Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 133 in total

  1. Tabassam S, Reshak AH, Murtaza G, Muhammad S, Laref A, Yousaf M, et al.
    J Mol Graph Model, 2021 05;104:107841.
    PMID: 33529935 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2021.107841
    Full Heuslers alloys are a fascinating class of materials leading to many technological applications. These have been studied widely under ambient conditions. However, less attention been paid to study them under the effect of compression and strain. Here in this work Co2YZ (Y= Cr, Nb, Ta, V and Z = Al, Ga) Heusler alloys have been studied comprehensively under pressure variations. Calculated lattice constants are in reasonable agreement with the available data. It is determined that lattice constant deceases with the increase in tensile stress and increases by increasing pressure in reverse direction. Band profiles reveals the half metallic nature of the studied compounds. The bond length decreases while band gap increases in compressive strain. The compounds are found to be reflective in visible region, as characteristics of the metals. The magnetic moments reveal the half-mettalic ferromagnetic nature of the compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys*
  2. Yan L, Yu J, Zhong Y, Gu Y, Ma Y, Li W, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 03 01;20(3):1605-1612.
    PMID: 31492322 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2020.17340
    The present study focuses on the microstructural and bioactive properties evolution in selective laser melting (SLM) β titanium alloys. We have applied cross-scan strategy for improving mechanical properties and lower elastic modulus of SLMed Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys which has been shown to be altering the microstructure and refining the grain size. The cross-scan strategy can refine the microstructure and induce various deformation textures in contrast to the conventional scan strategy. The microstructures of Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys indicate that the cross-scan strategy will yield the best mechanical properties and lower elastic modulus. The corrosion behavior of the Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys was studied during immersion in an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37±0.50 °C for 28 days. Both the mechanical and bioactive properties showed that the novel Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys should be ideal for bone implants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys*
  3. Yan L, Zhang M, Wang M, Guo Y, Zhang X, Xi J, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 03 01;20(3):1504-1510.
    PMID: 31492313 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2020.17350
    This research has been accomplished using the advanced selective laser melting (SLM) technique as well as HIP post-treatment in order to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of Mg- Ca-Sr alloy. Through this research it becomes clearly noticeable that the Mg-1.5Ca-xSr (x = 0.6, 2.1, 2.5) alloys with Sr exhibited better mechanical properties and corrosion potentials. This is more particular with the Mg-1.5Ca-2.5Sr alloy after HIP post-treatment allowing it to provide a desired combination of degradation and mechanical behavior for orthopedic fracture fixation during a desired treatment period. In vivo trials, there was a clear indication and exhibition that this Mg-1.5Ca-2.5Sr alloy screw can completely dissolve in miniature pig's body which leads to an acceleration in growth of bone tissues. Mg-Ca-Sr alloy proved potential candidate for use in orthopedic fixation devices through Our results concluded that Mg-Ca-Sr alloy are potential candidate for use in orthopedic fixation devices through mechanical strength and biocompatibility evaluations (in vitro or In vivo).
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys*
  4. Mayappan, Ramani, Ahmad Badri Ismail, Zainal Arifin Ahmad, Hussain, Luay Bakir, Ariga, Tadashi
    In this study the intermetallic (IMC) thickness of Sn-Pb, Sn-Zn and Sn-Zn-Bi solders on copper (Cu) substrate were measured at different temperatures using reflow methods. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phase was detected between Sn-Pb solder and Cu substrate. The J-Cu5Zn8 phase was detected between Sn-Zn and Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solders with Cu substrate. The thickness of the intermetallics increases with temperature. The IMC thickness for Sn-8Zn-3Bi solder is lower than Sn-9Zn solder for all the soldering temperatures, indicating that Bi has suppressed the initial IMC formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  5. Hussein HT, Kadhim A, Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:842062.
    PMID: 25136694 DOI: 10.1155/2014/842062
    Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDS), optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4:1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys/chemistry*
  6. Junaidi Syarif, Zainuddin Sajuri
    The effect of copper addition on martensitic structure and reversion from martensite to austenite behaviours upon heating were investigated to clarify mechanism of grain refinement of austenite in Fe-8wt.%Ni-Cu alloys. Upon water-quenching, the alloys underwent a martensitic transformation that exhibited a typical lath-martensitic structure. It was found that prior-austenite grain and martensite-packet sizes were refined with increasing copper content. The grain refinement was not due to a decrease of grain growth rate of the austenite. However, it was found that nucleation rate of the austenite on reversion was increased by the copper addition. In Fe-8wt.%Ni alloy heated in (austenite+ferrite) region, reversed austenite grains were formed at high angle boundaries such as prior austenite grain boundary and packet boundary. On the other hand, TEM observation of the Fe-8wt.%Ni-3wt.%Cu alloy revealed that fine copper particles precipitated within the martensitic structure and the reversed austenite grains also formed within lath-structures and lath boundary. It means that the copper addition promoted formation of the reversed austenite within martensitic matrix and resulted in the grain refinement of the prior-austenite in Fe-8wt.%Ni-Cu alloy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys; Dental Alloys
  7. Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Hamzah E, Kasiri-Asgarani M, Jabbarzare S, Iqbal N, Abdul Kadir MR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Mar;60:526-537.
