Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 419 in total

  1. NOR AIN AZEANY MOHD NASIR, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Khairil Iskandar Othman, Mohamed Suleiman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:489-492.
    This paper describes the development of a two-point implicit code in the form of fifth order Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (BBDF(5)) for solving first order stiff Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). This method computes the approximate solutions at two points simultaneously within an equidistant block. Numerical results are presented to compare the efficiency of the developed BBDF(5) to the classical one-point Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF). The results indicated that the BBDF(5) outperformed the BDF in terms of total number of steps, accuracy and computational time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  2. elvira pederes de lara-tuprio, Varayu boonpogkrong
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2549-2554.
    n this paper, transformation and differentiation of Henstock-Wiener integrals are discussed. The approach is by Riemann sums. The idea is more transparent than that of classical Wiener integral.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  3. Gong T, Heng BC, Xu J, Zhu S, Yuan C, Lo EC, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 04;105(4):1083-1093.
    PMID: 28076902 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36003
    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation*
  4. Mohd Yasin ZN, Mohd Idrus FN, Hoe CH, Yvonne-Tee GB
    Differentiation, 2022;128:67-82.
    PMID: 36370526 DOI: 10.1016/j.diff.2022.10.001
    Macrophages derived from human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line are often used as the alternative of human primary macrophage. However, the polarization method of THP-1 to macrophages varies between different laboratories, which may unknowingly affect the relevance of research output across research groups. In this regard, a systematic search was developed in Pubmed, BioOne, Scopus, and Science Direct to identify articles focusing on THP-1 polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages. All selected articles were read and discussed by two independent reviewers. The selection process was based on selected keywords on the title, abstract and full-text level. A total of 85 articles were selected and categorized based on the field of studies, method of THP-1 differentiation, and markers or genes expressed upon differentiation. THP-1 derived macrophages were mainly used together with primary monocyte-derived macrophages in cellular inflammation studies, while it was commonly employed alone in cancer research. THP-1 derived macrophages are also of paramount importance in biomaterials studies to prevent unfavorable immune responses in-vivo. We explored various methods of THP-1 differentiation and suggested several common genes encountered to characterize M1 and M2 macrophages differentiated from THP-1. The systematic review highlights the relevance of using THP-1 derived macrophage as a useful alternative to primary macrophage. Although it is not possible to derive a standard method of THP-1 polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages from this review, it may lead researchers to obtain reproducible polarization protocol based on commonly used stimulants and markers of differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/genetics
  5. Khotib J, Marhaeny HD, Miatmoko A, Budiatin AS, Ardianto C, Rahmadi M, et al.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2023 Nov;41(19):10257-10276.
    PMID: 36420663 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2022.2148749
    Osteoblasts, cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow, are cells responsible for bone formation and remodeling. The differentiation of osteoblasts from MSCs is triggered by the expression of specific genes, which are subsequently controlled by pro-osteogenic pathways. Mature osteoblasts then differentiate into osteocytes and are embedded in the bone matrix. Dysregulation of osteoblast function can cause inadequate bone formation, which leads to the development of bone disease. Various key molecules are involved in the regulation of osteoblastogenesis, which are transcription factors. Previous studies have heavily examined the role of factors that control gene expression during osteoblastogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the systematic relationship of these transcription factors remains unknown. The involvement of ncRNAs in this mechanism, particularly miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs, has been shown to influence transcriptional factor activity in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we discuss nine essential transcription factors involved in osteoblast differentiation, including Runx2, Osx, Dlx5, β-catenin, ATF4, Ihh, Satb2, and Shn3. In addition, we summarize the role of ncRNAs and their relationship to these essential transcription factors in order to improve our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of osteoblast differentiation. Adequate exploration and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of osteoblastogenesis can be a critical strategy in the development of therapies for bone-related diseases.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/genetics
  6. Iskandar Shah Mohd Zawawi, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:989-998.
    In this paper, the fully implicit 2-point block backward differentiation formula and diagonally implicit 2-point block
    backward differentiation formula were developed under the interpretation of generalized differentiability concept for
    solving first order fuzzy differential equations. Some fuzzy initial value problems were tested in order to demonstrate the
    performance of the developed methods. The approximated solutions for both methods were in good agreement with the
    exact solutions. The numerical results showed that the diagonally implicit method outperforms the fully implicit method
    in term of accuracy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  7. Kerishnan JP, Mohammad S, Alias MS, Mu AK, Vaithilingam RD, Baharuddin NA, et al.
