High melting point polymeric carrier without plasticizer is unacceptable for solid dispersion (SD) by melting method. Combined polymer-plasticizer carrier significantly affects drug solubility and tableting property of SD.
Solution-mediated transformation has been cited as one of the main problems that deteriorate dissolution performances of solid dispersion (SD). This is mainly attributed by the recrystallization tendency of poorly soluble drug. Eventually, it will lead to extensive agglomeration which is a key process in reducing the dissolution performance of SD and offsets the true benefit of SD system. Here, a post-processing treatment is suggested in order to reduce the recrystallization tendency and hence bring forth the dissolution advantage of SD system.
Pharmaceutical excipients are no longer inert materials but it is effective and able to improve the characteristics of the products' quality, stability, functionality, safety, solubility and acceptance of patients. It can interact with the active ingredients and alter the medicament characteristics. The globalization of medicines' supply enhances the importance of globalized good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. This review was intended to assess the globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. The review outcomes demonstrate that there is a lack of accurately defined methods to evaluate and measure excipients' safety. Furthermore good manufacturing practice requirements for excipients are not effectively globalized.
CaCu3Ti4O12 was synthesized starting from a solution of TiO2 to which Ca and Cu nitrates were added. Due to the differences in the solubilities of the Ca, Cu and Ti, initial variations from ideal stoichiometry and a high solution pH was necessary to obtain stoichiometric CaCu3Ti4O12 precipitates. As precipitated samples were amorphous with CuO phases observed after drying of the precipitates at 300 oC. CaCu3Ti4O12 phases were observed after heat treatment at 1000 oC. XRD studies show the presence of CuO and TiO2 in addition to the CaCu3Ti4O12 for non stoichiometric samples. Observations under the SEM show the presence of Cu rich and Ti rich phases in addition to the CaCu3Ti4O12.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess outstanding properties that could be useful in several technological, drug delivery, and diagnostic applications. However, their unique physical and chemical properties are hindered due to their poor solubility. This article review's the different ways and means of solubility enhancement of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The advantages of SWNTs over the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the method of non-covalent modification for solubility enhancement has been the key interest in this review. The review also highlights a few examples of dispersant design. The review includes some interesting utility of SWNTs being wrapped with polymer especially in biological media that could mediate proper drug delivery to target cells. Further, the use of wrapped SWNTs with phospholipids, nucleic acid, and amphiphillic polymers as biosensors is of research interest. The review aims at summarizing the developments relating to wrapped SWNTs to generate further research prospects in healthcare.
We report on the assembly of three-fold axially compressed icosahedral arrays of the bowl shaped p-sulfonatocalixarene molecules in the solid-state, intricately bound to dipicolinate and yttrium(iii) ions, with the compression reflected in Hirshfeld surface analyses. Solution studies show dissolution of the icosahedra intact, but with a geometrical rearrangement to regular icosahedra.
Lyophilized powder (LP) from Algerian arbutus wild berries (Arbutus unedo L.) was obtained. This present paper reports about the dissolution (releasing) properties of LP-based tablets, evaluated through the electric conductivity (EC) of distilled water which is employed as surrounding medium, at three different temperatures (291, 298 and 309 K). In addition to this, secondary physicochemical characteristics such as elementary analysis, color and compressibility were evaluated. Regarding the modeling of ionic transfer, among the three tested models, namely Peleg, Singh et al. and Singh and Kulshestha, the latter seems to be the most appropriate (R2 = 0.99), particularly in the case of compacted tablets under 2000 Pa. The temperature dependence of the dissolution process was also studied applying Arrhenius equation (R2>0.8) which allowed to deduce the activation energy, ranging from 18.7 to 21.4 kJ.mol-1 according to the model and compression force employed.
