Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 404 in total

  1. Kamarulzaman Ibrahim
    Many sampling methods have been suggested for estimating the population median. In the situation when the sampling units in a study can be easily ranked than quantified, the ranked set sampling methods are found to be more efficient and cost effective as compared to the simple random sampling. In this paper, the superiority of several ranked set sampling methods over the simple random sampling are illustrated through some simulation study. In addition, some new research topics under ranked set sampling are suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  2. Plumpton C, Hughes D
    Br. J. Dermatol., 2017 10;177(4):904-905.
    PMID: 29052888 DOI: 10.1111/bjd.15832
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  3. Besar Sa'aid H, Mathew S, Richardson M, Bielecki JM, Sander B
    Syst Rev, 2020 01 08;9(1):6.
    PMID: 31915067 DOI: 10.1186/s13643-019-1257-4
    BACKGROUND: Equity in health has become an important policy agenda around the world, prompting health economists to advance methods to enable the inclusion of equity in economic evaluations. Among the methods that have been proposed to explicitly include equity are the weighting analysis, equity impact analysis, and equity trade-off analysis. This is a new development and a comprehensive overview of trends and concepts of health equity in economic evaluations is lacking. Thus, our objective is to map the current state of the literature with respect to how health equity is considered in economic evaluations of health interventions reported in the academic and gray literature.

    METHODS: We will conduct a scoping review to identify and map evidence on how health equity is considered in economic evaluations of health interventions. We will search relevant electronic, gray literature and key journals. We developed a search strategy using text words and Medical Subject Headings terms related to health equity and economic evaluations of health interventions. Articles retrieved will be uploaded to reference manager software for screening and data extraction. Two reviewers will independently screen the articles based on their titles and abstracts for inclusion, and then will independently screen a full text to ascertain final inclusion. A simple numerical count will be used to quantify the data and a content analysis will be conducted to present the narrative; that is, a thematic summary of the data collected.

    DISCUSSION: The results of this scoping review will provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence on how health equity is considered in economic evaluations of health interventions and its research gaps. It will also provide key information to decision-makers and policy-makers to understand ways to include health equity into the prioritization of health interventions when aiming for a more equitable distribution of health resources.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This protocol was registered with Open Science Framework (OSF) Registry on August 14, 2019 (https://osf.io/9my2z/registrations).

    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  4. Rahman S, Khan MT, Akib S, Din NB, Biswas SK, Shirazi SM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:721357.
    PMID: 24701186 DOI: 10.1155/2014/721357
    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  5. Husniza H, Wan Nazaimoon WM
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Jun;23(1):109-15.
    PMID: 17041559 MyJurnal
    A modified micromethod for measuring urine iodine was successfully established and validated. The micromethod showed good correlation with the method used by several World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative laboratories (y = 0.9342x + 4.6213; r = 0.962; p = 0.01; n = 50). The micromethod also showed good agreement when compared to the reference WHO method. The sensitivity of the assay was 13.809 ug/L (n = 8) and mean recoveries were 114, 103 and 106% at concentrations of 30, 40 and 50 ug/L (n = 3) respectively. At iodine concentrations of 51 +/- 15.5, 108 +/- 32.4 and 149 +/- 38.6 ug/L, intra-assay coefficient of variations (CVs) were 13%, 7% and 5% respectively (n = 20), and inter-assay CVs were 10%, 15% and 7% respectively (n = 10). The assay showed good linearity plot (y = 1.0407x + 60.451; r = 0.993; n = 3).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  6. Tosanguan J, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Addiction, 2016 Feb;111(2):340-50.
    PMID: 26360507 DOI: 10.1111/add.13166
    AIMS: Clinical smoking cessation interventions have been found typically to be highly cost-effective in many high-income countries. There is a need to extend this to low- and middle-income countries and undertake comparative analyses. This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a range of clinical smoking cessation interventions available in Thailand.
    METHODS: Using a Markov model, cost-effectiveness, in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, from a range of interventions was estimated from a societal perspective for males and females aged 40 years who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Interventions considered were: counselling in hospital, phone counselling (Quitline) and counselling plus nicotine gum, nicotine patch, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline. An annual discounting rate of 3% was used. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) plotted. Comparisons between interventions were conducted involving application of a 'decision rule' process.
