Limited tumor penetrability of anti-cancer drugs is recognized as one of the major factors that lead to poor anti-tumor activity. SRJ09 (3,19-(2-bromobenzylidene) andrographolide) has been identified as a lead anti-cancer agent for colon cancer. Recently, this compound was shown by us to be a mutant K-Ras binder. In this present study, the penetrability of SRJ09 through the DLD-1 colon cancer multicell layer (MCL) was evaluated. The amount of SRJ09 that penetrated through the MCL was quantitated by utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histopathological staining was used to visualize the morphology of MCL. A chemosensitivity assay was performed to assess the anti-cancer activity of SRJ09 in DLD-1 cells. SRJ09 was able to penetrate through DLD-1 MCL and is inversely proportional with the MCL thickness. The flow rates for SRJ09 through MCL were 0.90 ± 0.20 μM/min/cm(2) and 0.56 ± 0.06 μM/min/cm(2) for days 1 and 5, respectively, which are better than doxorubicin. Histopathological examination revealed that the integrity of the DLD-1 MCL was retained and no visible damage was inflicted on the cell membrane, confirming the penetration of SRJ09 was by diffusion. Short term exposure (1 h) in DLD-1 cells demonstrated SRJ09 had IC50 of 41 μM which was approximately 4-folds lower than andrographolide, the parent compound of SRJ09. In conclusion, SRJ09 successfully penetrated through DLD-1 MCL by diffusion and emerged as a potential candidate to be developed as a clinically viable anti-colon cancer drug.
Many phytochemicals derived from edible medicinal plants have been investigated intensively for their various bioactivities. However, the detailed mechanism and their corresponding molecular targets frequently remain elusive. In this review, we present a summary of the research works done on phytochemical-mediated molecular targets, identified via proteomic approach. Concurrently, we also highlighted some pharmaceutical drugs which could be traced back to their origins in phytochemicals. For ease of presentation, these identified protein targets were categorized into two important healthcare-related fields, namely anti-bacterial and anti-cancer research. Through this review, we hope to highlight the usefulness of comparative proteomic as a powerful tool in phytochemical-mediated protein target identifications. Likewise, we wish to inspire further investigations on some of these protein targets identified over the last few years. With contributions from all researchers, the accumulative efforts could eventually lead to the discovery of some target-specific, low-toxicity therapeutic agents.
Almost all drugs approved for use in humans possess potentially beneficial 'off-target' effects in addition to their principal activity. In some cases this has allowed for the relatively rapid repurposing of drugs for other indications. In this review we focus on the potential for re-purposing FTY720 (also known as fingolimod, Gilenya(™)), an immunomodulatory drug recently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The therapeutic benefit of FTY720 in MS is largely attributed to the immunosuppressive effects that result from its modulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor signalling. However, this drug has also been shown to inhibit other cancer-associated signal transduction pathways in part because of its structural similarity to sphingosine, and consequently shows efficacy as an anti-cancer agent both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the effects of FTY720 on signal transduction pathways and cancer-related cellular processes, and discuss its potential use as an anti-cancer drug.
The evaluation of crude drugs of natural origin as sources of new effective anticancer agents continues to be important due to the lack of effective anticancer drugs currently used in practice which are generally accompanied with adverse effects at different levels of severity. The aim of this concise review is to gather existing literature on anticancer potential of extracts and compounds isolated from Celastraceae species. This review covers six genera (Maytenus, Tripterygium, Hippocratea, Gymnosporia, Celastrus and Austroplenckia) belonging to this family and their 33 isolates. Studies carried out by using different cell lines have shown remarkable indication of anticancer activity, however, only a restricted number of studies have been reported using in vivo tumor models. Some of the compounds, such as triptolide, celastrol and demethylzeylasteral from T. wilfordii, have been extensively studied on their mechanisms of action due to their potent activity on various cancer cell lines. Such promising lead compounds should generate considerable interest among scientists to improve their therapeutic potential with fewer side effects by molecular modification.
Natural polysaccharides are renewable with a high degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Comprehensive investigations of polysaccharides are essential for our fundamental understanding of exploiting its potential as bio-composite, nano-conjugate and in pharmaceutical sectors. Polysaccharides are considered to be superior to other polymers, for its ease in tailoring, bio-compatibility, bio-activity, homogeneity and bio-adhesive properties. The main focus of this review is to spotlight the new advancements and challenges concerned with surface modification, binding domains, biological interaction with the conjugate including stability, polydispersity, and biodegradability. In this review, we have limited our survey to three essential polysaccharides including cellulose, starch, and glycogen that are sourced from plants, microbes, and animals respectively are reviewed. We also present the polysaccharides which have been extensively modified with the various types of conjugates for combating last-ditch pharmaceutical challenges.
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, increasing evidence has indicated the potential cytotoxic effects of CGs against various types of cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the structural features of this class of natural products that are crucial for their efficacy, some methods of isolating these compounds from natural resources, and the structural elucidation tools that have been used. We also describe their physicochemical properties and several modern biotechnological approaches for preparing CGs that do not require plant sources.
