Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Raman S, Mahmood S, Hilles AR, Javed MN, Azmana M, Al-Japairai KAS
    Curr Drug Metab, 2020;21(9):649-660.
    PMID: 32384025 DOI: 10.2174/1389200221666200508074348
    BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a most hindering role in drug delivery to the brain. Recent research comes out with the nanoparticles approach, is continuously working towards improving the delivery to the brain. Currently, polymeric nanoparticle is extensively involved in many therapies for spatial and temporal targeted areas delivery.

    METHODS: We did a non-systematic review, and the literature was searched in Google, Science Direct and PubMed. An overview is provided for the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles using different methods, effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle properties with types of polymeric nanoparticles and preparation methods. An account of different nanomedicine employed with therapeutic agent to cross the BBB alone with biodistribution of the drugs.

    RESULTS: We found that various types of polymeric nanoparticle systems are available and they prosper in delivering the therapeutic amount of the drug to the targeted area. The effect of physicochemical properties on nanoformulation includes change in their size, shape, elasticity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. Surface modification of polymers or nanocarriers is also vital in the formulation of nanoparticles to enhance targeting efficiency to the brain.

    CONCLUSION: More standardized methods for the preparation of nanoparticles and to assess the relationship of surface modification on drug delivery. While the preparation and its output like drug loading, particle size, and charge, permeation is always conflicted, so it requires more attention for the acceptance of nanoparticles for brain delivery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  2. Nurhidayah W, Setyawati LU, Daruwati I, Gazzali AM, Subroto T, Muchtaridi M
    Molecules, 2022 Nov 18;27(22).
    PMID: 36432107 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27228009
    Natural compounds provide precursors with various pharmacological activities and play an important role in discovering new chemical entities, including radiopharmaceuticals. In the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, iodine radioisotopes are widely used and interact with complex compounds including natural products. However, the development of radiopharmaceuticals from natural compounds with iodine radioisotopes has not been widely explored. This review summarizes the development of radiopharmaceuticals from natural compounds using iodine radioisotopes in the last 10 years, as well as discusses the challenges and strategies to improve future discovery of radiopharmaceuticals from natural resources. Literature research was conducted via PubMed, from which 32 research articles related to the development of natural compounds labeled with iodine radioisotopes were reported. From the literature, the challenges in developing radiopharmaceuticals from natural compounds were the purity and biodistribution. Despite the challenges, the development of radiopharmaceuticals from natural compounds is a golden opportunity for nuclear medicine advancement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  3. Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Jun;21(1):29-35.
    PMID: 10879276
    A review of routine histopathological samples and autopsies examined at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya revealed 15 cases of amyloidosis of the lung. Two were localized depositions limited to the lung while in the remainder, lung involvement was part of the picture of systemic amyloidosis. Both cases of localized amyloidosis presented with symptomatic lung/bronchial masses and a clinical diagnosis of tumour. Histology revealed "amyloidomas" associated with heavy plasma cell and lymphocytic infiltration and the presence of multinucleated giant cells. In both cases, the amyloid deposits were immunopositive for lambda light chains and negative for kappa chains and AA protein. One was a known systemic lupus erythematosus patient with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia. The other patient was found to have plasma cell dyscrasia with monoclonal IgG lambda gammopathy. Both patients did not develop systemic amyloidosis. In contrast, lung involvement in systemic AA amyloidosis was not obvious clinically or macroscopically but was histologically evident in 75% of cases subjected to autopsy. Amyloid was detected mainly in the walls of arterioles and small vessels, and along the alveolar septa. It was less frequently detected in the pleura, along the basement membrane of the bronchial epithelium and around bronchial glands. In one case of systemic AL amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma, an "amyloidoma" occurred in the subpleural region reminiscent of localized amyloidosis. These cases pose questions on (1) whether localized "tumour-like" amyloidosis is a forme fruste of systemic AL amyloidosis and (2) the differing pattern of tissue deposition of different chemical types of amyloid fibrils, with the suggestion that light chain amyloid has a greater tendency to nodular deposition than AA amyloid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  4. Moshikur RM, Ali MK, Wakabayashi R, Moniruzzaman M, Goto M
    Int J Pharm, 2021 Oct 25;608:121129.
