Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Jabit ML, Khalid R, Abas F, Shaari K, Hui LS, Stanslas J, et al.
    Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci., 2008 2 16;62(11-12):786-92.
    PMID: 18274278
    Two new xanthones, characterized as 4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (1) and penangianaxanthone (2), with three known xanthones, cudratricusxanthone H (3), macluraxanthone C (4) and gerontoxanthone C (5), as well as friedelin and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia penangiana. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with the literature ones. Significant cytotoxicity against DU-145, MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cancer cell lines was demonstrated by compounds 1-5, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 to 72.8 microM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  2. Ee GC, See I, Teh SS, Daud S
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2014;16(7):790-4.
    PMID: 24670077 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2014.901313
    Our phytochemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana has led to the discovery of a new furanoxanthone, mangaxanthone A (1), together with five known analogs. The five known analogs that were isolated are α-mangostin (2), β-mangostin (3), cowagarcinone B (4), and dulcisxanthone F (5). The structural elucidations of these compounds were carried out by interpreting their spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  3. Ee GC, Lim CK, Ong GP, Sukari MA, Lee HL
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2006 Sep;8(6):567-70.
    PMID: 16931434
    A new tetraoxygenated xanthone, daphnifolin (1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxyxanthone), along with three other xanthones, were isolated from the stem bark extracts of Mesua daphnifolia. Their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  4. Mah SH, Ee GC, Teh SS, Rahmani M, Lim YM, Go R
    Molecules, 2012 Jul 10;17(7):8303-11.
    PMID: 22781442 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17078303
    Our continuing studies on secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri has led to the isolation of another new diprenylated xanthone, phylattrin (1), in addition to five other xanthones and two common sterols. The xanthones are soulattrin (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), brasixanthone B (5) and trapezifolixanthone (6) while the sterols are stigmasterol (7) and β-sitosterol (8). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR and UV. Compounds 1-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against SNU-1, HeLa, Hep G2, NCI-H23, K562, Raji, LS174T, IMR-32 and SK-MEL-28 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  5. Kar Wei L, Zamakshshari NH, Ee GCL, Mah SH, Mohd Nor SM
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2018 Sep;32(18):2147-2151.
    PMID: 28826239 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1367781
    Two naturally occurring xanthones, ananixanthone (1) and β-mangostin (2), were isolated using column chromatographic method from the n-hexane and methanol extracts of Calophyllum teysmannii, respectively. The major constituent, ananixanthone (1), was subjected to structural modifications via acetylation, methylation and benzylation yielding four new xanthone derivatives, ananixanthone monoacetate (3), ananixanthone diacetate (4), 5-methoxyananixanthone (5) and 5-O-benzylananixanthone (6). Compound 1 together with its four new derivatives were subjected to MTT assay against three cancer cell lines; SNU-1, K562 and LS174T. The results indicated that the parent compound has greater cytotoxicity capabilities against SNU-1 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.97 ± 0.11 and 2.96 ± 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 5 on the other hand exhibited better cytotoxicity against LS174T cell line with an IC50 value of 5.76 ± 1.07 μg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  6. See I, Ee GC, Teh SS, Kadir AA, Daud S
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 04;19(6):7308-16.
    PMID: 24901833 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19067308
    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  7. Aisha AF, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Majid AM
    J Pharm Sci, 2012 Feb;101(2):815-25.
    PMID: 22081501 DOI: 10.1002/jps.22806
    α-Mangostin is an oxygenated heterocyclic xanthone with remarkable pharmacological properties, but poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability hinder its therapeutic application. This study sought to improve the compound's solubility and study the mechanism underlying solubility enhancement. Solid dispersions of α-mangostin were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by solvent evaporation method and showed substantial enhancement of α-mangostin's solubility from 0.2 ± 0.2 μg/mL to 2743 ± 11 μg/mL. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated interaction between α-mangostin and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed self-assembly of round anionic nanomicelles with particle size in the range 99-127 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated conversion of α-mangostin from crystalline into amorphous state, and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of highly porous powder. Studies using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed that the critical micellar concentration is about 77.4 ± 4 μg/mL. Cellular uptake of nanomicelles was found to be mediated via endocytosis and indicated intracellular delivery of α-mangostin associated with potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration of 8.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL). Improved solubility, self-assembly of nanomicelles, and intracellular delivery through endocytosis may enhance the pharmacological properties of α-mangostin, particularly antitumor efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  8. Nasir NM, Rahmani M, Shaari K, Ee GC, Go R, Kassim NK, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Oct 25;16(11):8973-80.
