• 1 Tissue Engineering Group (TEG), National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence in Research and Learning (NOCERAL), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
  • 2 Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong , Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
  • 3 Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology , Leeghwaterstraat 39, Delft 2628 CB, The Netherlands
  • 4 DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark , Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark
  • 5 Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, UCSI University , Technology and Built Environment, Kuala Lumpur 506000, Malaysia
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 Mar 22;9(11):9291-9303.
PMID: 28266827 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b13422


Tissue engineering aims to generate or facilitate regrowth or healing of damaged tissues by applying a combination of biomaterials, cells, and bioactive signaling molecules. In this regard, growth factors clearly play important roles in regulating cellular fate. However, uncontrolled release of growth factors has been demonstrated to produce severe side effects on the surrounding tissues. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MS) incorporated three-dimensional (3D) CORAGRAF scaffolds were engineered to achieve controlled release of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) for the differentiation of stem cells within the 3D polymer network. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microtomography were applied to characterize the fabricated scaffolds. In vitro study revealed that the CORAGRAF-PLGA-PDGF-BB scaffold system enhanced the release of PDGF-BB for the regulation of cell behavior. Stromal cell attachment, viability, release of osteogenic differentiation markers such as osteocalcin, and upregulation of osteogenic gene expression exhibited positive response. Overall, the developed scaffold system was noted to support rapid cell expansion and differentiation of stromal cells into osteogenic cells in vitro for bone tissue engineering applications.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.