• 1 Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • 2 Machang Hospital
  • 3 Machang Health District Office


Public health care programme evaluation includes determining the programme effectiveness (outcome assessment), efficiency (economic evaluation), accessibility (reachability of services) and equity (equal provision for equal needs). The purpose of this study was to make comparison on cost·( efficiency and costeffectiveness in managing type 2 diabetes between the Ministry of Health (MOH) health clinics with family medicine specialist (FMS) and health clinics without FMS. A costeffectiveness analysis was conducted alongside across-sectional study at two government health clinics in Machang, Kelantan, one with FMS and the other without FMS. A total of 300 patients, of which 155 from the health clinic without FMS and 145 from the other group were evaluated for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics from August 2005 to May 2006. HbA1c
analysis was measured for each patient during the study period. Macrocosting and microcosting were used to determine costs. The provider cost for diabetic management ranged from RM270.56 to RM4533.04 per diabetic patient per year, withla mean cost of RM1127.91(t906.08) per diabetic patient per year in health clinic with FMS. In health clinic without FMS, the provider cost ranged from RM225.93 to RM4650.13, with a mean cost of RM802.15 (:626.26). Proportion ofgood HbA1c was 17.2% for health clinic with FMS and 10.3% for the health clinic without FMS. The annual mean provider cost per proportion of good HbA1c control (< 7%) (Costefkctiveness ratio/ CER) was RM6557.65.for health clinic with FMS and RM7787.88 for health clinic without FMS. This provider cost-epfectiveness ratio was not different statistically between the health clinic with FMS and health clinic without FMS (p=0.063). The cost of building, equipments, overheads, staff and consumables were higher for FMS group. Sensitivity analysis was performed for three discount rates (0, 5 and 7%). Relative cost-effectiveness of diabetes management in health clinic with FMS and health clinic without FMS was unchanged in all sensitivity scenarios. Even though, there was no significantly difference in provider CER in type 2 diabetes management at Malaysian MOH health clinics, but the provider CER in health clinic with FMS was lower compared to health clinic without FMS. Therefore, we can conclude that the presence of FMS in the health clinic will effectively improved the management of type 2 diabetes.