    PMID: 22027953 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16118973
    The air-dried powdered stem bark of Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferea) collected from Sandakan (Sabah, Malaysia), was extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to give dark viscous extracts. Detailed and repeated chromatographic separation of the extracts lead to isolation of two new xanthones, identified as nodusuxanthone and trapezifolixanthone A. Other common terpenoids such as betulinic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and friedelin were also isolated from the extracts and identified. The structures of the compounds were established by detailed spectral analysis and comparison with previously reported data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  9. Ee GC, Teo SH, Rahmani M, Lim CK, Lim YM, Go R
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2011 Jun;25(10):995-1003.
    PMID: 21644180 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.534471
    A new furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, artomandin (1), together with three other flavonoid derivatives, artoindonesianin C, artonol B, and artochamin A, as well as β-sitosterol were isolated from the stem bark of Artocarpus kemando. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral evidence. All of these compounds displayed inhibition effects to a very susceptible degree in cancer cell line tests. Compound 1 also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity in the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  10. Teh SS, Ee GC, Mah SH, Lim YM, Ahmad Z
    Molecules, 2013 Feb 04;18(2):1985-94.
    PMID: 23381024 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18021985
    The cytotoxic structure-activity relationships among a series of xanthone derivatives from Mesua beccariana, Mesua ferrea and Mesua congestiflora were studied. Eleven xanthone derivatives identified as mesuarianone (1), mesuasinone (2), mesuaferrin A (3), mesuaferrin B (4), mesuaferrin C (5), 6-deoxyjacareubin (6), caloxanthone C (7), macluraxanthone (8), 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (9), tovopyrifolin C (10) and α-mangostin (11) were isolated from the three Mesua species. The human cancer cell lines tested were Raji, SNU-1, K562, LS-174T, SK-MEL-28, IMR-32, HeLa, Hep G2 and NCI-H23. Mesuaferrin A (3), macluraxanthone (8) and α-mangostin (11) showed strong cytotoxicities as they possess significant inhibitory effects against all the cell lines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study revealed that the diprenyl, dipyrano and prenylated pyrano substituent groups of the xanthone derivatives contributed towards the cytotoxicities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  11. Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez-Rojas JM
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2008 Oct;46(10):3227-39.
    PMID: 18725264 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.024
    Many tropical plants have interesting biological activities with potential therapeutic applications. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (GML) belongs to the family of Guttiferae and is named "the queen of fruits". It is cultivated in the tropical rainforest of some Southeast Asian nations like Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and Thailand. People in these countries have used the pericarp (peel, rind, hull or ripe) of GML as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, infected wound, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. Experimental studies have demonstrated that extracts of GML have antioxidant, antitumoral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. The pericarp of GML is a source of xanthones and other bioactive substances. Prenylated xanthones isolated from GML have been extensively studied; some members of these compounds possess antioxidant, antitumoral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. Xanthones have been isolated from pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood, and leaves. The most studied xanthones are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-mangostins, garcinone E, 8-deoxygartanin, and gartanin. The aim of this review is to summarize findings of beneficial properties of GML's extracts and xanthones isolated from this plant so far.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  12. Ee GC, Kua AS, Lim CK, Jong V, Lee HL
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2006 May 10;20(5):485-91.
    PMID: 16644547
    In the authors' continuing search for new natural products, their recent studies on the roots of Calophyllum inophyllum (Guttiferae) have yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A together with the common triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol. Structural elucidations of these compounds were achieved through (1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The molecular mass was determined using MS techniques. The authors report here the isolation of and structural elucidation for Inophyllin A as well as its toxicity test result. The discovery of this new natural product from the unexploited Malaysian forest will certainly contribute to the search for potential natural larvicides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  13. Bin Ismail AA, Ee GC, Bin Daud S, Teh SS, Hashim NM, Awang K
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2015;17(11):1104-8.
    PMID: 26023810 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2015.1047353
    A new pyranoxanthone, venuloxanthone (1), was isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum venulosum, together with three other xanthones, tovopyrifolin C (2), ananixanthone (3) and caloxanthone I (4), along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (5) and lupeol (6). The structures of these compounds were identified using several spectroscopic analyses which are NMR, GCMS and FTIR experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  14. Ng HS, Tan GYT, Lee KH, Zimmermann W, Yim HS, Lan JC
    J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2018 Oct;126(4):507-513.
