Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Pandey M, Kesharwani P
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Oct 01;91:868-880.
    PMID: 30033322 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.054
    Localised and targeted potential of nanocarrier for the eminent anticancer agent paclitaxel (PTX) could provide a great platform towards improvement of efficacy with reduction in associated toxicities, whereas incorporation of TPGS could further facilitate delivery in MDR through alteration of its inherent physicochemical properties. Current article therefore puts into perspective on nanocarrier-based recent researches of PTX with special stress towards TPGS-nanoparticle-mediated delivery in the improvement of cancer treatment and then accompanied with the discussion on distinct influence of the fabrication process. Such dynamic fabrications of the nanoparticulate therapy stimulate cellular interaction with frontier area for future research in tumor targeting potential.
  2. Zeeshan F, Madheswaran T, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(42):5019-5028.
    PMID: 30621558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190101111525
    BACKGROUND: The conventional dosage forms cannot be administered to all patients because of interindividual variability found among people of different race coupled with different metabolism and cultural necessities. Therefore, to address this global issue there is a growing focus on the fabrication of new drug delivery systems customised to individual needs. Medicinal products printed using 3-D technology are transforming the current medicine business to a plausible alternative of conventional medicines.

    METHODS: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.

    RESULTS: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition and laser-based writing systems are the most popular 3-D printing methods which have been employed successfully in the development of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication.

    CONCLUSION: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bio-equivalence.

  3. Kumbhar SA, Kokare CR, Shrivastava B, Gorain B
    Ann Pharm Fr, 2020 May 06.
    PMID: 32387177 DOI: 10.1016/j.pharma.2020.04.005
    A novel, simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) analytical method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of asenapine from various nanoemulsion components during pre-formulation screening. The developed method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. The developed and validated method was precisely and accurately quantified asenapine in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants. The separation of asenapine was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18, 250×4.6mm, 5μm particle size column using methanol: acetonitrile (90:10) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1mL.min-1. Measurement at 270nm for the concentration range of 5 to 50μg.mL-1 of the analyte was found to be linear with the determination coefficient (r2) of 0.999 as calculated by the least square regression method. The validated method was sensitive with LOD of 10.0ng.mL-1 and LOQ of 30.0ng.mL-1. Further, the method was precise and accurate, where the intraday and interday precision values were ranged from 0.70-0.95 and 0.36-0.95, respectively with the corresponding accuracy were ranged from 98.80-100.63 and 98.36-100.63. This developed and validated RP-HPLC method for asenapine was applied in the quantitative determination and screening of various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants during the development of the asenapine maleate nanoemulsion.
  4. Stephen S, Gorain B, Choudhury H, Chatterjee B
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2021 Feb 18.
    PMID: 33604837 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-021-00935-4
    The biocompatible nature of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) attracted researchers' attention to deliver therapeutic agents in the treatment of various diseases, where their porous nature, high drug loading efficiency, and suitability to functionalize with a specific ligand of MSN helped to obtain the desired outcome. The application of MSN has been extended to deliver small chemicals to large-sized peptides or proteins to fight against complex diseases. Recently, formulation researches with MSN have been progressed for various non-conventional drug delivery systems, including liposome, microsphere, oro-dispersible film, 3D-printed formulation, and microneedle. Low bulk density, retaining mesoporous structure during downstream processing, and lack of sufficient in vivo studies are some of the important issues towards the success of mesoporous silica-based advanced drug delivery systems. The present review has aimed to evaluate the application of MSN in advanced drug delivery systems to critically analyze the role of MSN in the respective formulation over other functionalized polymers. Finally, an outlook on the future direction of MSN-based advanced drug delivery systems has been drawn against the existing challenges with this platform.
  5. Sengupta P, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Gorain B, Pal TK
    J Pharm Anal, 2017 Dec;7(6):381-387.
