Affiliations 

  • 1 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address: maria.voigt@idiv.de
  • 2 Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology, and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: sergewich@gmail.com
  • 3 Borneo Futures, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; HUTAN-Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
  • 4 Borneo Futures, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
  • 5 ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Living Landscape Alliance, 5 Jupiter House Calleva Park, Berkshire RG7 8NN, UK; Forever Sabah, H30 Gaya Park, Lorong Muntahan 1C, Penampang Road, 88300 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • 6 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Zoology Building, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK; CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, People's Republic of China
  • 7 Yayasan IAR Indonesia, Bogor 16001, Indonesia
  • 8 Borneo Nature Foundation, JL. Bukit Raya No. 82, Bukit Raya, Palangka Raya 73112, Indonesia; Zoological Society of London, London, UK
  • 9 Departments of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Program in Integrative and Evolutionary Biology (IEB), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 10 Kapuas Hulu Program, GFA/KWF, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • 11 Center for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 0113 BOCBD, Bogor 16000, Indonesia
  • 12 Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Danau Girang Field Centre, c/o Sabah Wildlife Department, Wisma Muis, 88100 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
  • 13 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • 14 Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology, and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
  • 15 Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project, The Center for International Cooperation in the Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP), University of Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • 16 Orangutan Foundation, London, UK
  • 17 The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • 18 Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Program in the Environment, and School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  • 19 Biology Faculty, Universitas Nasional (UNAS), Jakarta, Indonesia; Central Kalimantan Program, World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), JL. Krakatau No. 12, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan 73112, Indonesia
  • 20 Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP), National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 119076, Singapore
  • 21 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • 22 Austindo Nusantara Jaya, Jakarta 12910, Indonesia
  • 23 College of Arts and Social Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
  • 24 Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), JL. Papandayan No.10, Bogor 16151 West Java, Indonesia
  • 25 Central Kalimantan Program, World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), JL. Krakatau No. 12, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan 73112, Indonesia
  • 26 The Indonesian Association of Primatologists (PERHAPPI), Bogor, Indonesia
  • 27 Restorasi Habitat Orangutan Indonesia (RHOI), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
  • 28 Flora and Fauna International-Indonesia, Ragunan, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • 29 Psychology Department, Glendon College of York University, 2275 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON M4N 3M6, Canada
  • 30 Borneo Futures, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam; ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
  • 31 Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), JL. Papandayan No.10, Bogor 16151 West Java, Indonesia; Restorasi Habitat Orangutan Indonesia (RHOI), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
  • 32 Anthropology Program, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI, USA
  • 33 Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK
  • 34 West Kalimantan Program, World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), JL. Karna Sosial, Gg. Wonoyoso 2 No. 3, Pontianak 78124 West Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • 35 ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Curr. Biol., 2018 03 05;28(5):761-769.e5.
PMID: 29456144 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.053

Abstract

Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3-5], our knowledge about the effects of these changes on wildlife is much more sparse [6, 7]. Here we use field survey data, predictive density distribution modeling, and remote sensing to investigate the impact of resource use and land-use changes on the density distribution of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Our models indicate that between 1999 and 2015, half of the orangutan population was affected by logging, deforestation, or industrialized plantations. Although land clearance caused the most dramatic rates of decline, it accounted for only a small proportion of the total loss. A much larger number of orangutans were lost in selectively logged and primary forests, where rates of decline were less precipitous, but where far more orangutans are found. This suggests that further drivers, independent of land-use change, contribute to orangutan loss. This finding is consistent with studies reporting hunting as a major cause in orangutan decline [8-10]. Our predictions of orangutan abundance loss across Borneo suggest that the population decreased by more than 100,000 individuals, corroborating recent estimates of decline [11]. Practical solutions to prevent future orangutan decline can only be realized by addressing its complex causes in a holistic manner across political and societal sectors, such as in land-use planning, resource exploitation, infrastructure development, and education, and by increasing long-term sustainability [12]. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.