    PMID: 26706560 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.11.057
    The present study addressed the synthesis of a bi-layered nanostructured fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on Mg-2Zn-3Ce alloy via a combination of electrodeposition (ED) and dip-coating methods. The nFHA/PCL composite coating is composed of a thick (70-80 μm) and porous layer of PCL that uniformly covered the thin nFHA film (8-10 μm) with nanoneedle-like microstructure and crystallite size of around 70-90 nm. Electrochemical measurements showed that the nFHA/PCL composite coating presented a high corrosion resistance (R(p)=2.9×10(3) kΩ cm(2)) and provided sufficient protection for a Mg substrate against galvanic corrosion. The mechanical integrity of the nFHA/PCL composite coatings immersed in SBF for 10 days showed higher compressive strength (34% higher) compared with the uncoated samples, indicating that composite coatings can delay the loss of compressive strength of the Mg alloy. The nFHA/PCL coating indicted better bonding strength (6.9 MPa) compared to PCL coating (2.2 MPa). Immersion tests showed that nFHA/PCL composite-coated alloy experienced much milder corrosion attack and more nucleation sites for apatite compared with the PCL coated and uncoated samples. The bi-layered nFHA/PCL coating can be a good alternative method for the control of corrosion degradation of biodegradable Mg alloy for implant applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys/chemistry*
  8. Mahmoodian R, Hamdi M, Hassan MA, Akbari A
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0130836.
    PMID: 26111217 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130836
    Titanium carbide-graphite (TiC/C) composite was successfully synthesized from Ti and C starting elemental powders using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis technique in an ultra-high plasma inert medium in a single stage. The TiC was exposed to a high-temperature inert medium to allow recrystallization. The product was then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, nanoindentation, and micro-hardness to determine the product's properties. The recorded micro-hardness of the product was 3660 HV, which is a 14% enhancement and makes is comparable to TiC materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys/chemistry*
  9. Kamsiah GH, Ramli Y, Idris AY
    Quintessence Int, 1993 May;24(5):311-2.
    PMID: 8362043
    A technique in which the custom-made anterior ceramometal pontics are securely attached to the metal framework of a Kennedy Class IV removable partial denture is described. This technique results in a more esthetic prosthesis with less palatal coverage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Ceramic Alloys*
  10. Fatmahardi I, Mustapha M, Ahmad A, Derman MN, Lenggo Ginta T, Taufiqurrahman I
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 30;14(9).
    PMID: 33946335 DOI: 10.3390/ma14092336
    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is one of the most effective welding methods for titanium alloys, in particular Ti-6Al-4V. Ti-6Al-4V is one of the most used materials with its good ductility, high strength, weldability, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance. RSW and Ti-6Al-4V materials are often widely used in industrial manufacturing, particularly in automotive and aerospace industries. To understand the phenomenon of resistance spot weld quality, the physical and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V spot weld are essential to be analyzed. In this study, an experiment was conducted using the Taguchi L9 method to find out the optimum level of the weld joint strength. The given optimum level sample was analyzed to study the most significant affecting RSW parameter, the failure mode, the weld nugget microstructure, and hardness values. The high heat input significantly affect the weld nugget temperature to reach and beyond the β-transus temperature. It led to an increase in the weld nugget diameter and the indentation depth. The expulsion appeared in the high heat input and decreased the weld nugget strength. It was caused by the molten material ejection in the fusion zone. The combination of high heat input and rapid air cooling at room temperature generated a martensite microstructure in the fusion zone. It increased the hardness, strength, and brittleness but decreased the ductility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys; Dental Alloys
  11. Syahir A, Tomizaki KY, Kajikawa K, Mihara H
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1352:97-110.