Single-screw extrusion of a fibrous-structured meat analog from soy proteins added with low-grade oyster mushroom was successful. Satisfactory extrudates were obtained at a barrel temperature of 140 °C, screw speed range of 100-160 rpm, and oyster mushroom addition at 0%, 7.5%, and 15% via factorial experiments. Single-screw extrusion equipped with a slit die successfully produced expanded oyster mushroom-soy protein extrudates. However, the increase in the oyster mushroom content significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) the expansion ratio of the extrudate from 1.26 to 0.98. This result indicated that adding more oyster mushroom restrained the expansion ratio. The extrudates had a medium density range (max of 1393.70 ± 6.30 kg/m3). By adding oyster mushroom, the extrudates attained a higher moisture content (range = 34.77% to 37.93%) compared with the extrudates containing the protein mixture only (range = 26.99% to 32.33%). The increase in screw speed and oyster mushroom significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the water absorption index. The increase in the texturization index was significantly influenced (p ≤ 0.05) by oyster mushroom addition rather than the screw speed. A defined fibrous structure supported the high texturization index and small shape of air cells observed in the extrudates.
Fitting accuracy of dental prostheses is essential for clinical success. An ideal marginal and internal fit will minimize plaque accumulation, gingival irritation, cement dissolution and micro leakage as well as enhancing the mechanical behaviour of a fixed partial denture (FPD) (1). Unfortunately, there is disagreement about acceptable marginal and internal fit discrepancies of FPD’s (2) from 75-200μm. There are two main manufacturing routes of CAD/CAM FPD’s: the subtractive and the additive route. The subtractive route is a top-down approach which involves milling the desired article out of a block of the material of choice using a series of burs. This route is currently the most common CAD/CAM technique for the fabrication of metal alloy FPD’s. The additive route is a bottom-up approach where the desired article is fabricated layer by layer out of the material of choice. Examples include selective laser sintering and selective laser melting for metal alloy FPD’s.
Wetlands are an important source of DOM. However, the quantity and quality of wetlands' DOM from various climatic regions have not been studied comprehensively. The relationship between the concentrations of DOM (DOC), humic substances (HS) and non-humic substances (NHS) in wetland associated sloughs, streams and rivers, in cool temperate (Hokkaido, Japan), sub-tropical (Florida, USA), and tropical (Sarawak, Malaysia) regions was investigated. The DOC ranged from 1.0 to 15.6 mg CL(-1) in Hokkaido, 6.0-24.4 mg CL(-1) in Florida, and 18.9-75.3 mg CL(-1) in Sarawak, respectively. The relationship between DOC and HS concentrations for the whole sample set was regressed to a primary function with y-intercept of zero (P<0.005) and a slope value of 0.841. A similar correlation was observed between DOC and NHS concentrations, with a smaller slope value of 0.159. However, the correlation coefficient of the latter was much larger when the data was regressed to a logarithmic curve. These observations suggest the presence of a general tendency that the increased DOC in the river waters was mainly due to the increased supply of HS from wetland soils, whereas the rate of the increase in the NHS supply has an upper limit which may be controlled by primary productivity.
In this study, the selenium enriched peanuts and the different solubility proteins extracted from them were investigated. The dried defatted selenium enriched peanuts (SeP) powder (0.3147 μg/g) had a 2.5-fold higher mean total selenium concentration than general peanuts (GP) power (0.1233 μg/g). The SeP had higher concentration of selenium, manganese and zinc than that of GP, but less calcium. The rate of extraction of protein was 23.39% for peanuts and alkali soluble protein was the main component of protein in SeP, which accounted for 92.82% of total soluble protein and combined selenium was 77.33% of total selenium protein. In different forms of proteins from SeP, the WSePr due to higher concentration of selenium had higher DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, higher reducing activity and longer induction time than other proteins.
The objective of the current study is to increase the dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil (CA) by formation of binary CA solid dispersion using water soluble carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000).
In this work, oven-dried, freeze-dried and spray-dried agaro-oligosaccharide powders were characterized to investigate their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were shown to exhibit high water solubility index (88.73 – 95.88%), water absorption capacity (0.96 – 2.57 g/g) and oil absorption capacity (0.40 – 0.45 g/g). Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were shown to possess moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (10.65 – 14.59%), ABTS radical scavenging activity (44 .47 – 65.61%) and ferric reducing antioxidant activity (0.165 – 0.353). Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were further characterized with respect to thermal and pH stability. Agaro-oligosaccharide powders were shown to exhibit high temperature resistance (≤ 100oC) and acid/alkaline resistance.