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2327.
    PMID: 27635317 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2327
    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases associated with the host's immune response against periodontopathogenic infection. Failure to accurately diagnose the stage of periodontitis has limited the ability to predict disease status. Therefore, we aimed to look for reliable diagnostic markers for detection or differentiation of early stage periodontitis using the immunoprotemic approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  8. Heng, S.C., Ibrahim, Z.B., Suleiman, M., Ismail, F.
    In this paper, an implicit 2-point Block Backward Differentiation formula (BBDF) method was considered for solving Delay Differential Equations (DDEs). The method was implemented by using a constant stepsize via Newton Iteration. This implicit block method was expected to produce two points simultaneously. The efficiency of the method was compared with the existing classical 1-point Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) in terms of execution time and accuracy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  9. Tiaw, Kah Fookand, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim
    MATEMATIKA, 2017;33(2):215-226.
    In this paper, we study the numerical method for solving second order Fuzzy
    Differential Equations (FDEs) using Block Backward Differential Formulas (BBDF)
    under generalized concept of higher-order fuzzy differentiability. Implementation of
    the method using Newton iteration is discussed. Numerical results obtained by BBDF
    are presented and compared with Backward Differential Formulas (BDF) and exact
    solutions. Several numerical examples are provided to illustrate our methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  10. Ahmed Khan N, Baqir H, Siddiqui R
    Pathog Glob Health, 2015;109(7):305-6.
    PMID: 26878933 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2015.1103504
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation*
  11. Higuchi A, Kumar SS, Benelli G, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Umezawa A, et al.
    Trends Biotechnol, 2017 11;35(11):1102-1117.
    PMID: 28751147 DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.06.016
    Current clinical trials that evaluate human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based therapies predominantly target treating macular degeneration of the eyes because the eye is an isolated tissue that is naturally weakly immunogenic. Here, we discuss current bioengineering approaches and biomaterial usage in combination with stem cell therapy for macular degeneration disease treatment. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiated from hPSCs is typically used in most clinical trials for treating patients, whereas bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are intravitreally transplanted, undifferentiated, into patient eyes. We also discuss reported negative effects of stem cell therapy, such as patients becoming blind following transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells, which are increasingly used by 'stem-cell clinics'.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation*
  12. Zainal Ariffin SH, Lim KW, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z, Rus Din RD, Shahidan MA, et al.
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e14174.
    PMID: 36275474 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14174
    BACKGROUND: There have been promising results published regarding the potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. However, the vast variety of choices of techniques and the lack of a standard approach to analyse human osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation may reduce the utility of stem cells as a tool in medical applications. Therefore, this review aims to systematically evaluate the findings based on stem cell differentiation to define a standard gene expression profile approach.

    METHODS: This review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. A systematic search of the study was conducted by retrieving articles from the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science to identify articles focussed on gene expression and approaches for osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    RESULTS: Six articles were included in this review; there were original articles of in vitro human stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts that involved gene expression profiling. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was the most used technique for gene expression to detect differentiated human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A total of 16 genes were found to be related to differentiating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    CONCLUSION: Qualitative information of gene expression provided by qPCR could become a standard technique to analyse the differentiation of human stem cells into osteoblasts and osteoclasts rather than evaluating relative gene expression. RUNX2 and CTSK could be applied to detect osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively, while RANKL could be applied to detect both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This review provides future researchers with a central source of relevant information on the vast variety of gene expression approaches in analysing the differentiation of human osteoblast and osteoclast cells. In addition, these findings should enable researchers to conduct accurately and efficiently studies involving isolated human stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/genetics
  13. Fan JY, Dama G, Liu YL, Guo WY, Lin JT
    Mol Biol (Mosk), 2023;57(4):668-670.