    RESULTS: Counselling with varenicline and counselling with nortriptyline were found to be cost-effective. Hospital counselling only, nicotine patch and bupropion were dominated by Quitline, nortriptyline and varenicline, respectively, according to the decision rule. When compared with unassisted cessation, probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that all interventions have very high probabilities (95%) of being cost-saving except for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch (74%).
    CONCLUSION: In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options for supporting smokers to quit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  7. Musa, M.N.
    Forty thousand children die each day in developing countries; which is approximately 28 dead children every minute. In many of these countries 25% of their children do not even live long enough to celebrate their fifth birthday. These mortality statistics represents a human tragedy affecting our very youngest. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has identified seven simple, practical and cost-effective activities to help save the lives of our children. The acronym GOBI FFF - Child Survival Strategy describes these 7 measures. The B in the acronym represents beastfeeding which is a pivotal and fundamental component of this child survival strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  8. Al-Absi AA, Al-Sammarraie NA, Shaher Yafooz WM, Kang DK
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:7501042.
    PMID: 30417014 DOI: 10.1155/2018/7501042
    MapReduce is the preferred cloud computing framework used in large data analysis and application processing. MapReduce frameworks currently in place suffer performance degradation due to the adoption of sequential processing approaches with little modification and thus exhibit underutilization of cloud resources. To overcome this drawback and reduce costs, we introduce a Parallel MapReduce (PMR) framework in this paper. We design a novel parallel execution strategy of Map and Reduce worker nodes. Our strategy enables further performance improvement and efficient utilization of cloud resources execution of Map and Reduce functions to utilize multicore environments available with computing nodes. We explain in detail makespan modeling and working principle of the PMR framework in the paper. Performance of PMR is compared with Hadoop through experiments considering three biomedical applications. Experiments conducted for BLAST, CAP3, and DeepBind biomedical applications report makespan time reduction of 38.92%, 18.00%, and 34.62% considering the PMR framework against Hadoop framework. Experiments' results prove that the PMR cloud computing platform proposed is robust, cost-effective, and scalable, which sufficiently supports diverse applications on public and private cloud platforms. Consequently, overall presentation and results indicate that there is good matching between theoretical makespan modeling presented and experimental values investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  9. Laila A, Nanko M, Takeda M
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Sep 04;7(9):6304-6316.
    PMID: 28788193 DOI: 10.3390/ma7096304
    The upgrade recycling of cast-iron scrap chips towards β-FeSi₂ thermoelectric materials is proposed as an eco-friendly and cost-effective production process. By using scrap waste from the machining process of cast-iron components, the material cost to fabricate β-FeSi₂ is reduced and the industrial waste is recycled. In this study, β-FeSi₂ specimens obtained from cast iron scrap chips were prepared both in the undoped form and doped with Al and Co elements. The maximum figure of merit (ZT) indicated a thermoelectric performance of approximately 70% in p-type samples and nearly 90% in n-type samples compared to β-FeSi₂ prepared from pure Fe and other published studies. The use of cast iron scrap chips to produce β-FeSi₂ shows promise as an eco-friendly and cost-effective production process for thermoelectric materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  10. Kunnath AP, Priyashini T
    Cureus, 2019 Jun 16;11(6):e4907.
    PMID: 31423385 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.4907
    Cancer is one of the greatest threats posed to society, necessitating appropriate diagnosis methods. Modern targeted therapies have greatly advanced the treatment of several solid tumors. The rational use of these agents requires optimal strategies for the rapid and accurate detection of targetable genomic alterations at the time of initial diagnosis and when acquired resistance to targeted therapies develops. Currently used techniques, such as tissue genotyping, have limitations such as difficulty in categorizing tumors, needing frequent sampling, and difficulty in obtaining samples. To overcome these issues, cost-effective and non-invasive methods are an urgent requisite, which would provide an insight into the real-time dynamics of cancers via circulating biomarkers. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), commonly termed "liquid biopsy," has emerged as a new, promising non-invasive tool to detect biomarkers in several cancers. The present review aimed to understand the biological concept of ctDNA and its potential as a biomarker in cancer studies and the clinical utility of this evolutionary diagnostic technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  11. Velo P, Zakaria A
    J Med Imaging Radiat Sci, 2017 Mar;48(1):39-42.
