Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 293 in total

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  1. Low VL, Chen CD, Lee HL, Lim PE, Leong CS, Sofian-Azirun M
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Jan;50(1):103-11.
    PMID: 23427658
    A nationwide investigation was carried out to determine the current susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations against four active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin. Across 14 study sites, both larval and adult bioassays exhibited dissimilar trends in susceptibility. A correlation between propoxur and malathion resistance and between propoxur and permethrin resistance in larval bioassays was found. The results obtained from this study provide baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of this mosquito should be monitored from time to time to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control operations in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  2. Rain AN, Roxas CC, Mak JW
    PMID: 8266248
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C/parasitology*
  3. Chin VK, Foong KJ, Maha A, Rusliza B, Norhafizah M, Chong PP
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(8):14848-67.
    PMID: 25153636 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150814848
    Different murine species differ in their susceptibility to systemic infection with Candida albicans, giving rise to varied host immune responses, and this is compounded by variations in virulence of the different yeast strains used. Hence, this study was aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of a clinical C. albicans isolate (HVS6360) in a murine intravenous challenge model by examining the different parameters which included the counts of red blood cells and associated components as well as the organ-specific expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines. Kidneys and brains of infected mice have higher fungal recovery rates as compared to other organs and there were extensive yeast infiltration with moderate to severe inflammation seen in kidney and brain tissues. Red blood cells (RBCs) and haemoglobin (Hb) counts were reduced throughout the infection period. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines and cytokine transcription profiles were varied among the different organs (kidney, spleen and brain) over 72 h post infections. Transcription of most of the PRRs, cytokines and chemokines were suppressed at 72 h post infection in spleen while continuous expression of PRRs, cytokines and chemokines genes were seen in brain and kidney. Reduction in red blood cells and haemoglobin counts might be associated with the action of extracellular haemolysin enzyme and haeme oxygenase of C. albicans in conjunction with iron scavenging for the fungal growth. Renal cells responsible for erythropoietin production may be injured by the infection and hence the combined effect of haemolysis plus lack of erythropoietin-induced RBC replenishment leads to aggravated reduction in RBC numbers. The varied local host immune profiles among target organs during systemic C. albicans infection could be of importance for future work in designing targeted immunotherapy through immunomodulatory approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  4. Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN
    Phytother Res, 2016 Aug;30(8):1330-8.
    PMID: 27137750 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5633
    Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to have strong inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils and on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of daily treatment of standardized extract of P. amarus at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 14 days in Balb/C mice by measuring the myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, macrophage phagocytosis, swelling of footpad in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), and serum immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the extract using validated reversed-phase HPLC methods identified phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin and geraniin as the biomarkers. Significant dose-dependent inhibitions of MPO activity and NO release were observed in treated mice. The extract also inhibited E. coli phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages of treated mice and inhibited the sheep red blood cells (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in the DTH. There was also a significant decrease in non-specific humoral immunity including ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels in the extract-fed groups as well as the release of serum level immunoglobulins. The strong inhibitory effects of the extract on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest the potential of the plant to be developed as an effective immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  5. Awaluddin AB, Jacobs JJ, Bourne DW, Maddalena DJ, Wilson JG, Boyd RE
    Int J Rad Appl Instrum A, 1987;38(8):671-4.
    PMID: 2822626
    Potential tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical agents have been prepared by attaching a cisplatin derivative to a ligand capable of forming a stable complex with 99mTc. Three new organometallic compounds, with iminodiacetic acid as the 99mTc chelating group and 2,3-diaminopropionamide as the platinum complexing group, have been prepared and characterized. Preliminary biodistribution studies in tumor bearing mice support the utility of this approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  6. Gwee CP, Khoo CH, Yeap SK, Tan GC, Cheah YK
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e5989.