    PMID: 37528786
    In an in vitro culture system, primary hepatocytes usually display a low proliferation capacity, accompanied with a decrease of viability and a loss of hepatocyte-specific functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination introductions of certain hepatocyte-specific transcription factors are able to convert fibroblasts into functional hepatocyte-like cells. However, such combinational usage of transcription factors in primary hepatocytes culture has not yet sufficiently studied. The forkhead box protein A3 (FoxA3) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (Hnf4α) are liver-enriched transcription factors that play vital roles in the differentiation, and maintenance of hepatocytes. Thus, we simultaneously overexpressed the two genes, Foxa3 and Hnf4α, in rat hepatocytes and observed that the combinational augmentation of these two transcription factors have enhanced the proliferation and stabilized the hepatocyte-specific functions of primary hepatocytes over a long-term culture period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/genetics
  14. Liyang G, Abdullah S, Rosli R, Nordin N
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Sep-Oct;21(5):8-16.
    PMID: 25977628 MyJurnal
    An embryonic stem cell (ESC) is a good tool to generate neurons in vitro and can be used to mimic neural development in vivo. It has been widely used in research to examine the role of cell signalling during neuronal development, test the effects of drugs on neurons, and generate a large population of functional neurons. So far, a number of protocols have been established to promote the differentiation of ESCs, such as direct and indirect differentiation. One of the widely used protocols to generate neurons is through the spontaneous formation of multicellular aggregates known as embryonic bodies (EBs). However, for some, it is not clear why EB protocol could be the protocol of choice. EB also is known to mimic an early embryo; hence, knowing the similarities between EB and an early embryo is essential, particularly the information on the players that promote the formation of EBs or the aggregation of ESCs. This review paper focuses on these issues and discusses further the generation of neural cells from EBs using a well-known protocol, the 4-/4+ protocol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  15. Mashimo Y, Yoshioka M, Tokunaga Y, Fockenberg C, Terada S, Koyama Y, et al.
    J Vis Exp, 2018 09 07.
    PMID: 30247461 DOI: 10.3791/57377
    Cellular microenvironments consist of a variety of cues, such as growth factors, extracellular matrices, and intercellular interactions. These cues are well orchestrated and are crucial in regulating cell functions in a living system. Although a number of researchers have attempted to investigate the correlation between environmental factors and desired cellular functions, much remains unknown. This is largely due to the lack of a proper methodology to mimic such environmental cues in vitro, and simultaneously test different environmental cues on cells. Here, we report an integrated platform of microfluidic channels and a nanofiber array, followed by high-content single-cell analysis, to examine stem cell phenotypes altered by distinct environmental factors. To demonstrate the application of this platform, this study focuses on the phenotypes of self-renewing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Here, we present the preparation procedures for a nanofiber array and the microfluidic structure in the fabrication of a Multiplexed Artificial Cellular MicroEnvironment (MACME) array. Moreover, overall steps of the single-cell profiling, cell staining with multiple fluorescent markers, multiple fluorescence imaging, and statistical analyses, are described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  16. Koh B, Sulaiman N, Fauzi MB, Law JX, Ng MH, Idrus RBH, et al.
    Cell Biosci, 2020;10:75.
    PMID: 32518618 DOI: 10.1186/s13578-020-00438-8
    Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach for tissue reconstruction. However, a large number of cells are needed in a typical clinical study, where conventional monolayer cultures might pose a limitation for scale-up. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the application of microcarriers in Mesenchymal Stem Cell cultures. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline via Ebscohost, Pubmed, and Scopus, and relevant studies published between 2015 and 2019 were selected. The literature search identified 53 related studies, but only 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. These include 7 utilised commercially available microcarriers, while the rest were formulated based on different surface characteristics, all of which are discussed in this review. Current applications of microcarriers were focused on MSC expansion and induction of MSCs into different lineages. These studies demonstrated that MSCs could proliferate in a microcarrier culture system in-fold compared to monolayer cultures, and the culture system could simulate a three-dimensional environment which induces cell differentiation. However, detailed studies are still required before this system were to be adapted into the scale of GMP manufacturing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  17. Wong RSY, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Aug;43(2):241-250.
