Browse publications by year: 2006

  1. Davatchi F
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8077.2006.00177.x
    MeSH terms: Asia; Australia; Bangladesh; China; Fibromyalgia; Gout; India; Indonesia; Iran; Kuwait; Malaysia; Osteoarthritis; Pacific Islands; Pakistan; Philippines; Primary Health Care; Thailand; Prevalence; Low Back Pain; Neck Pain; Shoulder Pain
  2. Mohd Ghazali RJ
    ISBN: 983-3038-10-7
    Citation: Mohd Ghazali RJ. A study on the adequacy of outpatient management of essential hypertension in MOH hospitals and health centres. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Health Management, Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2006
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Hospitals; Humans; Hypertension; Malaysia; Medical Audit; Outpatients; Quality Assurance, Health Care; Prevalence
  3. Samat S, Othman M, Kadni T
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:79-82.
    Dosimeter pendarcahaya terma (TLD) telah mula digunakan untuk tujuan perlindungan sinaran. Peratus kepudaran yang rendah untuk satu jangka panjang merupakan salah satu kelebihannya. Harshaw sebagai salah satu pembekal telah mendokumenkan kepudaran TLD mereka iaitu kurang dari 2% untuk masa penyimpanan tidak melebihi tiga bulan. Kajian yang dijalankan di MINT ini menguji kepudaran TLD-100H Harshaw untuk tempoh 30 hari. Disamping mengesahkan apa yang telah didokumenkan, kajian ini mengesyorkan TLD dibaca setelah empat hari masa penyimpanan.
    MeSH terms: Methylglycosides; Protective Devices; Radiation Dosimeters
  4. Ewe L, Hamid N, Abd-Shukor R
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:73-77.
    The insulator-metal transition temperature, Tim of La1-xSrxMnO3(x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.3) was studied during warming and cooling between 50 K to 300 K. The results showed that Tim of La1-xSrxMnO3 shifted to a higher temperature as Sr was substituted for La. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the average grain size is in the range of 0.6 µm - 1.4 µm. Grain boundaries are almost completely revealed for x = 0.3. X-Ray powder diffraction patterns showed cubic structure (space group Pm-3m) and contain no secondary phases.
  5. Zanariah Abdul Majid, Mohamed Suleiman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:63-68.
    In this paper, a direct integration implicit variable step size method in the form of Adams Moulton Method is developed for solving directly the second order system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using variable step size. The existing multistep method involves the computations of the divided differences and integration coefficients in the code when using the variable step size or variable step size and order. The idea of developing this method is to store all the coefficients involved in the code. Thus, this strategy can avoid the lengthy computation of the coefficients during the implementation of the code as well as to improve the execution time. Numerical results are given to compare the efficiency of the developed method with the 1-point method of variable step size and order code (1PDVSO) in Omar (1999).
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Computer Simulation; Humans; Paper; Manipulation, Osteopathic
  6. Masni Mohd Ali, Mudge SM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:41-47.
    Thirty-three surface sediment samples were collected around the Clyde Sea and were analyzed for fatty acids, fatty alcohols and sterols by the GC-MS detection. Cluster analysis (Ward’s method with correlation coefficient) performed separately on fatty acids, fatty alcohols and sterols showed that they were grouped according to their geochemical sources. However, terrestrial derived compounds can be seen grouping with marine and bacterial derived compounds in every analysis. Bacterial derived compounds can be found in all clusters in the mixed compound cluster analysis showing that bacterial inputs occurred together with marine and terrestrial inputs.
  7. Noorhisham Tan Kofli, Nagahisa K, Shioya S, Shimizu H
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:9-15.
    During fermentation cells are subjected to various kinds of stress. One of the stresses concerned is high osmotic environment, which cells need to encounter in order to continue growing. To understand how cells adapt to this stress condition, information from genome, proteome and metabolome levels are crucial. In yeast cells, it was report that they produce glycerol to avoid depletion of water in the cell that could lead to cell shrinkage and eventually death. Thus, investigation of physiological responses were executed by shake flask method using three different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains namely s288c, IFO2347 and FY834 which were grown in yeast potato dextrose (YPD) medium under the treatment of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sorbitol at 1M concentration to create the osmotic condition. These agents were added into the medium after 5 hours of fermentation when the cells reached exponential phase and carbon source is still available. The results proved that addition of both NaCl and sorbitol created the osmotic condition during growth resulted in higher accumulation of glycerol and trehalose when compared to the control in all strains. Among these strains, production of glycerol (g glycerol/g cell dry weight) was found highest in IFO2347, followed by s288c and FY834.
