• 1 Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Selangor, Shah Alam, Malaysia.
  • 2 Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Selangor, Shah Alam, Malaysia
  • 3 Centre for Environmental and Preventive, Medicine Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):5.
PMID: 34059162 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00231-4


BACKGROUND: Excessive intake of sodium is a major public health concern. Information on knowledge, perception, and practice (KPP) related to sodium intake in Malaysia is important for the development of an effective salt reduction strategy. This study aimed to investigate the KPP related to sodium intake among Malaysian adults and to determine associations between KPP and dietary sodium intake.

METHODS: Data were obtained from Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) which is a nationally representative survey with proportionate stratified cluster sampling design. A pre-tested face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic background, and questions from the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization were adapted to assess the KPP related to sodium intake. Dietary sodium intake was determined using single 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Respondents were categorized into two categories: normal dietary sodium intake (< 2000 mg) and excessive dietary sodium intake (≥ 2000 mg). Out of 1440 respondents that were selected to participate, 1047 respondents completed the questionnaire and 798 of them provided valid urine samples. Factors associated with excessive dietary sodium intake were analyzed using complex sample logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: Majority of the respondents knew that excessive sodium intake could cause health problems (86.2%) and more than half of them (61.8%) perceived that they consume just the right amount of sodium. Overall, complex sample logistic regression analysis revealed that excessive dietary sodium intake was not significantly associated with KPP related to sodium intake among respondents (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The absence of significant associations between KPP and excessive dietary sodium intake suggests that salt reduction strategies should focus on sodium reduction education includes measuring actual dietary sodium intake and educating the public about the source of sodium. In addition, the relationship between the authority and food industry in food reformulation needs to be strengthened for effective dietary sodium reduction in Malaysia.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.