    PMID: 34448788
    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has been well-understood for its linear form for many years. With advances in high-throughput sequencing, there is an increasing focus on circular RNAs (circRNAs) recently. Although they were previously regarded as splicing error by-products, research has shown that they play a pivotal role in many cellular processes, one of which is the control of stem cell differentiation and fate. On the other hand, decades of research have demonstrated the promising therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To this end, there is a growing body of research on the role of circRNAs in the determination of the fate of MSCs. This review critically examines the current evidence and consolidates key findings from studies that explore the involvement of circRNAs in the regulation of MSC differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  18. Farhana S, Kai YC, Kadir R, Sulaiman WAW, Nordin NA, Nasir NAM
    Cell Tissue Res, 2023 Nov;394(2):269-292.
    PMID: 37624425 DOI: 10.1007/s00441-023-03827-w
    Utilizing adipose tissue and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) turned into a promising field of allograft in recent years. The therapeutic potential of adipose tissue and ADSCs is governed by their molecular secretions, ability to sustain multi-differentiation and self-renewal which are pivotal in reconstructive, genetic diseases, and cosmetic goals. However, revisiting the existing functional capacity of adipose tissue and ADSCs and their intricate relationship with allograft is crucial to figure out the remarkable question of safety to use in allograft due to the growing evidence of interactions between tumor microenvironment and ADSCs. For instance, the molecular secretions of adipose tissue and ADSCs induce angiogenesis, create growth factors, and control the inflammatory response; it has now been well determined. Though the existing preclinical allograft studies gave positive feedback, ADSCs and adipose tissue are attracted by some factors of tumor stroma. Moreover, allorecognition is pivotal to allograft rejection which is carried out by costimulation in a complement-dependent way and leads to the destruction of the donor cells. However, extensive preclinical trials of adipose tissue and ADSCs in allograft at molecular level are still limited. Hence, comprehensive immunomodulatory analysis could ensure the successful allograft of adipose tissue and ADSCs avoiding the oncological risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  19. Aldoghachi AF, Loh JK, Wang ML, Yang YP, Chien CS, Teh HX, et al.
    J Chin Med Assoc, 2023 Apr 01;86(4):356-365.
    PMID: 36762931 DOI: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000899
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells derived from adult human tissues that have the ability to proliferate in vitro and maintain their multipotency, making them attractive cell sources for regenerative medicine. However, MSCs reportedly show limited proliferative capacity with inconsistent therapeutic outcomes due to their heterogeneous nature. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have emerged as an alternative source for the production of various specialized cell types via their ability to differentiate from all three primary germ layers, leading to applications in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug therapy. Notably, iPSCs can differentiate into MSCs in monolayer, commonly referred to as induced mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). These cells show superior therapeutic qualities compared with adult MSCs as the applications of the latter are restricted by passage number and autoimmune rejection when applied in tissue regeneration trials. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that the therapeutic properties of stem cells are a consequence of the paracrine effects mediated by their secretome such as from exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle secreted by most cell types. Several studies that investigated the potential of exosomes in regenerative medicine and therapy have revealed promising results. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent findings of exosomes secreted from iMSCs as a potential noncell-based therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation
  20. Shani S, Ahmad RE, Naveen SV, Murali MR, Puvanan K, Abbas AA, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:845293.
    PMID: 25436230 DOI: 10.1155/2014/845293
    Platelet rich concentrate (PRC) is a natural adjuvant that aids in human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) proliferation in vitro; however, its role requires further exploration. This study was conducted to determine the optimal concentration of PRC required for achieving the maximal proliferation, and the need for activating the platelets to achieve this effect, and if PRC could independently induce early differentiation of hMSC. The gene expression of markers for osteocytes (ALP, RUNX2), chondrocytes (SOX9, COL2A1), and adipocytes (PPAR-γ) was determined at each time point in hMSC treated with 15% activated and nonactivated PRC since maximal proliferative effect was achieved at this concentration. The isolated PRC had approximately fourfold higher platelet count than whole blood. There was no significant difference in hMSC proliferation between the activated and nonactivated PRC. Only RUNX2 and SOX9 genes were upregulated throughout the 8 days. However, protein expression study showed formation of oil globules from day 4, significant increase in ALP at days 6 and 8 (P ≤ 0.05), and increased glycosaminoglycan levels at all time points (P < 0.05), suggesting the early differentiation of hMSC into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This study demonstrates that the use of PRC increased hMSC proliferation and induced early differentiation of hMSC into multiple mesenchymal lineages, without preactivation or addition of differentiation medium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/physiology*
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