    PMID: 26490470 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3037-1_8
    The importance of protein detection system for protein functions analyses in recent post-genomic era is rising with the emergence of label-free protein detection methods. We are focusing on a simple and practical label-free optical-detection method called anomalous reflection (AR) of gold. When a molecular layer forms on the gold surface, significant reduction in reflectivity can be observed at wavelengths of 400-500 nm. This allows the detection of molecular interactions by monitoring changes in reflectivity. In this chapter, we describe the AR method with three different application platforms: (1) gold, (2) gold containing alloy/composite (AuAg2O), and (3) metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin layers. The AuAg2O composite and MIM are implemented as important concepts for signal enhancement process for the AR technique. Moreover, the observed molecular adsorption and activity is aided by a three-dimensional surface geometry, performed using poly(amidoamine) or PAMAM dendrimer modification. The described system is suitable to be used as a platform for high-throughput detection system in a chip format.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold Alloys
  12. Zaidi Embong
    This review briefly describes some of the techniques available for analysing surfaces and illustrates their usefulness with a few examples such as a metal and alloy. In particular, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and laser Raman spectroscopy are all described as advanced surface analytical techniques. In analysing a surface, AES and XPS would normally be considered first, with AES being applied where high spatial resolution is required and XPS where chemical state information is needed. Laser Raman spectroscopy is useful for determining molecular bonding. A combination of XPS, AES and Laser Raman spectroscopy can give quantitative analysis from the top few atomic layers with a lateral spatial resolution of
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  13. Muhamad Daud, Sarimah Mahat, Mohd Sharif Sattar
    Surface free energies have been evaluated from Young’s moduli and lattice parameter data of five aluminium alloys with varying amounts of stanum to determine the inter-correlation with anode capacity of the alloys. The composition containing ~1.47%Sn exhibits a minimum in the surface free energy which accounts for the decrease in the tendency of the alloy to undergo passivation thus resulting in a higher anode capacity of 2478Ah/kg at ≈ 0.08mA/cm 2 , current density. The results showed that aluminium alloy containing certain amount of stanum has lowered surface free energy, leading to reduction in passive film thickness and reduces metal/oxide bond strength. These factors in turn result in a better cathodic protection property of aluminium alloy containing stanum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  14. Shariat BS, Meng Q, Mahmud AS, Wu Z, Bakhtiari R, Zhang J, et al.
    Data Brief, 2017 Aug;13:562-568.
    PMID: 28706965 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.06.017
    Functionally graded NiTi structures benefit from the combination of the smart properties of NiTi and those of functionally graded structures. This article provides experimental data for thermomechanical deformation behaviour of microstructurally graded, compositionally graded and geometrically graded NiTi alloy components, related to the research article entitled "Functionally graded shape memory alloys: design, fabrication and experimental evaluation" (Shariat et al., 2017) [1]. Stress-strain variation of microstructurally graded NiTi wires is presented at different heat treatment conditions and testing temperatures. The complex 4-way shape memory behaviour of a compositionally graded NiTi strip during one complete thermal cycle is demonstrated. The effects of geometrical design on pseudoelastic behaviour of geometrically graded NiTi plates over tensile loading cycles are presented on the stress-strain diagrams.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  15. Mohd Faiz Nasruddin, Theocharospoulos, Antonios, Ray, Noel, Burke, Francis M.
    Fitting accuracy of dental prostheses is essential for clinical success. An ideal marginal and internal fit will minimize plaque accumulation, gingival irritation, cement dissolution and micro leakage as well as enhancing the mechanical behaviour of a fixed partial denture (FPD) (1). Unfortunately, there is disagreement about acceptable marginal and internal fit discrepancies of FPD’s (2) from 75-200μm. There are two main manufacturing routes of CAD/CAM FPD’s: the subtractive and the additive route. The subtractive route is a top-down approach which involves milling the desired article out of a block of the material of choice using a series of burs. This route is currently the most common CAD/CAM technique for the fabrication of metal alloy FPD’s. The additive route is a bottom-up approach where the desired article is fabricated layer by layer out of the material of choice. Examples include selective laser sintering and selective laser melting for metal alloy FPD’s.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  16. Bassiri Nia A, Xin L, Yahya MY, Ayob A, Farokhi Nejad A, Rahimian Koloor SS, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 19;12(9).
    PMID: 32961655 DOI: 10.3390/polym12092139
    The present study investigates the effects of close-range blast loading of fibre metal laminates (FMLs) fabricated from woven glass polypropylene and aluminium alloy 2024-T3. The polypropylene layers and anodized aluminium are stacked in 3/2 layering configuration to investigate the impact energy absorbed through deformation and damage. In order to study the blast responses of FMLs, a 4-cable instrumented pendulum blast set-up is used. Effects of blast impulse and stand-off distance were examined. Investigation of the cross-section of FMLs are presented and damages such as fibre fracture, debonding, and global deformation are examined. Increasing stand-off distance from 4 to 14 mm resulted in a change of damage mode from highly localized perforation to global deformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  17. Mat-Baharin NH, Razali M, Mohd-Said S, Syarif J, Muchtar A
    J Prosthodont Res, 2020 Oct;64(4):490-497.