    PMID: 29404063 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpha.2017.05.004
    Management of cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes demands special attention due to their co-existence. Pioglitazone (PIO) and telmisartan (TLM) combination can be beneficial in effective control of cardiovascular complication in diabetes. In this research, we developed and validated a high throughput LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of PIO and TLM in rat plasma. This developed method is more sensitive and can quantitate the analytes in relatively shorter period of time compared to the previously reported methods for their individual quantification. Moreover, till date, there is no bioanalytical method available to simultaneously quantitate PIO and TLM in a single run. The method was validated according to the USFDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. A linear response of the analytes was observed over the range of 0.005-10 µg/mL with satisfactory precision and accuracy. Accuracy at four quality control levels was within 94.27%-106.10%. The intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 2.32%-10.14 and 5.02%-8.12%, respectively. The method was reproducible and sensitive enough to quantitate PIO and TLM in rat plasma samples of a preclinical pharmacokinetic study. Due to the potential of PIO-TLM combination to be therapeutically explored, this method is expected to have significant usefulness in future.
  6. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Yee GS, Bhattamisra SK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2828-2841.
    PMID: 31333092 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190716102037
    Adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, released from different cells within the body to act on vasculature and immunoescape. The physiological action on the proliferation of tumour cell has been reported by the presence of high concentration of adenosine within the tumour microenvironment, which results in the progression of the tumour, even leading to metastases. The activity of adenosine exclusively depends upon the interaction with four subtypes of heterodimeric G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors (AR), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3-ARs on the cell surface. Research evidence supports that the activation of those receptors via specific agonist or antagonist can modulate the proliferation of tumour cells. The first category of AR, A1 is known to play an antitumour activity via tumour-associated microglial cells to prevent the development of glioblastomas. A2AAR are found in melanoma, lung, and breast cancer cells, where tumour proliferation is stimulated due to inhibition of the immune response via inhibition of natural killer cells cytotoxicity, T cell activity, and tumourspecific CD4+/CD8+ activity. Alternatively, A2BAR helps in the development of tumour upon activation via upregulation of angiogenin factor in the microvascular endothelial cells, inhibition of MAPK and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation activity. Lastly, A3AR is expressed in low levels in normal cells whereas the expression is upregulated in tumour cells, however, agonists to this receptor inhibit tumour proliferation through modulation of Wnt and NF-κB signaling pathways. Several researchers are in search for potential agents to modulate the overexpressed ARs to control cancer. Active components of A2AAR antagonists and A3AR agonists have already entered in Phase-I clinical research to prove their safety in human. This review focused on novel research targets towards the prevention of cancer progression through stimulation of the overexpressed ARs with the hope to protect lives and advance human health.
  7. Choudhury H, Chellappan DK, Sengupta P, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2808-2827.
    PMID: 31309883 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190712181955
    The ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, adenosine is found in different cells of the human body to provide its numerous pharmacological role. The associated actions of endogenous adenosine are largely dependent on conformational change of the widely expressed heterodimeric G-protein-coupled A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). These receptors are well conserved on the surface of specific cells, where potent neuromodulatory properties of this bioactive molecule reflected by its easy passage through the rigid blood-brainbarrier, to simultaneously act on the central nervous system (CNS). The minimal concentration of adenosine in body fluids (30-300 nM) is adequate to exert its neuromodulatory action in the CNS, whereas the modulatory effect of adenosine on ARs is the consequence of several neurodegenerative diseases. Modulatory action concerning the activation of such receptors in the CNS could be facilitated towards neuroprotective action against such CNS disorders. Our aim herein is to discuss briefly pathophysiological roles of adenosine on ARs in the modulation of different CNS disorders, which could be focused towards the identification of potential drug targets in recovering accompanying CNS disorders. Researches with active components with AR modulatory action have been extended and already reached to the bedside of the patients through clinical research in the improvement of CNS disorders. Therefore, this review consist of recent findings in literatures concerning the impact of ARs on diverse CNS disease pathways with the possible relevance to neurodegeneration.