    PMID: 34562557 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.121129
    Oral delivery of the sparingly soluble drug methotrexate (MTX) is challenging owing to its poor bioavailability and low solubility. To address this challenge, the present study reports the conversion of MTX into a series of five ionic liquids (ILs) comprising a cationic component-i.e., cholinium (Cho), tetramethylammonium (TMA), tetrabutylphosphonium (TBP), or an amino acid ester-and an anionic component-i.e., MTX. The biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and antitumor efficacy of each MTX-based IL were investigated to determine its usefulness as a pharmaceutical. Oral administration to mice revealed that proline ethyl ester MTX (IL[ProEt][MTX]) had 4.6-fold higher oral bioavailability than MTX sodium, followed by aspartic diethyl ester MTX, IL[TBP][MTX], IL[Cho][MTX], and IL[TMA][MTX]. The peak plasma concentration, elimination half-life, area under the plasma concentration, mean absorption time, and body clearance of IL[ProEt][MTX] were significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  5. Navaratnam V, Mansor SM, Sit NW, Grace J, Li Q, Olliaro P
    Clin Pharmacokinet, 2000 Oct;39(4):255-70.
    PMID: 11069212
    Various compounds of the artemisinin family are currently used for the treatment of patients with malaria worldwide. They are characterised by a short half-life and feature the most rapidly acting antimalarial drugs to date. They are increasingly being used, often in combination with other drugs, although our knowledge of their main pharmacological features (including their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) is still incomplete. Such data are particularly important in the case of combinations. Artemisinin derivatives are converted primarily, but to different extents, to the bioactive metabolite artenimol after either parenteral or gastrointestinal administration. The rate of conversion is lowest for artelinic acid (designed to protect the molecule against metabolism) and highest for the water-soluble artesunate. The absolute and relative bioavailability of these compounds has been established in animals, but not in humans, with the exception of artesunate. Oral bioavailability in animals ranges, approximately, between 19 and 35%. A first-pass effect is highly probably for all compounds when administered orally. Artemisinin compounds bind selectively to malaria-infected erythrocytes to yet unidentified targets. They also bind modestly to human plasma proteins, ranging from 43% for artenimol to 81.5% for artelinic acid. Their mode of action is still not completely understood, although different theories have been proposed. The lipid-soluble artemether and artemotil are released slowly when administered intramuscularly because of the 'depot' effect related to the oil formulation. Understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of these 2 drugs helps us to explain the characteristics of the toxicity and neurotoxicity. The water-soluble artesunate is rapidly converted to artenimol at rates that vary with the route of administration, but the processes need to be characterised further, including the relative contribution of pH and enzymes in tissues, blood and liver. This paper intends to summarise contemporary knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of this class of compounds and highlight areas that need further research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  6. Awaluddin AB, Jacobs JJ, Bourne DW, Maddalena DJ, Wilson JG, Boyd RE
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A, 1987;38(8):671-4.
    PMID: 2822626
    Potential tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical agents have been prepared by attaching a cisplatin derivative to a ligand capable of forming a stable complex with 99mTc. Three new organometallic compounds, with iminodiacetic acid as the 99mTc chelating group and 2,3-diaminopropionamide as the platinum complexing group, have been prepared and characterized. Preliminary biodistribution studies in tumor bearing mice support the utility of this approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  7. Ahmad Saad FF, Zakaria MH, Appanna B
    J Int Med Res, 2018 Aug;46(8):3138-3148.
