OBJECTIVE: The photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, commonly used in the healthcare settings, is easily affected by movement artefact leading to errors in the extracted heart rate and SpO2 estimates. This study aims to develop an online artefact detection system based on adaptive (dynamic) template matching, suitable for continuous PPG monitoring during daily living activities or in the intensive care units (ICUs).
APPROACH: Several master templates are initially generated by applying principal component analysis to data obtained from the PhysioNet MIMIC II database. The master template is then updated with each incoming clean PPG pulse. The correlation coefficient is used to classify the PPG pulse into either good or bad quality categories. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated using data obtained from two different sources: (i) our own data collected from 19 healthy subjects using the wearable Sotera Visi Mobile system (Sotera Wireless Inc.) as they performed various movement types; and (ii) ICU data provided by the PhysioNet MIMIC II database. The developed algorithm was evaluated against a manually annotated 'gold standard' (GS).
MAIN RESULTS: Our algorithm achieved an overall accuracy of 91.5% ± 2.9%, with a sensitivity of 94.1% ± 2.7% and a specificity of 89.7% ± 5.1%, when tested on our own data. When applying the algorithm to data from the PhysioNet MIMIC II database, it achieved an accuracy of 98.0%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 99.0% and 96.1%, respectively.
SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed method is simple and robust against individual variations in the PPG characteristics, thus making it suitable for a diverse range of datasets. Integration of the proposed artefact detection technique into remote monitoring devices could enhance reliability of the PPG-derived physiological parameters.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.