  8. Jeckson TA, Neo YP, Sisinthy SP, Gorain B
    J Pharm Sci, 2021 02;110(2):635-653.
    PMID: 33039441 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2020.10.003
    Increasing incidences of chronic wounds urge the development of effective therapeutic wound treatment. As the conventional wound dressings are found not to comply with all the requirements of an ideal wound dressing, the development of alternative and effective dressings is demanded. Over the past few years, electrospun nanofiber has been recognized as a better system for wound dressing and hence has been studied extensively. Most of the electrospun nanofiber dressings were fabricated as single-layer structure mats. However, this design is less favorable for the effective healing of wounds mainly due to its burst release effect. To address this problem and to simulate the organized skin layer's structure and function, a multilayer structure of wound dressing had been proposed. This design enables a sustained release of the therapeutic agent(s), and more resembles the natural skin extracellular matrix. Multilayer structure is also referred to layer-by-layer (LbL), which has been established as an innovative method of drug incorporation and delivery, combines a high surface area of electrospun nanofibers with the multilayer structure mat. This review focuses on LbL multilayer electrospun nanofiber as a superior strategy in designing an optimal wound dressing.
  9. Tripathi PK, Gorain B, Choudhury H, Srivastava A, Kesharwani P
    Heliyon, 2019 Mar;5(3):e01343.
    PMID: 30957038 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01343
    Dithranol is one of the important topical agents for the treatment of psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease with aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. However, its application is troublesome and inconvenient because of its associated side effects, including staining, burning sensation, irritation, and necrotizing effect on the diseased cells as well as on the normal cells. The purpose of the current investigation was to explore the potential of poly(amido) amine (PAMAM) dendrimers in the topical delivery of dithranol through a novel microsponge based gel. Generation-4 (G4) dendrimers were incorporated into the microsponge based gel formulation by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method with varying concentration of polymers, and evaluated for the morphology of the formulation, encapsulation efficiency and skin irritation potential. Percentage yield of the formulation was found to be 66.28%, whereas encapsulation efficiency was ranged between 71.33% to 49.21%, and an average particle size was ranged between 28 ± 1.12 μm to 130 ± 1.01 μm. Surface morphology of developed microsponge was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, revealed micro-porous nature. The optimized microsponge formulation was found to be stable and recorded non-irritant during cutaneous application of the experimental animals. Further, the pharmacokinetic outcomes of study were showed prolong penetration of the drug through the skin, equivalent to the marketed formulation of dithranol. Therefore, it could be conferred that the microsponge formulation of the PAMAM entrapped dithranol can produce prolonged efficacy without producing toxicities to the skin, and thus can effectively be projected in the treatment of diseases like psoriasis.
  10. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Molugulu N, Athawale RB, Kesharwani P
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:606129.
    PMID: 33363098 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.606129
    Sudden outbreak of a new pathogen in numbers of pneumonic patients in Wuhan province during December 2019 has threatened the world population within a short period of its occurrence. This respiratory tract-isolated pathogen was initially named as novel coronavirus 2019 (nCoV-2019), but later termed as SARS-CoV-2. The rapid spreading of this infectious disease received the label of pandemic by the World Health Organization within 4 months of its occurrence, which still seeks continuous attention of the researchers to prevent the spread and for cure of the infected patients. The propagation of the disease has been recorded in 215 countries, with more than 25.5 million cases and a death toll of more than 0.85 million. Several measures are taken to control the disease transmission, and researchers are actively engaged in finding suitable therapeutics to effectively control the disease to minimize the mortality and morbidity rates. Several existing potential candidates were explored in the prevention and treatment of worsening condition of COVID-19 patients; however, none of the formulation has been approved for the treatment but used under medical supervision. In this article, a focus has been made to highlight on current epidemiology on the COVID-19 infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and transmission, with special emphasis on treatment measures of the disease at different stages of clinical research and the global economic influence due to this pandemic situation. Progress in the development on vaccine against COVID-19 has also been explored as important measures to immunize people. Moreover, this article is expected to provide information to the researchers, who are constantly combating in the management against this outbreak.