    PMID: 29781364 DOI: 10.1177/0300060518773019
    Objectives 18F-choline is a useful tracer for detecting tumours with high lipogenesis. Knowledge of its biodistribution pattern is essential to recognise physiological variants. The aim of this study was to describe the physiologic distribution of 18F-choline and pitfalls in patients with breast cancer. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with breast cancer (10 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women; mean age, 52.82 ± 10.71 years) underwent 18F-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for staging. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired after 40 minutes of 18F-choline uptake. Acquired PET images were measured semiquantitatively. Results All patients showed pitfalls unrelated to breast cancer. These findings were predominantly caused by physiological glandular uptake in the liver, spleen, pancreas, bowels, axial skeleton (85%-100%), inflammation and benign changes (4.76%), appendicular skeleton (4.76%-19.049%), and site contamination (61.9%). In <1%, a concomitant metastatic neoplasm was found. The breast showed higher physiological uptake in premenopausal compared with postmenopausal woman (18F-choline maximum standardised uptake values [g/dL] of the right breast = 2.04 ± 0.404 vs 1.59 ± 0.97 and left breast = 2.00 ± 0.56 vs 1.93 ± 1.28, respectively). Conclusion 18F-choline uptake was higher in premenopausal women. Physiological 18F-choline uptake was observed in many sites, representing possible pathologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  8. Nadeem M, Ahmad M, Saeed MA, Shaari A, Riaz S, Naseem S, et al.
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2015 Jun;9(3):136-41.
    PMID: 26023157 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2014.0012
    Nanoparticles as solid colloidal particles are extensively studied and used as anticancer drug delivery agents because of their physical properties. This current research aims to prepare water base suspension of uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles and their biodistribution study to different organs, especially the brain, by using a single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera. The water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesised by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method and labelled with Tc99m for intravenous injection. The nanoparticles were injected without surface modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used for characterisation. Peaks of XRD and EDS indicate that the particles are magnetite and exist in aqueous suspension. The average diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles without any surface coating determined by TEM is 10 nm. These particles are capable of evading the reticuloendothelial system and can cross the blood-brain barrier in the rabbit. The labelling efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles labelled with Tc99m is 85%, which is good for the biodistribution study. The sufficient amount of iron oxide nanoparticles concentration in the brain as compared with the surrounding soft tissues and their long blood retention time indicates that the water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles may be an option for drug delivery into the brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  9. Voon SH, Kue CS, Imae T, Saw WS, Lee HB, Kiew LV, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2017 Dec 20;534(1-2):136-143.
    PMID: 29031979 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.10.023
    Previously reported amphiphilic diblock copolymer with pendant dendron moieties (P71D3) has been further evaluated in tumor-bearing mice as a potential drug carrier. This P71D3-based micelle of an average diameter of 100nm was found to be biocompatible, non-toxic and physically stable in colloidal system up to 15days. It enhanced the in vitro potency of doxorubicin (DOX) in 4T1 breast tumor cells by increasing its uptake, by 3-fold, compared to free DOX. In 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, the tumor growth rate of P71D3/DOX (2mg/kg DOX equivalent) treated group was significantly delayed and their tumor volume was significantly reduced by 1.5-fold compared to those treated with free DOX. The biodistribution studies indicated that P71D3/DOX enhanced accumulation of DOX in tumor by 5- and 2-fold higher than free DOX treated mice at 15min and 1h post-administration, respectively. These results suggest that P71D3 micelle is a promising nanocarrier for chemotherapeutic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution/drug effects
  10. Soo GW, Law JH, Kan E, Tan SY, Lim WY, Chay G, et al.
    Anticancer Drugs, 2010 Aug;21(7):695-703.