The number of cancer cases worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality is a serious concern, despite the presence of therapeutic interventions and supportive care. Limitations in the current available diagnosis methods and treatments methods may contribute to the increase in cancer mortality. Theranostics, is a novel approach that has opened avenues for the simultaneous precise diagnosis and treatment for cancer patients. Although still in the early development stage, theranostic agents such as quantum dots, radioisotopes, liposomes and plasmonic nanobubbles can be bound to anticancer drugs, cancer cell markers and imaging agents, with the support of available imaging techniques, provide the potential to facilitate diagnosis, treatment and management of cancer patients. Herein, we discuss the potential benefits of several theranostic tools for the management of cancer. Specifically, quantum dots, radio-labelled isotopes, liposomes and plasmonic nanobubbles coupled with targeting agents and/or anticancer molecules and imaging agents as theranostic agents are deliberated upon in this review. Overall, the use of theranostic agents shows promise in cancer management. Nevertheless, intensive research is required to realize these expectations.
Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent as much as 50% of the solid mass in different types of human solid tumours including lung, breast, ovarian and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The tumour microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the polarisation of macrophages into the M1 phenotype, which is tumour-suppressive, or M2 phenotype, which is tumour promoting. Preclinical and clinical evidences suggest that TAMs are predominantly of the M2 phenotype that supports immune suppression, tumour growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Hence, significant attention has been focussed on the development of strategies for the modification of TAMs to halt lung cancer progression. The promotion of repolarisation from the M2 to the M1 subtype, or the prevention of M2 polarisation of TAMs in the stromal environment is potential approaches to reduce progression and metastasis of lung cancer. The focus of this article is an introduction to the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that may halt lung cancer progression via the manipulation of macrophage polarisation. This article will address recent advances in the therapeutic efficacy of nanomedicine exploiting surface functionalisation of nanoparticles and will also consider future perspectives.
People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model.
A number of novel spiro-pyrrolidines/pyrrolizines derivatives were synthesized through [3+2]-cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with 3,5-bis[(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones 2a-n. Azomethine ylides were generated in situ from the reaction of 1H-indole-2,3-dione (isatin, 3) with N-methylglycine (sarcosine), phenylglycine, or proline. All compounds (50 μM) were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), leukemia lymphoblastic (CCRF-CEM), and ovarian carcinoma (SK-OV-3) cells. N-α-Phenyl substituted spiro-pyrrolidine derivatives (5a-n) showed higher antiproliferative activity in MDA-MB-231 than other cancer cell lines. Among spiro-pyrrolizines 6a-n, a number of derivatives including 6a-c and 6i-m showed a comparable activity with doxorubicin in all three cell lines. Among all compounds in three classes, 6a, 6b, and 6m, were found to be the most potent derivatives showing 64%, 87%, and 74% antiproliferative activity in MDA-MB-231, SK-OV-3, and CCRF-CEM cells, respectively. Compound 6b showed an IC50 value of 3.6 mM in CCRF-CEM cells. These data suggest the potential antiproliferative activity of spiro-pyrrolidines/pyrrolizines.
The contributing molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of breast cancer need to be better characterized. The principle of our study was to better understand the genetic mechanism of oncogenesis for human breast cancer and to discover new possible tumor markers for use in clinical practice. We used complimentary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of treated Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) with recombinant bromelain and untreated MCF-7. SpringGene analysis was carried out of differential expression followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), to understand the underlying consequence in developing disease and disorders. We identified 1,102 known genes differentially expressed to a significant degree (p<0.001) changed between the treatment. Within this gene set, 20 genes were significantly changed between treated cells and the control cells with cutoff fold change of more than 1.5. These genes are RNA-binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 1 (RBMS1), ribosomal protein L29 (RPL29), glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2), C15orf32, Akt3, B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), C6orf62, C7orf60, kinesin-associated protein 3 (KIFAP3), FBXO11, AT-rich interactive domain 4A (ARID4A), COPS2, TBPL1|SLC2A12, TMEM59, SNORD46, glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2), and LRRFIP. Our observation on gene expression indicated that recombinant bromelain produces a unique signature affecting different pathways, specific for each congener. The microarray results give a molecular mechanistic insight and functional effects, following recombinant bromelain treatment. The extent of changes in genes is related to and involved significantly in gap junction signaling, amyloid processing, cell cycle regulation by BTG family proteins, and breast cancer regulation by stathmin1 that play major roles.