    PMID: 32063537 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpor.2020.01.004
    PURPOSE: Not all elements with β-stabilizing properties in titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications, because corrosion and wear processes release the alloying elements to the surrounding tissue. Chromium and molybdenum were selected as the alloying element in this work as to find balance between the strength and modulus of elasticity of β-titanium alloys. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Titanium-10Molybdenum-10Chromium (Ti-10Mo-10Cr), Titanium-10Chromium (Ti-10Cr) and Titanium-10Molybdenum (Ti-10Mo) on the elemental leachability in tissue culture environment and their effect on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs).

    METHODS: Each alloy was immersed in growth medium for 0-21 days, and the elution was analyzed to detect the released metals. The elution was further used as the treatment medium and exposed to seeded HGFs overnight. The HGFs were also cultured directly to the titanium alloy for 1, 3 and 7 days. Cell viability was then determined.

    RESULTS: Six metal elements were detected in the immersion of titanium alloys. Among these elements, molybdenum released from Ti-10Mo-10Cr had the highest concentration throughout the immersion period. Significant difference in the viability of fibroblast cells treated with growth medium containing metals and with direct exposure technique was not observed. The duration of immersion did not significantly affect cell viability. Nevertheless, cell viability was significantly affected after 1 and 7 days of exposure, when the cells were grown directly onto the alloy surfaces.

    CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitation of this study, the newly developed β-titanium alloys are non-cytotoxic to human gingival fibroblasts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chromium Alloys
  18. Eko Kurniawan, Tubagus N. Rohmannudin, Mohamad Rasidi Rasani, Zainuddin Sajuri, Junaidi Syarif
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:811-817.
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of element diffusion on the alloying behaviour and microstructure of a Ti-10%Mo10%Cr
    alloy during sintering and furnace cooling. A theoretical calculation of the average diffusion distance for each
    element was performed to predict the alloying behaviour during sintering and furnace cooling. The Ti-10%Mo-10%Cr
    alloy was fabricated using a blended element powder metallurgy approach. Micrograph of the samples after sintering
    showed bright-circle structures and significantly decreased equiaxed structures. The number of plate-like structures
    increased with prolonged sintering time. Microstructural changes occurred because of element diffusion resulting from
    the prolonged sintering time. Moreover, the diffusion distance of each element also increased with prolonged sintering
    time. Although elements can sufficiently diffuse during both sintering and furnace cooling, the diffusion distance during
    sintering was considerably higher than that during furnace cooling for all elements. The diffusion distances of Cr and
    Mo were the highest and lowest, respectively, during sintering and furnace cooling. This study showed that alloying
    behaviour mostly occurred during sintering and was controlled by the diffusion of Mo atoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  19. Aslantas K, Danish M, Hasçelik A, Mia M, Gupta M, Ginta T, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 06;13(13).
    PMID: 32640567 DOI: 10.3390/ma13132998
    Micro-turning is a micro-mechanical cutting method used to produce small diameter cylindrical parts. Since the diameter of the part is usually small, it may be a little difficult to improve the surface quality by a second operation, such as grinding. Therefore, it is important to obtain the good surface finish in micro turning process using the ideal cutting parameters. Here, the multi-objective optimization of micro-turning process parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were performed by response surface method (RSM). Two important machining indices, such as surface roughness and material removal rate, were simultaneously optimized in the micro-turning of a Ti6Al4V alloy. Further, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done on the cutting tools. The overall results depict that the feed rate is the prominent factor that significantly affects the responses in micro-turning operation. Moreover, the SEM results confirmed that abrasion and crater wear mechanism were observed during the micro-turning of a Ti6Al4V alloy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alloys
  20. Muhammad Fauzinizam Razali, Abdus Samad Mahmud
    Introduction: Most patients with malocclusion are given orthodontic leveling therapy with the aim of reducing the vertical discrepancy between teeth. This computational study aims to evaluate the degree of deformation of su- perelastic NiTi arch wire upon bending at different deflections in a bracket system. Methods: A three-dimensional finite-element model of a wire-bracket system was developed to simulate the bending behavior of superelastic NiTi arch wire in three-brackets configuration. A superelastic subroutine was integrated in the model to anticipate the superelastic behavior of the arch wire. The mid span of the arch wire was loaded to different extent of deflections, ranging from 1.0 to 4.0 mm. The mechanical deformation of the arch wires was accessed from three parameters, in specific the unloading force, the bending stress and the martensite fraction. Results: The superelastic wire deflected at 4.0 mm yielded smaller unloading force than the wire bent at 1.0 mm. The bending stress was highly localized at the wire curvature, with the stress magnitude increased from 465 MPa at 1.0 mm to 951 MPa at 4.0 mm deflection. The martensite volume consistently increased throughout the bending, with a fully transformed martensite was ob- served as early as 2.0 mm of deflection. The magnitude of bending stress and the volume of fully transformed mar- tensite increased gradually in relation to the wire deflection. Conclusion: The wire-bracket system induced localize wire deformation, hindering complete utilization of superelasticity during orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Alloys
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