    PMID: 31047208 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmir.2016.10.010
    It is important to monitor the spatial resolution of a gamma camera on a weekly basis to acquire medical images with accurate quantitative information. A simple and fast computer program with a graphical user interface to analyze spatial resolution was successfully developed using MATLAB. The results were compared with those obtained from the standard processing system available in our gamma camera. The spatial resolution calculated using MATLAB was 1.24% lower than using the standard processing system. The developed program is cost effective, faster, and provides an easy platform for the physicists and technologists to analyze the spatial resolution based on the image of the line source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  12. Kam MYY, Yap WSP
    Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev, 2020 Apr;36(1):1-31.
    PMID: 32308142 DOI: 10.1080/02648725.2020.1749818
    Artemisinin (ART) is an antimalarial compound that possesses a variety of novel biological activities. Due to the low abundance of ART in natural sources, agricultural supply has been erratic, and prices are highly volatile. While heterologous biosynthesis and semi-synthesis are advantageous in certain aspects, these approaches remained disadvantageous in terms of productivity and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, further improvement in ART production calls for approaches that should supplement the agricultural production gap, while reducing production costs and stabilising supply. The present review offers a discussion on the elicitation of plants and/or in vitro cultures as an economically feasible yield enhancement strategy to address the global problem of access to affordable ART. Deemed critical for the manipulation of biosynthetic potential, the mechanism of ART biosynthesis is reviewed. It includes a discussion on the current biotechnological solutions to ART production, focusing on semi-synthesis and elicitation. A brief commentary on the possible aspects that influence elicitation efficiency and how oxidative stress modulates ART synthesis is also presented. Based on the critical analysis of current literature, a hypothesis is put forward to explain the possible involvement of enzymes in assisting the final non-enzymatic transformation step leading to ART formation. This review highlights the critical factors limiting the success of elicitor-induced modulation of ART metabolism, that will help inform strategies for future improvement of ART production. Additionally, new avenues for future research based on the proposed hypothesis will lead to exciting perspectives in this research area and continue to enhance our understanding of this intricate metabolic process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  13. Teh KC, Foo ML, Ooi CW, Leng Chew IM
    Chemosphere, 2021 Mar;267:129277.
    PMID: 33385850 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129277
    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have received great research attention since the last few decades due to their extraordinary properties and wide range of applications. In this study, a sustainable and cost-effective method for the synthesis of lignin-containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is presented. This method is able to retain the lignin in EFB and manifest the properties of lignin. The proposed synthesis process is simpler than the conventional method of producing lignin-coated CNC by first removing the lignin to synthesize CNC followed by the re-coating of lignin on the structure. The samples of LCNC were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle analysis. In addition, by altering the acid concentration during acid hydrolysis process (53% - 60% H2SO4), both surface hydrophobicity (66.0° - 75.1°) and length of LCNC (467 nm-177 nm) can be altered wherein a higher concentration of acid resulted in a greater contact angle and a shorter length of LCNC. Cost and energy analysis deduced that the proposed synthesis method saved about 62% of the total material cost and 80% less energy as compared to the synthesis of lignin-coated CNC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  14. Sivaraj Raman, Asrul Akmal Shafie, Sok, Ching Cheong
    Introduction: Oral cancer screening programmes have been promoted to be an integral part of national-control strategies. However, such programmes are often not endorsed due to lack of evidence of its cost-effectiveness. This study aims to systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of oral cancer screening programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
  15. Ganandran GS, Mahlia TM, Ong HC, Rismanchi B, Chong WT
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:745894.
    PMID: 25133258 DOI: 10.1155/2014/745894
    This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  16. Samad AH, Usul MH, Zakaria D, Ismail R, Tasset-Tisseau A, Baron-Papillon F, et al.