    PMID: 29764763 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.04.008
    The α- and γ-mangostins from Garcinia mangostana pericarps (GMP) exhibit antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. The extraction yields α- and γ-mangostins are often limited by the presence of the GMP cell walls. Therefore, the extraction and recovery of mangostins from GMP with an Aspergillus niger cellulase-assisted aqueous micellar biphasic system (CA-AMBS) was developed for enhanced yield of mangostins. Effects of the concentration of cellulase, the incubation time and the temperature of the system on the recovery of mangostins were investigated. The optimum condition for the recovery of α- and γ-mangostins was obtained with the addition of 0.5% (w/w) cellulase incubated at 40°C for 2 h. High log partition coefficients of α-mangostins (log Kα 4.79 ± 0.02) and γ-mangostins (log Kγ 4.02 ± 0.02) were achieved. High yields of α-mangostins (73.4%) and γ-mangostins (14.0%) were obtained from the micelle-rich bottom phase with final concentrations of 3.67 mg/mL and 0.70 mg/mL, respectively. The back-extraction of mangostins was performed with the addition of 30% (w/w) of isopropanol and 0.05 M of KCl at pH 9 to the bottom phase of the CA-AMBS. The yields of the α- and γ-mangostins from GMP were considerably enhanced with the CA-AMBS and the direct recovery of mangostins was demonstrated without additional downstream processing steps.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  15. Tan WN, Khairuddean M, Wong KC, Tong WY, Ibrahim D
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2016 Aug;18(8):804-11.
    PMID: 26999039 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2016.1160071
    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml).
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  16. Ee GC, Mah SH, Rahmani M, Taufiq-Yap YH, Teh SS, Lim YM
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2011 Oct;13(10):956-60.
    PMID: 21972812 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2011.600248
    The stem bark extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum furnished one new furanoxanthone, inophinnin (1), in addition to inophyllin A (2), macluraxanthone (3), pyranojacareubin (4), 4-hydroxyxanthone, friedelin, stigmasterol, and betulinic acid. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) while EI-MS gave the molecular mass. The new xanthone, inophinnin (1), exhibited some anti-inflammatory activity in nitric oxide assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  17. Hashim N, Rahmani M, Sukari MA, Ali AM, Alitheen NB, Go R, et al.
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2010 Feb;12(2):106-12.
    PMID: 20390751 DOI: 10.1080/10286020903450411
    Two new xanthones, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1) and dihydroartoindonesianin C (2), were isolated from the stem bark of Artocarpus obtusus Jarrett by chromatographic separation. Their structures were determined by using spectroscopic methods and comparison with known related compounds. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1) showed strong free radical scavenging activity by using DPPH assay as well as cytotoxicity towards K562, HL-60, and MCF7 cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  18. Ee GC, Daud S, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2008 May-Jun;10(5-6):475-9.
    PMID: 18464091 DOI: 10.1080/10286020801948490
    Our current interest in searching for natural anti-cancer lead compounds from plants has led us to the discovery that the stem and roots of Garcinia mangostana can be a source of such compounds. The stem furnished 2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (1), which is a new xanthone. Meanwhile, the root bark of the plant furnished six xanthones, namely alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), gamma-mangostin (4), garcinone D (5), mangostanol (6), and gartanin (7). The hexane and chloroform extracts of the root bark of G. mangostana as well as the hexane extract of the stem bark were found to be active against the CEM-SS cell line. gamma-Mangostin (4) showed good activity with a very low IC(50) value of 4.7 microg/ml, while alpha-mangostin (2), mangostanol (6), and garcinone D (5) showed significant activities with IC(50) values of 5.5, 9.6, and 3.2 microg/ml, respectively. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of the extracts of the stem and root bark of G. mangostana and of alpha-mangostin, mangostanol, and garcinone D against the CEM-SS cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
  19. Ee GC, Daud S, Taufiq-Yap YH, Ismail NH, Rahmani M
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2006 Oct;20(12):1067-73.
    PMID: 17127660
    Studies on the stem of Garcinia mangostana have led to the isolation of one new xanthone mangosharin (1) (2,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone) and six other prenylated xanthones, alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), garcinone D (4), 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (5), mangostanol (6) and 5,9-dihydroxy-8- methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano-[3,2-b]-xanthene-6-one (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and by comparison with previous studies. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated very good toxicity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. This article reports the isolation and identification of the above compounds as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. These bioassay data have not been reported before.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry*
  20. Ee GC, Lim CK, Rahmat A, Lee HL
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Dec;22(2):99-102.
    PMID: 16883274
    Detail chemical investigations on the stem bark of Mesua daphnifolia gave three triterpenoids and four xanthones. They are friedelin (1), friedelan-1,3-dione (2), lup-20(29)- en-3ss-ol (3), cudraxanthone G (4), ananixanthone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxyxanthone (6) and euxanthone (7). These chemical constituents were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against four cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), CEM-SS (T-lymphoblastic leukemia) and CaOV3 (human ovarian cancer). Compound 4 showed a broad spectrum of activity against the MDA-MB-231, HeLa and CEM-SS cell lines with IC5 0 values of 1.3, 4.0 and 6.7 microg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, the other compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 gave only selective activities against the cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xanthones/chemistry
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