• 1 Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Institute


Titanium (Ti) and Ti-based alloys presence the most widely applied as advanced biomaterials
in biomedical implant applications. Moreover, these alloys are known to be the most
valuable metallic materials including spinal cord surgical treatment. It becomes an interest
due to its advantages compared to others, including its bio compatibility and corrosion
resistant. However, an issue arises when it comes for permanent implant application as
the alloy has a possible toxic effect produced from chemical reaction between body fluid
environments with alloys chemical compositions. It also relies on the performance of
neighbouring bone tissue to integrate with the implant surface. Abnormalities usually
happen when surrounding tissue shows poor responses and rejection of implants that would
leads to body inflammation. These cause an increase in foreign body reaction leading to
severe body tissue response and thus, loosening of the implant. Corrosion effects and
biocompatibility behaviour of implantation usage also become one of the reasons of
implant damage. Here, this paper reviews the importance of using Ti and Ti-based alloys
in biomedical implantation, especially in orthopaedic spinal cord injury. It also reviews the
basic aspects of corrosion effects that lead to implant mechanical damage, poor response
of body rejection and biocompatibility behaviour of implantation usage.