    MeSH terms: Carbon; Cell Count; Emotions; Fermentation; Glucose; Glycerol; Osmosis; Solanum tuberosum; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Sodium Chloride; Sorbitol; Trehalose; Water; Yeast, Dried; Gastrin-Secreting Cells; Proteome; Metabolome
  8. Rita Sundari, Musa Ahmad, Lee YH
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:67-73.
    An equation modeling on Sembulan river, Sabah, Malaysia, has been undertaken using a backward stepwise multiple linear regression. A good performance has been obtained using a log transformation on water quality data designated as predictors and dependent variable. The regression model is in accordance with the ANOVA result. The temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Echerichia Coli, Pb and nitrate were described as continuous predictors, while the river location (downstream, municipal and upstream) was designated as independent string grouping variable, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was set up as the dependent variable. The string grouping variable was converted to its dummy variable, which in turn led to design of a three-equation model with respect to river location. The results show that BOD has a strong effect on COD, while Pb and nitrate show less effect on COD. The temperature gives little negative effect on COD, while other variables such as pH, salinity and Cd are excluded from the river modeling since they induce insignificant effects based on backward criterion probability of F-value ≥ 0.100. Using the general linear model with LSD mode, it is revealed that predictor(s) show a remarkable discriminant effect between upstream and municipal/downstream on the 0.05 level. The most effect came from salinity indicated by the canonical discriminant function based on Wilks’ lambda.
  9. Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd Nor, Chin WC
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:67-73.
    This paper analyzes the asymmetric long memory volatility dependency of the interday prices of Composite Index (CI) at Bursa Malaysia by using GARCH family models. The GARCH type models are used with the assumption that the innovations series follow either one of the following distributions: Gaussian, Student -t and skewed Student -t. The stock returns' long memory dependency is determined using the Hurst parameter. The long memory and asymmetric volatility are modelled by fractionally integrated GARCH models. It is found that the asymmetric and long memory GARCH models with skewed student-t distribution give better predictive ability on the volatility of the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI).
    MeSH terms: Commerce; Malaysia; Memory; Students; Volatilization; Statistical Distributions; Normal Distribution
  10. Ling T, Layang H, Then Y, Apun K
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:45-50.
    In Sarawak, pig farm operators are required to treat the wastewater containing pig waste and spilt food in oxidation ponds before discharge. However, information on the impact of this industry on surface water quality is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the impact of pig farm effluent on the water quality of Serin River and its tributaries. Results of analysis show that the tributary that received pond effluent has significantly higher mean of total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3 -N), reactive phosphorus (SRP) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations when compared to those of the tributary that did not receive pond effluent. Comparisons between the stations upstream and downstream of the discharge point indicated that BOD5 and COD were significantly higher at the downstream station that received pond effluent. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was the lowest at the tributary receiving effluent from pig farms with a mean of 2.40 mg/l. According to the Interim Water Quality Standard of the Department of Environment, water quality at the tributary that received pig farm effluent falls into Class III whereas that of the other stations falls into Class II. It is recommended that further studies be conducted on the management of waste to explore the possibility of turning the waste into a resource so that water quality of rivers can remain pristine for drinking and recreation.
    MeSH terms: Accidental Falls; Ammonia; Animals; Escherichia coli; Malaysia; Nitrogen; Oxygen; Phosphorus; Recreation; Swine; Phosphorus, Dietary; Sus scrofa; Rivers; Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis; Water Quality; Ponds; Waste Water; Farms
  11. Rozainah M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:55-62.
    A survey on coastal vegetation of Pahang in some localities from Sg. Balok in Kuantan southwards to Kuala Endau in Rompin was conducted from middle 2004 to early 2005. A total of 88 species of plants were recorded and identified mostly to the generic or species level. The usual vegetation types were sand and mudflat beach vegetations like Pandanus odoratissimus, Ipomoea pes capre and Casuarina equisetifolia and mangrove vegetation like Sonneratia caseolaris, Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina. This paper also reports some unique heath-type forest vegetation like Hopea spp. in Menchali area.