  11. Kumbhar SA, Kokare CR, Shrivastava B, Gorain B, Choudhury H
    J Pharm Sci, 2021 04;110(4):1761-1778.
    PMID: 33515583 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.01.021
    Delivering therapeutics to the brain using conventional dosage forms is always a challenge, thus the present study was aimed to formulate mucoadhesive nanoemulsion (MNE) of aripiprazole (ARP) for intranasal delivery to transport the drug directly to the brain. Therefore, a TPGS based ARP-MNE was formulated and optimized using the Box-Behnken statistical design. The improved in vitro release profile of the formulation was in agreement to enhanced ex vivo permeation through sheep mucous membranes with a maximum rate of permeation co-efficient (62.87  cm h-1 × 103) and flux (31.43  μg cm-2.h-1). The pharmacokinetic profile following single-dose administration showed the maximum concentration of drug in the brain (Cmax) of 15.19 ± 2.51  μg mL-1 and Tmax of 1 h in animals with ARP-MNE as compared to 10.57 ± 1.88  μg mL-1 and 1 h, and 2.52 ± 0.38  μg mL-1 and 3 h upon intranasal and intravenous administration of ARP-NE, respectively. Further, higher values of % drug targeting efficiency (96.9%) and % drug targeting potential (89.73%) of ARP-MNE through intranasal administration were investigated. The studies in Wistar rats showed no existence of extrapyramidal symptoms through the catalepsy test and forelimb retraction results. No ex vivo ciliotoxicity on nasal mucosa reflects the safety of the components and delivery tool. Further, findings on locomotor activity and hind-limb retraction test in ARP-MNE treated animals established its antipsychotic efficacy. Thus, it can be inferred that the developed ARP-MNE could effectively be explored as brain delivery cargo in the effective treatment of schizophrenia without producing any toxic manifestation.
  12. Aldawsari HM, Gorain B, Alhakamy NA, Md S
    J Drug Target, 2020 02;28(2):166-175.
    PMID: 31339380 DOI: 10.1080/1061186X.2019.1648478
    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent as much as 50% of the solid mass in different types of human solid tumours including lung, breast, ovarian and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The tumour microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the polarisation of macrophages into the M1 phenotype, which is tumour-suppressive, or M2 phenotype, which is tumour promoting. Preclinical and clinical evidences suggest that TAMs are predominantly of the M2 phenotype that supports immune suppression, tumour growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Hence, significant attention has been focussed on the development of strategies for the modification of TAMs to halt lung cancer progression. The promotion of repolarisation from the M2 to the M1 subtype, or the prevention of M2 polarisation of TAMs in the stromal environment is potential approaches to reduce progression and metastasis of lung cancer. The focus of this article is an introduction to the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that may halt lung cancer progression via the manipulation of macrophage polarisation. This article will address recent advances in the therapeutic efficacy of nanomedicine exploiting surface functionalisation of nanoparticles and will also consider future perspectives.
  13. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Pandey M, Khurana RK, Kesharwani P
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Jun 30;565:509-522.
    PMID: 31102804 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.042
    The biological barriers in the body have been fabricated by nature to protect the body from foreign molecules. The successful delivery of drugs is limited and being challenged by these biological barriers including the gastrointestinal tract, brain, skin, lungs, nose, mouth mucosa, and immune system. In this review article, we envisage to understand the functionalities of these barriers and revealing various drug-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to overcome these barriers and deliver the entrapped drugs to cancer targeted site. Apart from it, tissue-specific multifunctional ligands, linkers and transporters when employed imparts an effective active delivery strategy by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Together, these strategies enable to deliver various drugs across the biological membranes for the treatment of solid tumors and malignant cancer.