    PMID: 30671294 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5989
    The fight against cancer has been a never-ending battle. Limitations of conventional therapies include lack of selectivity, poor penetration and highly toxic to the host. Using genetically modified bacteria as a tumour therapy agent has gained the interest of scientist from the past few decades. Low virulence and highly tolerability of Salmonella spp. in animals and humans make it as the most studied pathogen with regards to anti-tumour therapy. The present study aims to construct a genetically modified S. Agona auxotroph as an anti-tumour agent. LeuB and ArgD metabolic genes in ΔSopBΔSopD double knockout S. Agona were successfully knocked out using a Targetron gene knockout system. The knockout was confirmed by colony PCR and the strains were characterized in vitro and in vivo. The knockout of metabolic genes causes significant growth defect in M9 minimal media. Quadruple knockout ΔSopBΔSopDΔLeuBΔArgD (BDLA) exhibited lowest virulence among all of the strains in all parameters including bacterial load, immunity profile and histopathology studies. In vivo anti-tumour study on colorectal tumour bearing-BALB/c mice revealed that all strains of S. Agona were able to suppress the growth of the large solid tumour as compared with negative control and ΔLeuBΔArgD (LA) and BDLA auxotroph showed better efficacy. Interestingly, higher level of tumour growth suppression was noticed in large tumour. However, multiple administration of bacteria dosage did not increase the tumour suppression efficacy. In this study, the virulence of BDLA knockout strain was slightly reduced and tumour growth suppression efficacy was successfully enhanced, which provide a valuable starting point for the development of S. Agona as anti-tumour agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  7. Priya SP, Sakinah S, Ling MP, Chee HY, Higuchi A, Hamat RA, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2017 Jul;171:213-219.
    PMID: 28427958 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.010
    Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major economic concern in developing countries, with 2.5 billion people believed to be at risk. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) lining the circulatory system from heart to end vessels perform crucial functions in the human body, by aiding gas exchange in lungs, gaseous, nutritional and its waste exchange in all tissues, including the blood brain barrier, filtration of fluid in the glomeruli, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, as well as maintenance of blood vessel tone and hemostasis. These functions can be deregulated during DENV infection. In this study, BALB/c mice infected with DENV serotype 2 were analyzed histologically for changes in major blood vessels in response to DENV infection. In the uninfected mouse model, blood vessels showed normal architecture with intact endothelial monolayer, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. In the infected mouse model, DENV distorted the endothelium lining and disturbed the smooth muscle, elastic laminae and their supporting tissues causing vascular structural disarrangement. This may explain the severe pathological illness in DENV-infected individuals. The overall DENV-induced damages on the endothelial and it's supporting tissues and the dysregulated immune reactions initiated by the host were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  8. Nigjeh SE, Yeap SK, Nordin N, Rahman H, Rosli R
    Molecules, 2019 Sep 05;24(18).
    PMID: 31492037 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24183241
    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females globally. The tumorigenic activities of cancer cells such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and differentiation have contributed to relapse and eventual mortality in breast cancer. Thus, current drug discovery research is focused on targeting breast cancer cells with ALDH activity and their capacity to form secondary tumors. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), from lemon grass (Cymbopogoncitrates), has been previously reported to have a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo effect of citral in targeting ALDH activity of breast cancer cells. BALB/c mice were challenged with 4T1 breast cancer cells followed by daily oral feeding of 50 mg/kg citral or distilled water for two weeks. The population of ALDH+ tumor cells and their capacity to form secondary tumors in both untreated and citral treated 4T1 challenged mice were assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in normal mice, respectively. Citral treatment reduced the size and number of cells with ALDH+ activity of the tumors in 4T1-challenged BALB/c mice. Moreover, citral-treated mice were also observed with smaller tumor size and delayed tumorigenicity after reimplantation of the primary tumor cells into normal mice. These findings support the antitumor effect of citral in targeting ALDH+ cells and tumor recurrence in breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  9. Muhammad-Azam F, Nur-Fazila SH, Ain-Fatin R, Mustapha Noordin M, Yimer N
    Vet World, 2019 Nov;12(11):1682-1688.
    PMID: 32009746 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1682-1688
    Background and Aim: Laboratory mice are widely used as a research model to provide insights into toxicological studies of various xenobiotic. Acetaminophen (APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that is commonly known as paracetamol, an ideal hepatotoxicant to exhibit centrilobular necrosis in laboratory mice to resemble humans. However, assessment of histopathological changes between mouse strains is important to decide the optimal mouse model used in APAP toxicity study. Therefore, we aim to assess the histomorphological features of APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) in BALB/C and Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice.