Recent statistics revealed that cancer is one among the main reasons for death throughout the world. Several treatments are available but still there is no cure when it is detected at late stages. One of the treatment modes for cancer is chemotherapy which utilizes anticancer drugs in order to eradicate the cancer cells by apoptosis. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death through which body maintains homeostasis or kills cancer cells by utilizing its cell machinery. Recent researches have concluded that dietary agents have a putative role in instituting apoptosis of cancer cells. Honey, one of the victuals rich in antioxidants, has a long-standing exposure to humans and its role in cancer prevention and treatment is a topic of current interest. Various researchers have been experimenting honey against different cancers and provided valuable insights about the apoptosis induced by the honey. This review will highlight the recent findings of apoptotic mechanism involved in different cancer cells. Further it also reports antitumor activity of honey in some animal models. Hence it is high-time to initiate more preclinical trials as well as clinical experiments which would further add to the knowledge of anticancer nature of honey and also endorse honey as a potential candidate in the war against cancer.
Selective Alzheimer Disease Indicator-1 (or Seladin-1) is a multifunctional protein first discovered by downregulation of its expression in Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, the expression of this protein is upregulated in several cancers, including primary bladder cancer. However, its role in cancer formation has yet to be discovered. Goniothalamin is a natural product that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we have elucidated the role of Seladin-1 in goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity towards human urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4.
Reprogramming of energy metabolism is pivotal to cancer, so mitochondria are potential targets for anticancer therapy. A prior study has demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of a new class of mitochondria-targeting rosamines. This present study describes in vitro cytotoxicity of second-generation rosamine analogs, their mode of action, and their in vivo efficacies in a tumor allografted mouse model. Here, we showed that these compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity (average IC50<0.5 µM), inhibited Complex II and ATP synthase activities of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway and induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. A NCI-60 cell lines screen further indicated that rosamine analogs 4 and 5 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with Log10GI50 = -7 (GI50 = 0.1 µM) and were more effective against a colorectal cancer sub-panel than other cell lines. Preliminary in vivo studies on 4T1 murine breast cancer-bearing female BALB/c mice indicated that treatment with analog 5 in a single dosing of 5 mg/kg or a schedule dosing of 3 mg/kg once every 2 days for 6 times (q2d×6) exhibited only minimal induction of tumor growth delay. Our results suggest that rosamine analogs may be further developed as mitochondrial targeting agents. Without a doubt proper strategies need to be devised to enhance tumor uptake of rosamines, i.e. by integration to carrier molecules for better therapeutic outcome.
The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278 μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9 μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800 μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31 μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30 μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68 μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6 μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines.
Andrographolide (Andro) is a diterpenoid that is isolated from Andrographis paniculata and reported to be active against several cancer cell lines. However, few in-depth studies have been carried out on its effects on ovarian cancer cell lines alone or in combination with cisplatin (Cis), which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Andro administered alone and in combination with Cis in the ovarian A2780 and A2780(cisR) cancer cell lines using five different sequences of administration (Cis/Andro h): 0/0h, 4/0 h, 0/4 h, 24/0 h and 0/24 h. The results were evaluated in terms of medium-effect dose (Dm) and combination indices (CI) using the CalcuSyn software. Unlike Cis, whose activity was lower in the resistant A2780(cisR) cell line than in the parent A2780 cell line, Andro was found to be three times more active in the A2780(cisR) cell line as compared to that in A2780 cell line. Synergism was observed when Cis and Andro were administered using the sequences 0/4 h and 4/0 h. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was found to be greater for the 0/4 h combination of Andro and Cis as compared to those values from single-drug treatments. The results may be clinically significant if confirmed in vivo.
Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in world. New compounds are currently being synthesized to combat this disease. The organotins are gaining more attention as anti-cancer agents due to their potent cytotoxicity properties. In this study, a series of newly synthesized organotins namely dimethyltin (IV) (compound 1), dibutyltin (IV) (compound 2) and triphenyltin (IV) benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound 3) were assessed for their cytotoxic activities against human Chang liver cells and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of these organotins in both cells upon 24 h treatment was assessed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activities towards both cells where the IC50 values were less then 10 microM. The IC50 value for compound 2 was 2.5 microM in Chang liver cells and 7.0 microM in HepG2 cells whereas compound 3 exhibited an IC50 value of 1.5 microM in Chang liver cells and 2.5 microM in HepG2 cells. Therefore, compound 2 and 3 were more toxic against human Chang liver cells as compared to hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Interestingly, compound 1 did not have any IC50 value in both cells and hence can be classified as non-toxic. In conclusion, organotin (IV) benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate with insertion of dibutyl and triphenyl functional group possess potent cytotoxicity properties. Structural modification of these compounds can be carried out in further studies to produce less or non toxic effects towards normal human cell.
Microenvironmental conditions contribute towards varying cellular responses to plant extract treatments. Hypoxic cancer cells are known to be resistant to radio- and chemo-therapy. New therapeutic strategies specifically targeting these cells are needed. Plant extracts used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can offer promising candidates. Despite their widespread usage, information on their effects in hypoxic conditions is still lacking. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of a series of known TCM plant extracts under normoxic versus hypoxic conditions.
Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-β-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-β-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC₅₀ values ≤ 10 μM), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one.