorporating nanomaterials in PVDF-based membranes have been highlighted. The influence of nanomaterials on the surface features, mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, crystallinity and catalytic ability of PVDF membrane was discussed. The conclusion of this literature review was given along with future research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  17. Kumar M, Hilles AR, Ge Y, Bhatia A, Mahmood S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2023 Apr 15;234:123696.
    PMID: 36801273 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.123696
    The current treatment strategies for diabetic wound care provide only moderate degree of effectiveness; hence new and improved therapeutic techniques are in great demand. Diabetic wound healing is a complex physiological process that involves synchronisation of various biological events such as haemostasis, inflammation, and remodelling. Nanomaterials like polymeric nanofibers (NFs) offer a promising approach for the treatment of diabetic wounds and have emerged as viable options for wound management. Electrospinning is a powerful and cost-effective method to fabricate versatile NFs with a wide array of raw materials for different biological applications. The electrospun NFs have unique advantages in the development of wound dressings due to their high specific surface area and porosity. The electrospun NFs possess a unique porous structure and biological function similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and are known to accelerate wound healing. Compared to traditional dressings, the electrospun NFs are more effective in healing wounds owing to their distinct characteristics, good surface functionalisation, better biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the electrospinning procedure and its operating principle, with special emphasis on the role of electrospun NFs in the treatment of diabetic wounds. This review discusses the present techniques applied in the fabrication of NF dressings, and highlights the future prospects of electrospun NFs in medicinal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers
  18. Jamaludin FA, Ab-Kadir MZA, Izadi M, Azis N, Jasni J, Abd-Rahman MS
    PLoS One, 2017;12(11):e0187892.
    PMID: 29136025 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187892
    Located near the equator, Malaysia is a country with one of the highest lightning densities in the world. Lightning contributes to 70% of the power outages in Malaysia and affects power equipment, automated network systems, causes data losses and monetary losses in the nation. Therefore, consideration of insulator evaluation under lightning impulses can be crucial to evaluate and attempt to overcome this issue. This paper presents a new approach to increase the electrical performance of polymer insulators using a Room Temperature Vulcanisation (RTV) coating. The evaluation involves three different settings of polymer insulator, namely uncoated, RTV type 1, and RTV type 2 upper surface coatings. All the insulators were tested under three different conditions as dry, clean wet and salty under different impulse polarities using the even-rising test method. The voltage breakdown for each test was recorded. From the experiment, it was found that the effectiveness of the RTV coating application became apparent when tested under salty or polluted conditions. It increased the voltage withstand capabilities of the polymer insulator up to 50% from the basic uncoated insulator. Under dry and clean conditions, the RTV coating provided just a slight increase of the breakdown voltage. The increase in voltage breakdown capability decreased the probability of surface discharge and dry band arcing that could cause degradation of the polymeric material housing. The RTV type 1 coating was found to be more effective when performing under a lightning impulse. The findings might help the utility companies improve the performance of their insulators in order to increase power system reliability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  19. Tey HY, Breadmore MC, See HH
    Anal Chem, 2023 Jan 31;95(4):2134-2139.
    PMID: 36649064 DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.2c02937
    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) based sampling probe was developed for electrokinetic extraction of drugs from biological fluids. The probe was fabricated by dip-coating a nonconductive glass capillary tube in a homogeneous PIM solution for three cycles. The PIM solution comprised cellulose triacetate (CTA), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [EMIM][NTf2] in a ratio of 5:4:2. The developed probe electrokinetically extracted doxorubicin from human plasma, human serum, and dried blood spot (DBS). The practicability and reliability of the electrokinetic extraction were evaluated by LC-MS/MS to quantify the desorption of extracted doxorubicin. Under the optimized conditions, a quantification limit of 0.2-2 ng/mL was achieved for the three biological samples. The probe was further integrated into a portable battery-powered device for safe low-voltage (36 V) electrokinetic extraction. The developed technique is envisioned to provide a more efficient analytical workflow in the laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers*
  20. Kamruzzaman M, Jumaat MZ, Sulong NH, Islam AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:702537.
    PMID: 25243221 DOI: 10.1155/2014/702537
    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/standards*; Polymers/chemistry
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links