• 1 School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, 47500 Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:
  • 3 University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
  • 4 School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:
Int J Pharm, 2019 Jun 30;565:509-522.
PMID: 31102804 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.042


The biological barriers in the body have been fabricated by nature to protect the body from foreign molecules. The successful delivery of drugs is limited and being challenged by these biological barriers including the gastrointestinal tract, brain, skin, lungs, nose, mouth mucosa, and immune system. In this review article, we envisage to understand the functionalities of these barriers and revealing various drug-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to overcome these barriers and deliver the entrapped drugs to cancer targeted site. Apart from it, tissue-specific multifunctional ligands, linkers and transporters when employed imparts an effective active delivery strategy by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Together, these strategies enable to deliver various drugs across the biological membranes for the treatment of solid tumors and malignant cancer.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.