    PMID: 20629201
    Imatinib, a selective inhibitor of c-KIT and Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinases, approved for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, shows further therapeutic potential for gliomas, glioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, autoimmune nephritis and other neoplasms. It is metabolized by CYP3A4, is highly bound to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and is a P-glycoprotein substrate limiting its brain distribution. We assess imatinib's protein binding interaction with primaquine, which also binds to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and its metabolic interaction with ketoconazole, which is a CYP3A4 inhibitor, on its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Male ICR mice, 9-12 weeks old were given imatinib PO (50 mg/kg) alone or co-administered with primaquine (12.5 mg/kg), ketoconazole (50 mg/kg) or both, and imatinib concentration in the plasma, kidney, liver and brain was measured at prescheduled time points by HPLC. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Primaquine increased 1.6-fold plasma AUC(0)--> infinity, C(Max) decreased 24%, T(Max) halved and t(1/2) and mean residence time were longer. Ketoconazole increased plasma AUC(0)-->infinity 64% and doubled the C(Max), but this dose did not affect t(1/2) or mean residence time. When ketoconazole and primaquine were co-administered, imatinib AUC(0)-->infinity and C(Max) increased 32 and 35%, respectively. Ketoconazole did not change imatinib's distribution efficiency in the liver and kidney, primaquine increased it two-fold and it was larger when both the drugs were co-administered with imatinib. Ketoconazole did not change brain penetration but primaquine increased it approximately three-fold. Ketoconazole and primaquine affect imatinib clearance, bioavailability and distribution pattern, which could improve the treatment of renal and brain tumors, but also increase toxicity. This would warrant hepatic and renal functions monitoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution/drug effects
  11. Yap CK, Edward FB, Tan SG
    Environ Monit Assess, 2010 Jun;165(1-4):39-53.
    PMID: 19452255 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-0925-6
    Multivariate analysis including correlation, multiple stepwise linear regression, and cluster analyses were applied to investigate the heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the different parts of bivalves and gastropods. It was also aimed to distinguish statistically the differences between the marine bivalves and the gastropods with regards to the accumulation of heavy metals in the different tissues. The different parts of four species of bivalves and four species of gastropods were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals. The multivariate analyses were then applied on the data. From the multivariate analyses conducted, there were correlations found between the soft tissues of bivalves and gastropods, but none was found between the shells and the soft tissues of most of the molluscs (except for Cerithidea obtusa and Puglina cochlidium). The significant correlations (P < 0.05) found between the soft tissues were further complemented by the multiple stepwise linear regressions where heavy metals in the total soft tissues were influenced by the accumulation in the different types of soft tissues. The present study found that the distributions of heavy metals in the different parts of molluscs were related to their feeding habits and living habitats. The statistical approaches proposed in this study are recommended for use in biomonitoring studies, since multivariate analyses can reduce the cost and time involved in identifying an effective tissue to monitor the heavy metal(s) bioavailability and contamination in tropical coastal waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  12. Kamaruzzaman BY, Ong MC, Zaleha K, Shahbudin S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 15;11(18):2249-53.
    PMID: 19137835
    Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  13. Mohamed M, Larmie ET, Singh HJ, Othman MS
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2007 Sep;134(1):15-9.
    PMID: 17050061
    An imbalance of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator substances in the placenta has been postulated in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). There is however little information available on the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) in women with PIH. The aim of this study therefore was to determine tissue kallikrein and kininogen levels and their distribution patterns in fetoplacental tissues from both normotensive pregnant (NTP) women and women with PIH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  14. Hanachi P, Loh LN, Fauziah O, Rafiuz ZH, Tee ST, Lye CW, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:208-9.
    PMID: 15468891
    Neem, Azadirachta indica, is a plant from the family Meliaceae, known as "Pokok Semambu" in Malay community. It has been extensively used in India as traditional Ayurvedic and folklore minedicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study aimed to determine the distribution of selenium in the liver of rats during hepatocarcinogenesis when neem aqueous extract and dietary selenium was supplemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  15. Lim PE, Wong TF, Lim DV
    Environ Int, 2001 May;26(5-6):425-31.