This work was investigated the protein solubility properties of meat from chicken in different
body part. The effects of fresh and freezing condition were studied on the protein solubility as
a functional property of slaughter and non slaughtering chicken meat. Solubility of proteins
was significantly reduced for slaughtering fresh meat and in contrast, non slaughtering fresh
meat shows the higher protein solubility. On the other hand, frozen storage meat showed the
difference amount of protein solubility between slaughtering and non slaughtering condition
meat. Freezing condition also showed that the different solubility of different body part meat.
The protein solubility of some parts was significantly increased and some were decreased
between the slaughtering and non slaughtering condition.
The present study is aimed to prepare κ-carrageenan microparticles for the encapsulation of model drug, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). A face-centered central composite design was employed to study the effects of three different formulation variables (κ-carrageenan, emulsifier, and oil). The powder yield was found inversely affected by the κ-carrageenan and oil concentration. The encapsulation efficiency was maximized in the region of the middle level κ-carrageenan concentration, the high level emulsifier concentration, and the low level oil concentration. The emulsifier concentration was the most influential variable on the particle size of powder. The optimal formulation was reported as 0.91% (w/v) κ-carrageenan concentration, 0.64% (w/v) emulsifier, and 1.0% (w/w) oil. Both differential scanning colorimeter and X-ray diffraction analyses proved that incorporation of CoQ10 into κ- carrageenan microcapsules resulted in amorphous powder with significantly (p<0.05) higher water solubility compared to pure CoQ10 and physical mixture in the crystalline form.
Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces. This phenomenon influences the transmembrane pH gradient and decreases the amount of energy available for cell growth. In general, the restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques, which can also be exploited for product recovery.
This study examined the influence of pH and salt concentration on the protein solubility of slaughtered and non-slaughtered broiler chicken meat. Three types of salt (NaCl, Na2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), five different pH levels (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0) and five salt concentrations (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 M) were examined. Each type of salt showed distinctive activities for slaughtered and non-slaughtered meat protein solubility. Soluble protein concentration increased as pH increased (p<0.05) from pH5.0 to 8.0 and decreased from pH8.0 to 9.0. It was also observed that protein solubility increased as the salt concentration increased. Protein solubility significantly increased (p<0.05) in the non-slaughtered meat compared to the slaughtered meat at pH8.0 for Na2SO4 at 1.2 M.
The bottleneck of conventional polymeric membranes applied in industry has a tradeoff between permeability and selectivity that deters its widespread expansion. This can be circumvented through a hybrid membrane that utilizes the advantages of inorganic and polymer materials to improve the gas separation performance. The approach can be further enhanced through the incorporation of amine-impregnated fillers that has the potential to minimize defects while simultaneously enhancing gas affinity. An innovative combination between impregnated Linde T with different numbers of amine-functional groups (i.e., monoamine, diamine, and triamine) and 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA)-derived polyimide has been elucidated to explore its potential in CO2/CH4 separation. Detailed physical properties (i.e., free volume and glass transition temperature) and gas transport behavior (i.e., solubility, permeability, and diffusivity) of the fabricated membranes have been examined to unveil the effect of different numbers of amine-functional groups in Linde T fillers. It was found that a hybrid membrane impregnated with Linde T using a diamine functional group demonstrated the highest improvement compared to a pristine polyimide with 3.75- and 1.75-fold enhancements in CO2/CH4 selectivities and CO2 permeability, respectively, which successfully lies on the 2008 Robeson's upper bound. The novel coupling of diamine-impregnated Linde T and 6FDA-derived polyimide is a promising candidate for application in large-scale CO2 removal processes.
Aluminum foams were fabricated by sintering dissolution process (SDP) using sodium chloride (NaCl) as space holder. The compositions of space holder, used in this study were 40 and 60 wt. % with different dissolution times; 1, 2 and 3 h. The effect of different dissolution times on compressive behavior and energy absorption of foams were evaluated. The result showed that by increasing space holder and dissolution times, energy absorption capability increases. For aluminum foam contains 60 wt. % NaCl, longer dissolution times resulted in thinner cell wall and cell structure become more unstable which lead to lower plateau region.