    Materials and Methods: Twenty-five ICR mice and 20 BALB/C mice were used where five animals as control and the rest were randomly divided into four time points at 5, 10, 24 and 48 hours post-dosing (hpd). They were induced with 500 mg/kg APAP intraperitoneally. Liver sections were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and histopathological changes were scored based on grading methods.

    Results: Intense centrilobular damage was observed as early as 5 hpd in BALB/C as compared to ICR mice, which was observed at 10 hpd. The difference of liver injury between ICR and BALB/C mice is due to dissimilarity in the genetic line-up that related to different elimination pathways of APAP toxicity. However, at 24 hpd, the damage was markedly subsided and liver regeneration had taken place for both ICR and BALB/C groups with evidence of mitotic figures. This study showed that normal liver architecture was restored after the clearance of toxic insult.

    Conclusion: AILI was exhibited earlier in BALB/C than ICR mice but both underwent liver recovery at later time points.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  10. Zhang W, Jiang B, Zeng M, Duan Y, Wu Z, Wu Y, et al.
    J Virol, 2020 04 16;94(9).
    PMID: 32075929 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01850-19
    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), which is similar to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses that replicate well in most mammalian cells, is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused epidemics in egg-laying and breeding waterfowl. Immune organ defects and neurological dysfunction are the main clinical symptoms of DTMUV infection. Preinfection with DTMUV makes the virus impervious to later interferon (IFN) treatment, revealing that DTMUV has evolved some strategies to defend against host IFN-dependent antiviral responses. Immune inhibition was further confirmed by screening for DTMUV-encoded proteins, which suggested that NS2A significantly inhibited IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner and facilitated reinfection with duck plague virus (DPV). DTMUV NS2A was able to inhibit duck retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-, mitochondrial-localized adaptor molecules (MAVS)-, stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-, and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)-induced IFN-β transcription, but not duck TBK1- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-mediated effective phases of IFN response. Furthermore, we found that NS2A competed with duTBK1 in binding to duck STING (duSTING), impaired duSTING-duSTING binding, and reduced duTBK1 phosphorylation, leading to the subsequent inhibition of IFN production. Importantly, we first identified that the W164A, Y167A, and S361A mutations in duSTING significantly impaired the NS2A-duSTING interaction, which is important for NS2A-induced IFN-β inhibition. Hence, our data demonstrated that DTMUV NS2A disrupts duSTING-dependent antiviral cellular defenses by binding with duSTING, which provides a novel mechanism by which DTMUV subverts host innate immune responses. The potential interaction sites between NS2A and duSTING may be the targets of future novel antiviral therapies and vaccine development.IMPORTANCE Flavivirus infections are transmitted through mosquitos or ticks and lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide with a spectrum of manifestations. Infection with an emerging flavivirus, DTMUV, manifests with clinical symptoms that include lesions of the immune organs and neurological dysfunction, leading to heavy egg drop and causing serious harm to the duck industry in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and other Southeast Asian countries. Mosquito cells, bird cells, and mammalian cell lines are all susceptible to DTMUV infection. An in vivo study revealed that BALB/c mice and Kunming mice were susceptible to DTMUV after intracerebral inoculation. Moreover, there are no reports about DTMUV-related human disease, but antibodies against DTMUV and viral RNA were detected in serum samples of duck industry workers. This information implies that DTMUV has expanded its host range and may pose a threat to mammalian health. However, the pathogenesis of DTMUV is largely unclear. Our results show that NS2A strongly blocks the STING-induced signal transduction cascade by binding with STING, which subsequently blocks STING-STING binding and TBK1 phosphorylation. More importantly, the W164, Y167, or S361 residues in duSTING were identified as important interaction sites between STING and NS2A that are vital for NS2A-induced IFN production and effective phases of IFN response. Uncovering the mechanism by which DTMUV NS2A inhibits IFN in the cells of its natural hosts, ducks, will help us understand the role of NS2A in DTMUV pathogenicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  11. Tang JC, Wong SF, Mak JW, Ho TM
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):223-36.