  14. Kumbhar SA, Kokare CR, Shrivastava B, Gorain B, Choudhury H
    Int J Pharm, 2020 Aug 30;586:119499.
    PMID: 32505580 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119499
    The tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of therapeutics into the brain. Potential of the intranasal delivery tool has been explored in administering the therapeutics directly to the brain, thus bypassing BBB. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize an intranasal mucoadhesive nanoemulsion (MNE) of asenapine maleate (ASP) in order to enhance the nasomucosal adhesion and direct brain targetability for improved efficacy and safety. Box-Behnken statistical design was used to recognize the crucial formulation variables influencing droplet size, size distribution and surface charge of ASP-NE. ASP-MNE was obtained by incorporating GRAS mucoadhesive polymer, Carbopol 971 in the optimized NE. Optimized ASP-MNE displayed spherical morphology with a droplet size of 21.2 ± 0.15 nm and 0.355 polydispersity index. Improved ex-vivo permeation was observed in ASP-NE and ASP-MNE, compared to the ASP-solution. Finally, the optimized formulation was found to be safe in ex-vivo ciliotoxicity study on sheep nasal mucosa. The single-dose pharmacokinetic study in male Wistar rats revealed a significant increase in concentration of ASP in the brain upon intranasal administration of ASP-MNE, with a maximum of 284.33 ± 5.5 ng/mL. The time required to reach maximum brain concentration (1 h) was reduced compared to intravenous administration of ASP-NE (3 h). Furthermore, it has been established during the course of present study, that the brain targeting capability of ASP via intranasal administration had enhanced drug-targeting efficiency and drug-targeting potential. In the animal behavioral studies, no extrapyramidal symptoms were observed after intranasal administration of ASP-MNE, while good locomotor activity and hind-limb retraction test established its antipsychotic activity in treated animals. Thus, it can be concluded that the developed intranasal ASP-MNE could be used as an effective and safe tool for brain targeting of ASP in the treatment of psychotic disorders.
  15. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Nair AB, Dubey SK, Kesharwani P
    Drug Discov Today, 2020 07;25(7):1174-1188.
    PMID: 32344042 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2020.04.013
    Theranostics has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancer, where novel drug delivery systems could be used to detect the disease at an early stage with instantaneous treatment. Various preclinical approaches of nanoemulsions with entrapped contrast and chemotherapeutic agents have been documented to act specifically on the tumor microenvironment (TME) for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, bringing these theranostic nanoemulsions through preclinical trials to patients requires several fundamental hurdles to be overcome, including the in vivo behavior of the delivery tool, degradation, and clearance from the system, as well as long-term toxicities. Here, we discuss recent advances in the application of nanoemulsions in molecular imaging with simultaneous therapeutic efficacy in a single delivery system.
  16. Gour A, Manhas D, Bag S, Gorain B, Nandi U
    Phytother Res, 2021 Aug;35(8):4258-4283.
    PMID: 33786876 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.7092
    Emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, COVID-19, has become the global panic since December 2019, which urges the global healthcare professionals to identify novel therapeutics to counteract this pandemic. So far, there is no approved treatment available to control this public health issue; however, a few antiviral agents and repurposed drugs support the patients under medical supervision by compromising their adverse effects, especially in emergency conditions. Only a few vaccines have been approved to date. In this context, several plant natural products-based research studies are evidenced to play a crucial role in immunomodulation that can prevent the chances of infection as well as combat the cytokine release storm (CRS) generated during COVID-19 infection. In this present review, we have focused on flavonoids, especially epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, hesperidin, naringenin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin, baicalin, diosmin, ge nistein, biochanin A, and silymarin, which can counteract the virus-mediated elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to multiple organ failure. In addition, a comprehensive discussion on available in silico, in vitro, and in vivo findings with critical analysis has also been evaluated, which might pave the way for further development of phytotherapeutics to identify the potential lead candidatetoward effective and safe management of the SARS-CoV-2 disease.