    MeSH terms: Surveys and Questionnaires; Ipomoea; Lythraceae; Pandanaceae; Avicennia; Rhizophoraceae; Dipterocarpaceae; Forests
  12. Mohd Tahir Ismail, Zaidi Isa
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:55-62.
    The behaviour of many financial time series cannot be modeled solely by linear time series model. Phenomena such as mean reversion, volatility of stock markets and structural breaks cannot be modelled implicitly using simple linear time series model. Thus, to overcome this problem, nonlinear time series models are typically designed to accommodate these nonlinear features in the data. In this paper, we use portmanteau test and structural change test to detect nonlinear feature in three ASEAN countries exchange rates (Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand). It is found that the null hypothesis of linearity is rejected and there is evidence of structural breaks in the exchange rates series. Therefore, the decision of using regime switching model in this study is justified. Using model selection criteria (AIC, SBC, HQC), we compare the in-sample fitting between two types of regime switching model. The two regime switching models we considered were the Self-Exciting Threshold Autoregressive (SETAR) model and the Markov switching Autoregressive (MS-AR) model where these models can explain the abrupt changes in a time series but differ as how they model the movement between regimes. From the AIC, SBC and HQC values, it is found that the MS -AR model is the best fitted model for all the return series. In addition, the regime switching model also found to perform better than simple autoregressive model in in-sample fitting. This result justified that nonlinear model give better in-sample fitting than linear model.
    MeSH terms: Learning; Malaysia; Movement; Singapore; Thailand; Volatilization; Linear Models; Neural Networks (Computer); Nonlinear Dynamics; Patient Selection
  13. Norhashidah Mohd. Ali, Nurul Fizaham Fijasri
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:49-54.
    Combining iterative methods with appropriate preconditioners is a worthwhile effort in improving the performances of the methods since the reliability of these methods have been shown to improve by the use of appropriate preconditioning techniques. However, the hardest issue is to find the suitable preconditioners which are computationally inexpensive and easy to solve for the group methods. The aim of this paper is to study the performance of the Explicit Group (EG) method (Evans & Yousif 1986) preconditioned by a specific ‘splitting’ approach in solving the two dimensional elliptic partial differential equation. Our goal in this work is to investigate whether the performance of this group method is affected by this preconditioner. The experimental work performed is reported and discussed.
  14. Umar Hamzah, Dayang Suraya Sirat, Nazihah Muzafar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:35-40.
    Pengukuran keberintangan secara menegak dan secara 2D telah dilakukan di Sungai Kelambu, Banting untuk memetakan lapisan dan jenis air yang terdapat dalam akuifer pasir serta endapan yang berada di sekitarnya. Pengukuran keberintangan menegak dilakukan di sebanyak 29 stesen manakala pengukuran keberintangan 2D dilakukan di sebanyak 8 profil. Keberintangan sebenar yang diperolehi menerusi permodelan songsang telah dikorelasikan dengan data lubang gerudi yang berhampiran untuk memudahkan pentafsiran. Berdasarkan pentafsiran, lapisan lempung didapati berkerintangan 8-180m dan tebal purata 15m berada di atas lapisan akuifer pasir berkeberintangan 40-800m dan tebal 35-87m. Lapisan pasir ini terendap di atas metasedimen yang berjulat keberintangan 600-800 m. Selain daripada fakta keberintangan dan ketebalan, taburan stesen kajian telah memungkinkan pembinaan peta kontur untuk melihat taburan ketebalan dan keberintangan lapisan akuifer. Peta kontur ketebalan menunjukkan bahagian akuifer yang paling tebal terletak di bahagian tengah dan tenggara kawasan kajian. Oleh sebab julat keberintangan akuifer ini berkisar di antara 40-800m, ini bermakna akuifer tersebut mengandungi air segar hingga payau.
  15. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Lim E
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:29-34.