    J Occup Health, 2006 Jan;48(1):1-10.
    PMID: 16484757
    This study was designed to evaluate the health and economic benefits of a workplace vaccination programme against influenza funded by the employer. Employees of a Malaysian petrochemical plant volunteered to take part in this prospective, non-randomised, non-placebo-controlled study. Demographic and health information, including influenza-like symptoms, sick leave and post-vaccination adverse events were collected via questionnaires. Cost-benefit analyses were performed from the employer's perspective.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,022 employees took part in the study, with 504 choosing to be vaccinated against influenza, and 518 remaining unvaccinated. The rate of influenza-like illness (ILI) was lower among vaccinated (8.13%) than non-vaccinated subjects (30.31%). Fever and respiratory symptoms were associated with all ILI cases. ILI-related sick leave was taken by 58.54% of vaccinated employees with ILI and 71.34% of non-vaccinated employees with ILI. Vaccination was financially beneficial, with the employer saving up to US dollar 53.00 per vaccinated employee when labour costs only were considered. Savings rose to up to US dollar 899.70 when the operating income of each employee was also considered. Workplace vaccination of healthy adults against influenza had a clear impact on ILI rates, absenteeism and reduced productivity in this Malaysian company. The health benefits translated into financial benefits for the employer, with cost savings significantly outweighting the costs of the vaccination programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  17. Ngorsuraches S, Chaiyakunapruk N, Jianfei Guo J, Yang BM
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2017 05;12:99-100.
    PMID: 28648323 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.04.002
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  18. Lee JY, Lee SWH
    Diabetes Technol Ther, 2018 Jul;20(7):492-500.
    PMID: 29812965 DOI: 10.1089/dia.2018.0098
    BACKGROUND: Telemedicine has been utilized increasingly worldwide for diabetes management, due to its potential to improve healthcare access and clinical outcomes. Few studies have assessed the economic benefits of telemedicine, which may contribute to underfunding in potentially important programs. We aim to systematically review the literature on economic evaluations of telemedicine in diabetes care, assess the quality, and summarize the evidence on driver of cost-effectiveness.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed in 10 databases from inception until February 2018. All economic evaluations assessing the economic evaluation of telemedicine in diabetes were eligible for inclusion. We subsequently evaluated the study quality in terms of effectiveness measures, cost measure, economic model, as well as time horizon.

    RESULTS: Of the 1877 studies identified, 14 articles were included in our final review. The healthcare providers' fees are a major predictor for total cost. In particular, the use of telemedicine for retinal screening was beneficial and cost-effective for diabetes management, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between $113.48/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and $3,328.46/QALY (adjusted to 2017 inflation rate). Similarly, the use of telemonitoring and telephone reminders was cost-effective in diabetes management.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among all telemedicine strategies examined, teleophthalmology was the most cost-effective intervention. Future research is needed to provide evidence on the long-term experience of telemedicine and facilitate resource allocation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  19. Zafar Q, Ahmad Z, Sulaiman K
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(1):965-78.
    PMID: 25574936 DOI: 10.3390/s150100965
    We present a ternary blend-based bulk heterojunction ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO-DBT: MEH-PPV:PC71BM/LiF/Al photodetector. Enhanced optical absorption range of the active film has been achieved by blending two donor components viz. poly[2,7-(9,9-di-octyl-fluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) and poly(2-methoxy-5(2'-ethylhexyloxy) phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) along with an acceptor component, i.e., (6,6)-phenyl-C71 hexnoic acid methyl ester. The dependency of the generation rate of free charge carriers in the organic photodetector (OPD) on varied incident optical power density was investigated as a function of different reverse biasing voltages. The photocurrent showed significant enhancement as the intensity of light impinging on active area of OPD is increased. The ratio of Ilight to Idark of fabricated device at -3 V was ~3.5 × 10(4). The dynamic behaviour of the OPD under on/off switching irradiation revealed that sensor exhibits quick response and recovery time of ∼800 ms and 500 ms, respectively. Besides reliability and repeatability in the photoresponse characteristics, the cost-effective and eco-friendly fabrication is the added benefit of the fabricated OPD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis
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