  17. Dutta S, Gorain B, Choudhury H, Roychoudhury S, Sengupta P
    PMID: 34558053 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-16581-9
    Untainted environment promotes health, but the last few decades experienced steep upsurge in environmental contaminants posing detrimental physiological impact. The responsible factors mainly include the exponential growth of human population, havoc rise in industrialization, poorly planned urbanization, and slapdash environment management. Environmental degradation can increase the likelihood of human exposure to heavy metals, resulting in health consequences such as reproductive problems. As a result, research into metal-induced causes of reproductive impairment at the genetic, epigenetic, and biochemical levels must be strengthened further. These metals impact upon the female reproduction at all strata of its regulation and functions, be it development, maturation, or endocrine functions, and are linked to an increase in the causes of infertility in women. Chronic exposures to the heavy metals may lead to breast cancer, endometriosis, endometrial cancer, menstrual disorders, and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths. For example, endometriosis, endometrial cancer, and spontaneous abortions are all caused by the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd); lead (Pb) levels over a certain threshold can cause spontaneous abortion and have a teratogenic impact; toxic amounts of mercury (Hg) have an influence on the menstrual cycle, which can lead to infertility. Impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals on female fertility is therefore a well-known fact. Thus, the underlying mechanisms must be explained and periodically updated, given the growing evidence on the influence of increasing environmental heavy metal load on female fertility. The purpose of this review is to give a concise overview of how heavy metal affects female reproductive health.
  18. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Pandey M, Chatterjee LA, Sengupta P, Das A, et al.
    J Pharm Sci, 2017 07;106(7):1736-1751.
    PMID: 28412398 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2017.03.042
    Being an emerging transdermal delivery tool, nanoemulgel, has proved to show surprising upshots for the lipophilic drugs over other formulations. This lipophilic nature of majority of the newer drugs developed in this modern era resulting in poor oral bioavailability, erratic absorption, and pharmacokinetic variations. Therefore, this novel transdermal delivery system has been proved to be advantageous over other oral and topical drug delivery to avoid such disturbances. These nanoemulgels are basically oil-in-water nanoemulsions gelled with the use of some gelling agent in it. This gel phase in the formulation is nongreasy, which favors user compliance and stabilizes the formulation through reduction in surface as well as interfacial tension. Simultaneously, it can be targeted more specifically to the site of action and can avoid first-pass metabolism and relieve the user from gastric/systemic incompatibilities. This brief review is focused on nanoemulgel as a better topical drug delivery system including its components screening, formulation method, and recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advancement in research studies carried out by the scientists all over the world. Therefore, at the end of this survey it could be inferred that nanoemulgel can be a better and effective drug delivery tool for the topical system.
  19. Verma RK, Sriramaneni R, Pandey M, Chaudhury H, Gorain B, Gupta G
    Panminerva Med, 2018 Dec;60(4):224-225.
    PMID: 29856185 DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03479-1
  20. Bapat RA, Chaubal TV, Joshi CP, Bapat PR, Choudhury H, Pandey M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Oct 01;91:881-898.
    PMID: 30033323 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.069
    Oral cavity is a gateway to the entire body and protection of this gateway is a major goal in dentistry. Plaque biofilm is a major cause of majority of dental diseases and although various biomaterials have been applied for their cure, limitations pertaining to the material properties prevent achievement of desired outcomes. Nanoparticle applications have become useful tools for various dental applications in endodontics, periodontics, restorative dentistry, orthodontics and oral cancers. Off these, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in medicine and dentistry due to its antimicrobial properties. AgNPs have been incorporated into biomaterials in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation. Due to greater surface to volume ratio and small particle size, they possess excellent antimicrobial action without affecting the mechanical properties of the material. This unique property of AgNPs makes these materials as fillers of choice in different biomaterials whereby they play a vital role in improving the properties. This review aims to discuss the influence of addition of AgNPs to various biomaterials used in different dental applications.
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