    Satu kajian kualiti air di Tasik Chini telah dijalankan pada bulan Julai, Ogos dan September 2004. Sebanyak 15 stesen persampelan telah dipilih dan sebanyak 14 parameter kualiti air telah ditentukan dalam kajian ini. Keputusan yang diperolehi menunjukkan nilai purata keseluruhan tasik bagi tiga bulan persampelan bagi parameter suhu, oksigen terlarut, konduktiviti, jumlah pepejal terlarut, turbiditi, ph, ammonia-N, nitrat, fosfat, permintaan oksigen kimia, sulfat, permintaan oksigen biokimia dan jumlah pepejal terampai masing-masing adalah 29.73 ± 0.44 °C, 6.08 ± 0.88 mg/L, 21.35 ± 4.32 mS/cm, 13.66 ± 2.76 mg/L, 2.84 ± 3.77 NTU, 6.63 ± 0.24, 0.11 ± 0.04 mg/L, 0.02 ± 0.02 mg/L, 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L, 0.23 ± 0.36 mg/L, 16.69 ± 4.31 mg/L, 1.97 ± 1.32 mg/L dan 5.17 ± 3.67 mg/L. Perbandingan dengan nilai Piawaian Interim Kualiti Air Kebangsaan (INWQS) menunjukkan secara amnya parameter yang dikaji berada dalam kelas I-IV. Kepekatan klorofil-a adalah rendah pada bulan Julai dan September dengan purata 1.4 µg/L, tetapi meningkat pada bulan Ogos dengan purata 21.91 µg/L dan meletakkan Tasik Chini dalam status eutrofik pada bulan tersebut. Faktor-faktor yang menyumbang ke arah fenomena in dibincang lanjut dalam kertas ini.
  16. Soon PE, Mohd. Sanusi Jangi, Wan KL, Tomley FM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:17-21.
    Dalam parasit intrasel obligat seperti Eimeria tenella, protein membran dipercayai memainkan peranan yang penting dalam pengecaman dan pelekatan pada sel perumah supaya proses penyerangan parasit ke dalam sel perumah dapat disempurnakan. Untuk mengenalpasti protein pada membran E. tenella, penyaringan imuno telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan antiserum terhadap fraksi subsel yang telah diperkayakan dengan protein membran sporozoit. Usaha penyaringan imuno ini berjaya memencilkan 21 klon positif. Daripada jumlah ini, 13 klon menunjukkan pemadanan bermakna dengan jujukan dalam pangkalan data, iaitu 11 dengan protein mikronem EtMIC4, satu dengan EtMIC1 dan satu lagi dengan EtMIC2. Lapan klon selebihnya yang tidak menunjukkan sebarang pemadanan bermakna dengan jujukan dalam pangkalan data didapati membawa lima gen yang berlainan. Secara keseluruhannya, hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kaedah penyaringan imuno berupaya mengenalpasti gen baru yang kemungkinan besar mengekodkan protein membran dalam sporozoit E. tenella.
    MeSH terms: Immune Sera; Eimeria tenella
  17. Wan Noorhayati Wan Ibrahim, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:17-21.
    Kebolehupayaan Candida albicans pencilan klinikal tempatan untuk beradaptasi dan memberi tindakbalas terhadap tekanan oksidatif telah dikaji dalam penyelidikan ini. Perlakuan dengan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2) terhadap C. albicans mendedahkan sel kepada tekanan oksidatif dan memberi kesan terhadap kadar pertumbuhan patogen oportunis ini. Kadar pertumbuhan C. albicans dalam media Yis Pepton Dektrosa (YPD) dengan kehadiran 4.0 mM H2O2 telah memberi masa generasi 51 min/generasi, berbanding 44 min/generasi pada kepekatan 0.4 mM dan tanpa perlakuan dengan H2O2. Untuk mengkaji tahap kerintangan sel terhadap tekanan oksidatif, sel telah didedahkan kepada beberapa siri kepekatan H2O2 yang berbeza. Data menunjukkan peratus kemandirian sel berbanding kawalan menurun berkadar dengan peningkatan tekanan yang diberi. Ini membuktikan sel mempunyai tahap kerintangan tertentu terhadap tekanan oksidatif. Untuk mengenalpasti sama ada sistem pertahanan aruhan hadir di dalam C. albicans pencilan ini, sel telah didedahkan dengan kepekatan H2O2 yang rendah selama satu jam sebelum didedahkan kepada tekanan yang lebih tinggi. Didapati peratus kemandirian untuk sel yang menerima perlakuan dengan tekanan oksidatif lemah meningkat berbanding sel yang tidak menerima perlakuan awal. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mekanisme pertahanan aruhan untuk menghadapi tekanan oksidatif hadir di dalam C. albicans. Untuk mengenalpasti sama ada tekanan oksidatif mampu mengaruh morfogenesis yis menjadi hifa, sel telah didedahkan kepada 0.4 mM H2O2 pada suhu 37ºC dan jumlah hifa yang terbentuk dikira dan dibandingkan dengan pembentukan hifa apabila sel didedahkan pada suhu 37 ºC sahaja. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahawa tekanan oksidatif tidak memainkan peranan penting untuk mengaruh morfogenesis yis menjadi hifa dalam strain C. albicans pencilan klinikal tempatan ini.
