This study reports the in vivo performance of two tribenzyltin carboxylate complexes, tri(4-fluorobenzyl)tin[(N,N-diisopropylcarbamothioyl)sulfanyl]acetate (C1) and tribenzyltin isonicotinate (C9), in their native form as well as in a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoformulation, to assess their potential to be translated into clinically useful agents. In a 4T1 murine metastatic mammary tumour model, single intravenous administration of C1 (2.7 mg/kg) and C9 (2.1 mg/kg; 2.1 mg/kg C9 is equivalent to 2.7 mg/kg C1) induced greater tumour growth delay than cisplatin and doxorubicin at equivalent doses, while a double-dose regimen demonstrated a much greater tumour growth delay than the single-dose treated groups. To improve the efficacy of the complexes in vivo, C1 and C9 were further integrated into PLGA nanoparticles to yield nanosized PLGA-C1 (183.7 ± 0.8 nm) and PLGA-C9 (163.2 ± 1.2 nm), respectively. Single intravenous administration of PLGA-C1 (2.7 mg C1 equivalent/kg) and PLGA-C9 (2.1 mg C9 equivalent/kg) induced greater tumour growth delay (33% reduction in the area under curve compared to that of free C1 and C9). Multiple-dose administration of PLGA-C1 (5.4 mg C1 equivalent/kg) and PLGA-C9 (4.2 mg C9 equivalent/kg) induced tumour growth suppression at the end of the study (21.7 and 34.6% reduction relative to the size on day 1 for the double-dose regimen; 73.5 and 79.0% reduction relative to the size on day 1 for the triple-dose regimen, respectively). Such tumour growth suppression was not observed in mice receiving multiple-dose regimens of free C1 and C9. Histopathological analysis revealed that metastasis to the lung and liver was inhibited in mice receiving PLGA-C1 and PLGA-C9. The current study has demonstrated the improved in vivo antitumour efficacies of C1 and C9 compared with conventional chemotherapy drugs and the enhancement of the efficacies of these agents via a robust PLGA-based nanoformulation and multiple-drug administration approach.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.