    PMID: 22041741
    House dust mites and storage mites are well-known causes for allergenic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenic sites of Blomia tropicalis, Aleurogyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis. The mites were maintained in a culture medium at 25ºC and 75% relative humidity. Mites were harvested either with heat escape or floatation method, purified, homogenized, quantified and used for the production of polyclonal antibody and immunostaining. For each species of mites, five male mice and five male rats were randomly selected and immunized intraperitoneally with respective crude mite extract at two-weekly intervals. Blomia tropicalis, A. ovatus or G. malaysiensis whole mites and paraffin-embedded mite sections were immunostained with the respective polyclonal antibody. The faecal pellets of mites were intensely stained for all the three species in the present study. The legs of sectioned A. ovatus were not immunogenic as compared with those of G. malaysiensis and B. tropicalis. The outer layer (cuticle) of whole mites and the eggs for these species were very immunogenic. Hence, the polyclonal antibodies obtained in this study may serve as potential tools in detecting the eggs and immature mites in environmental samples. Future studies should focus on the antigenic components of eggs since they were relatively abundant in dust and highly antigenic as seen in the present study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  12. Lim JCW, Sagineedu SR, Yong ACH, Sidik SM, Wong WSF, Stanslas J
    PMID: 32840650 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-020-01966-3
    SRS27, an andrographolide analogue, had been proven to have therapeutic properties at a dose of 3 mg/kg in both in vitro and in vivo asthma models of our previous study. The present study focuses on the pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile of this compound to provide further evidence for the development of this compound as an anti-asthma agent. A simple pharmacokinetic study was performed in female BALB/c mice to measure blood plasma concentration of the compound at therapeutic dose. At a single dose of 3 mg/kg, SRS27 had a relatively short half-life but was able to achieve a concentration range of 13-19 μM that is related to its in vitro bioactivities. With regard to toxicity profile, SRS27 appears to be safe, as no histopathological changes were observed in the liver, kidneys and ovaries of SRS27-treated female BALB/c mice. In addition, there was no significant change in the mean body weight and organ weight of the animals in the SRS27-treated groups compared with the vehicle-treated control group at the end of the treatment. This fully supports the absence of any significant changes in peripheral blood leukocyte counts of SRS27-treated mice. Rewardingly, this acute toxicity study also revealed that SRS27 has a wide therapeutic window as no toxicity symptoms were detected with a dose up to 60 mg/kg daily when tested for 14 days. These results provide strong justification for further investigation of SRS27 as a potential new anti-asthma agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  13. Suresh K, Mak JW, Yong HS
    PMID: 1818401
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C/blood; Mice, Inbred BALB C/immunology*
  14. Azuma H, Okamoto M, Oku Y, Kamiya M
    Parasitol Res, 1995;81(2):103-8.
    PMID: 7731915
    The intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of Taenia taeniaformis the SRN and KRN isolates from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, captured in Japan and Malaysia, respectively; the BMM isolated from a house mouse, Mus musculus, captured in Belgium; and the ACR isolate from a gray red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in Japan was examined by various criteria. Eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate host. They were most infective to the rodent species from which the original metacestode of each isolate had been isolated in the field, and only the ACR isolate was infective to the gray red-backed vole. Although little difference was found between the SRN, KRN, and BMM isolates by the other criteria, including the morphology of rostellar hooks, the protein composition of the metacestode, and restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA, the ACR isolate was clearly different from the others. It was considered that the ACR isolate was independent as a strain distinct from the other three isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C/parasitology
  15. Yeap SK, Beh BK, Ali NM, Mohd Yusof H, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:694842.
    PMID: 24877129 DOI: 10.1155/2014/694842
    Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase the adrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  16. Dups J, Middleton D, Long F, Arkinstall R, Marsh GA, Wang LF
    Virol J, 2014;11:102.