    PMID: 11392762
    This study was conducted to: (1) assess the role of wetland vegetation in the removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen under tropical conditions, (2) estimate the uptake of nitrogen and copper by wetland plants and (3) investigate the speciation of Cu in wetland media among four operationally defined host fractions, namely exchangeable, carbonate, reducible and organically bound. Four laboratory-scale wetland units, two free-water-surface (FWS) and two subsurface-flow (SF) with one of each planted with cattails (Typha augustifolia), were fed with primary-treated sewage and operated at nominal retention times of 0.6-7 days. The influent and effluent BOD/COD and nitrogen concentrations were monitored to assess the performance of the wetland units for various mass loading rates. At the end of the study, all cattail plants were harvested and analyzed for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Four other wetland units, which were identical to the first four, were fed with domestic wastewater spiked with copper in increasing concentrations. Copper speciation patterns in the sand layer were determined at the end of the study. The results showed that wetland vegetation did not play an important role in oxygen demand removal but were capable of removing about 22% and 26% of the nitrogen input in the FWS and SF wetland units, respectively. Mass balance analysis indicated that less than 1% of copper introduced was taken up by the cattails. Copper speciation patterns in the sand media showed that the exchangeable fraction contributed 30-57% and 63-80% of the nonresidual copper in the planted and unplanted FWS wetlands, respectively. For SF units, the percentages were 52-62% and 59-67%, respectively. This indicates that large amount of copper in the media were potentially remobilizable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  16. Samat SB, Evans CJ
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2003;103(4):341-7.
    PMID: 12797557
    For the specific absorbed dose constant for 60Co photons, three values quoted directly in the literature and two derived indirectly from published information are reported. The three publications giving the direct values mentioned no medium of absorption, whereas the other two specify tissue. A database of the specific absorbed dose constant is generated for each of 14 media namely air, water, bone and 11 types of soft tissue. These values are consistent with the three directly quoted values plus one of the indirectly obtained values. Air is found to be unlikely as the medium for the first three; and appropriate media for these are suggested. For the other two values, the generated database suggests that one is too small to be accurate; while the other is correct for tissue (as stated in the publication). An apparent error of 10(3) is identified in one of the values directly quoted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  17. Lau S, Mohamed M, Yen AT, Su'ut S
    Sci Total Environ, 1998 Jun 18;214:113-21.
    PMID: 9646520
    Heavy metals in the aquatic environment have to date come mainly from naturally occurring geochemical materials. However, this has been enhanced by human activity such as gold mining in the case of heavy metal pollution in Sg Sarawak Kanan. The high suspended solid loads in the river have quite efficiently removed most soluble metals from the water and trapped them in the bottom sediment. Three freshwater mollusc species were collected at the point source of the heavy metal pollutants and analysed for the heavy metal contents in their tissues and shells. Two of the mollusc species (Brotia costula and Melanoides tuberculata) are purely freshwater species while the Clithon sp. nr retropictus is able to survive in fresh and brackish water environments. The Brotia costula and the Clithon sp. are the edible species which are sold in the market. Accumulation of As, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn in all the three mollusc species were determined and the level of As in the tissues of Brotia costula and the Clithon sp. was much higher than the permissible level for human consumption. The mollusc species also demonstrated different preferences for the uptake of different metals. Variations in the heavy metal contents in the shell and tissues of the same species were also observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
  18. Khurana RK, Kumar R, Gaspar BL, Welsby G, Welsby P, Kesharwani P, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Oct 01;91:645-658.
    PMID: 30033299 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.010
    The current studies envisage unravelling the underlying cellular internalisation mechanism of the systematically developed docetaxel (DTH) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched self-nanoemulsifying lipidic micellar systems (SNELS). The concentration-, time- and cytotoxicity-related effects of DTH-SNELS on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 and non-TNBC MCF-7 cell lines were assessed through Presto-blue assay. Subsequently, rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) loaded SNELS were employed for evaluating their internalisation through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, establishing it to be "clathrin-mediated" endocytic pathway. Apoptosis assay (65% cell death) and cell cycle distribution (47% inhibition at G2/M phase) further corroborated the cytotoxicity of DTH-SNELS towards cancerous cells. Biodistribution, histopathology and haematology studies indicated insignificant toxicity of the optimized formulation on vital organs. Preclinical anticancer efficacy studies using 7,12-dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA)-induced model construed significant reduction in breast tumor-volume. Overall, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies indicated the intracellular localization and cytotoxicity, suggesting DTH-SNELS as promising delivery systems for breast tumor therapeutics including TNBC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tissue Distribution
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