  18. Azfa Raihani Juraimi, Mohamad Yusof Maskat, Wan Aida Wan Mustapha
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:89-93.
    Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kesan suhu penggorengan yang berbeza terhadap kandungan lembapan dan lemak nuget ayam goreng bersalut. Tiga suhu penggorengan (150, 165 dan 180°C) pada dua tekanan penggorengan (102 dan 156 kPa) digunakan. Tiga jenis tepung penyalut (gandum, beras dan sagu) disediakan dengan nisbah pencairan tepung kepada air adalah 1:1.5 (gandum) dan 1:1 (beras dan sagu). Keputusan menunjukkan peningkatan suhu penggorengan menyebabkan pola penurunan kandungan lembapan bahagian salutan bagi nuget ayam yang disalut menggunakan tepung gandum dan beras. Tiada perbezaan yang signifikan bagi kandungan lembapan pada bahagian substrat untuk kesemua jenis tepung serta tekanan penggorengan. Kandungan lemak pula menunjukkan pola peningkatan pada bahagian salutan bagi setiap tekanan penggorengan dan jenis tepung salutan. Untuk bahagian substrat, walaupun kandungan lemak menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan, tetapi perbezaan ini adalah sangat kecil.
  19. Zaidi Isa
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:95-105.
    Kajian yang dijalankan ini bertujuan untuk melihat impak pengenalan instrumen derivatif ke atas kemeruapan pulangan saham di pasaran semerta. Kajian ini juga mengambil kira kesemua instrumen derivatif yang telah diperkenalkan di pasaran tempatan. Data harian bagi indeks komposit dan sebilangan indeks-indeks untuk setiap sektor akan digunakan di dalam kajian ini bagi mengkaji kesan secara keseluruhan dan mengikut sektor. Dengan menggunakan model GARCH terubahsuai iaitu dengan mengambil kira kesan perubahan struktur. Kajian ini mendapati wujudnya kesan yang bercampur-campur. Secara umumnya, pengenalan instrumen derivative mampu untuk mengurangkan tahap kemeruapan pulangan dan secara langsung menstabilkan pasaran saham. Tambahan pula, ia turut mempertingkatkan lagi kadar dan kualiti aliran maklumat ke dalam pasaran dan dengan demikian menjadikan pasaran saham bertambah efisien.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Ataxia Telangiectasia; Gastropoda
  20. Rita Hayati, Aminah Abdullah, Mohd Khan Ayob, Soekarto ST
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:83-87.
    Kajian terhadap kesan suhu pengeringan (50, 60, 70oC) dan kepekatan garam (3, 5, 7%) terhadap kualiti ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis) telah dilakukan. Analisis kandungan proksimat menunjukkan nilai yang berbeza secara bererti (p<0.05), terutama kandungan protein (76.66%) ikan yang dikering pada suhu 50°C. Pengeringan pada suhu dan kepekatan garam yang tinggi cenderung untuk menghasilkan ikan tongkol kering dengan wama yang agak gelap (72.39). Ikon tongkol kering memiliki keupayaan memegang air yang rendah iaitu antara 3.43-3.66 ml/g sampel. Aktiviti air (aw) ikon tongkol yang hanya mencapai 0.76 atau kurang, merupakan tahap yang paling baik untuk tujuan penyimpanan, dan dapat mengawal pertumbuhan mikroorganisma, merencat aktiviti enzim dan memenuhi keperluan pembungkusan.
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