    PMID: 24890603 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-102
    Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related and following natural or experimental exposure induce similar clinical disease. In humans, encephalitis is the most serious outcome of infection and, hitherto, research into the pathogenesis of henipavirus encephalitis has been limited by the lack of a suitable model. Recently we reported a wild-type mouse model of Hendra virus (HeV) encephalitis that should facilitate detailed investigations of its neuropathogenesis, including mechanisms of disease recrudescence. In this study we investigated the possibility of developing a similar model of Nipah virus encephalitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  17. Sonaimuthu P, Ching XT, Fong MY, Kalyanasundaram R, Lau YL
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:808.
    PMID: 27303390 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00808
    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent for toxoplasmosis. The rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1) is secreted by rhoptry, an apical secretory organelle of the parasite. ROP1 plays an important role in host cell invasion. In this study, the efficacy of ROP1 as a vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis was evaluated through intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of BALB/c mice followed by immunological characterization (humoral- and cellular-mediated) and lethal challenge against virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. Briefly, a recombinant DNA plasmid (pVAX1-GFP-ROP1) was expressed in CHO cells while expression of recombinant ROP1 protein (rROP1) was carried out in Escherichia coli expression system. Immunization study involved injection of the recombinant pVAX1-ROP1 and purified rROP1 into different group of mice. Empty vector and PBS served as two different types of negative controls. Results obtained demonstrated that ROP1 is an immunogenic antigen that induced humoral immune response whereby detection of a protein band with expected size of 43 kDa was observed against vaccinated mice sera through western blot analysis. ROP1 antigen was shown to elicit cellular-mediated immunity as well whereby stimulated splenocytes with total lysate antigen (TLA) and rROP1 from pVAX1-ROP1 and rROP1-immunized mice, respectively, readily proliferated and secreted large amount of IFN-γ (712 ± 28.1 pg/ml and 1457 ± 31.19 pg/ml, respectively) and relatively low IL-4 level (94 ± 14.5 pg/ml and 186 ± 14.17 pg/ml, respectively). These phenomena suggested that Th1-favored immunity was being induced. Vaccination with ROP1 antigen was able to provide partial protection in the vaccinated mice against lethal challenge with virulent RH strain of tachyzoites. These findings proposed that the ROP1 antigen is a potential candidate for the development of vaccine against toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  18. Ching XT, Fong MY, Lau YL
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:609.
    PMID: 27199938 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00609
    Toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. Severe symptoms occur in the immunocompromised patients and pregnant women leading to fatality and abortions respectively. Vaccination development is essential to control the disease. The T. gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) have been targeted in this study because these proteins are essential to the development of parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a specialized compartment formed within the infected host cell. PV is resistance to host cell endosomes and lysosomes thereby protecting the invaded parasite. Recombinant dense granular proteins, GRA2 (rGRA2) and GRA5 (rGRA5) were cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The potential of these purified antigens as subunit vaccine candidates against toxoplasmosis were evaluated through subcutaneous injection of BALB/c mice followed by immunological characterization (humoral- and cellular-mediated) and lethal challenge against virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. Results obtained demonstrated that rGRA2 and rGRA5 elicited humoral and cellular-mediated immunity in the mice. High level of IgG antibody was produced with the isotype IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of ≈0.87 (p < 0.001). Significant increase (p < 0.05) in the level of four cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) was obtained. The antibody and cytokine results suggest that a mix mode of Th1/Th2-immunity was elicited with predominant Th1-immune response inducing partial protection against T. gondii acute infection in BALB/c mice. Our findings indicated that both GRA2 and GRA5 are potential candidates for vaccine development against T. gondii acute infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  19. Lee PY, Gam LH, Yong VC, Rosli R, Ng KP, Chong PP
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 Apr;116(4):999-1009.
    PMID: 24299471 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12408
    Systemic candidiasis is the leading fungal bloodstream infection, and its incidence has been on the rise. Recently, Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an increasingly prevalent fungal pathogen, but little is known about its antigenic profile. Hence, the current work was performed to discover immunogenic proteins of C. parapsilosis using serological proteome analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
  20. Lah EF, Ahamad M, Haron MS, Ho TM
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;2(3):223-7.
    PMID: 23569902 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60046-X
    To establish a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique based on cytochrome b (cytb) gene of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) for blood meal identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C
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