• 1 Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), Faridabad, Haryana 121001, India
  • 2 School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia; Centre for Drug Delivery and Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 3 KIIT Technology Business Incubator, India
  • 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 5 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; Agricultural Genetic Engineering, Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt
  • 6 Deptartment of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • 7 Indore Institute of Pharmacy, Indore, M.P., India. Electronic address:
  • 8 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:
Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2021 Apr;161:100-119.
PMID: 33639254 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.02.010


Potential research outcomes on nanotechnology-based novel drug delivery systems since the past few decades attracted the attention of the researchers to overcome the limitations of conventional deliveries. Apart from possessing enhanced solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, the targeting potential of the carriers facilitates longer circulation and site-specific delivery of the entrapped therapeutics. The practice of these delivery systems, therefore, helps in maximizing bioavailability, improving pharmacokinetics profile, pharmacodynamics activity and biodistribution of the entrapped drug(s). In addition to focusing on the positive side, evaluation of nanoparticulate systems for toxicity is a crucial parameter for its biomedical applications. Due to the size of nanoparticles, they easily traverse through biological barriers and may be accumulated in the body, where the ingredients incorporated in the formulation development might accumulate and/or produce toxic manifestation, leading to cause severe health hazards. Therefore, the toxic profile of these delivery systems needs to be evaluated at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ level. This review offers a comprehensive presentation of toxicity aspects of the constituents of nanoparticular based drug delivery systems, which would be beneficial for future researchers to develop nanoparticulate delivery vehicles for the improvement of delivery approaches in a safer way.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.