Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 112 in total

  1. Heydari M, Othman F, Taghieh M
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0156276.
    PMID: 27248152 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156276
    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.
  2. Hlaing KP, Othman F
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Sep;53(9):e186-8.
    PMID: 23023911
    Liver transplantation is the only solution for end-stage liver diseases. The common hepatic artery (CHA) arises from the coeliac trunk (CT), and the right (RHA) and left hepatic (LHA) arteries are its terminal branches. An abnormal arterial pattern would influence the surgical outcome. The anterior layer of the lesser omentum of a female cadaver was cleaned to identify the CHA, which was traced backwards for its origin and toward the porta hepatis for its terminal branches. In this case, the replaced RHA originated from the CT and ran posterior to the portal vein and the common bile duct. The replaced LHA arose from the left gastric artery. The CHA originated from the CT and branched out as the middle hepatic and gastroduodenal arteries. The replaced RHA and LHA with alteration in relation to the neighbouring structures is a complex and rare variant. Knowledge of this uncommon arterial anomaly is beneficial for hepatobiliary surgeons.
  3. Aboonabi A, Rahmat A, Othman F
    Toxicol Rep, 2014;1:915-922.
    PMID: 28962304 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.10.022
    Oxidative stress attributes a crucial role in chronic complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective part of pomegranate on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activities against streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p), 15 min after the i.p administration of NA. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in plasma glucose level, and the significant decrease in plasma insulin level. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) reduced while the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as gamma-glutamyle transferase (GGT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in diabetic control rats as compared to normal control rats. Oral treatment with pomegranate seed-juice for 21 days demonstrated significant protective effects on all the biochemical parameters studied. Besides, biochemical findings were supported by histopathological study. These results revealed that pomegranate has potential protective effect against oxidative stress induced diabetic rats.
  4. Abas R, Othman F, Thent ZC
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2014;2014:429060.
    PMID: 25371774 DOI: 10.1155/2014/429060
    In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6) into control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC), and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met). Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione contents (GSH), and catalase (CAT) was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.
  5. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
  6. Othman F, M E AE, Mohamed I
    J Environ Monit, 2012 Dec;14(12):3164-73.
    PMID: 23128415 DOI: 10.1039/c2em30676j
    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as agricultural or urban runoff and commercial activity.
  7. Abas R, Othman F, Thent ZC
    EXCLI J, 2015;14:179-89.
    PMID: 26417358 DOI: 10.17179/excli2014-539
    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model.
  8. Lope Pihie AH, Zakaria ZA, Othman F
    PMID: 22474490 DOI: 10.1155/2012/123470
    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.
  9. Abunama T, Othman F, Younes MK
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Sep 20;190(10):597.
    PMID: 30238169 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6966-y
    Landfill leachate is one of the sources of surface water pollution in Selangor State (SS), Malaysia. Leachate volume prediction is essential for sustainable waste management and leachate treatment processes. The accurate estimation of leachate generation rates is often considered a challenge, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and high measurement costs. Leachate generation is related to several variable factors, including meteorological data, waste generation rates, and landfill design conditions. Large variations in these factors lead to complicated leachate modeling processes. The aims of this study are to determine the key elements contributing to leachate production and then develop an adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to predict leachate generation rates. Accuracy of the final model performance was tested and evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), and the correlation coefficient (R). The study results defined dumped waste quantity, rainfall level, and emanated gases as the most significant contributing factors in leachate generation. The best model structure consisted of two triangular fuzzy membership functions and a hybrid training algorithm with eight fuzzy rules. The proposed ANFIS model showed a good performance with an overall correlation coefficient of 0.952.
  10. Chong CLG, Othman F, Hussan F
    Int J Vasc Med, 2018;2018:6317434.
    PMID: 30254765 DOI: 10.1155/2018/6317434
    Atherosclerosis is now well understood as an inflammatory disease instead of lipid storage disorder; however, the conventional treatment is not targeted on treating the inflammation. Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) leaf or noni leaf, which is a medicinal food (ulam) used in Traditional Malay Medicine to prevent chronic diseases, may have the potential to be formulated into a functional antiatherosclerotic agent. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (MCLE) treatment at histological and ultrastructural level, comparing it with Simvastatin. Thirty-eight female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: Sham (Sham), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with Simvastatin 10 mg/kg (OVX+ST), ovariectomized with low dose MC 500 mg/kg (OVX+MCLD), and ovariectomized with high dose MC 1000 mg/kg (OVX+MCHD). Atherosclerosis was induced by producing oestrogen deficiency through ovariectomy and feeding with thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet for 12 weeks along with the treatment. The results revealed significantly (P<0.05) lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the group treated with MCHD compared to the untreated OVX, whereas the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly higher in the untreated OVX group compared to the Sham group. Treatment with MCHD also significantly lowered the total cholesterol (TC) level compared to the OVX. The OVX group showed significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level compared to the Sham group. The untreated OVX group showed evident histological and ultrastructural features of vascular inflammation such as blood cells accumulation in the lumen, vacuolation of the endothelial cells, subendothelial space widening, elastic fibres disruption, increased intima media thickness (IMT), smooth muscle cells fragmentation, and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) deposition. All these pathological changes were less seen in the groups treated with MCLE. In conclusion, we reported the mechanism of antiatherosclerotic property of MCLE through lipids elimination and anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, we do not recommend the use of statin in the absence of dyslipidemia as it causes PVAT deposition.
  11. Jafarlou M, Baradaran B, Shanehbandi D, Saedi TA, Jafarlou V, Ismail P, et al.
    Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand), 2016 May 30;62(6):44-9.
    PMID: 27262801
    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most frequent types of leukemia which mostly affects adult people. Resistance to therapeutic drugs is considered as a major clinical concern resulting in a weaker response to chemotherapy, disease relapse and decreased survival rate. Survivin, a member of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs), is associated with drug resistance and inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms in numerous hematological malignancies. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of etoposide and siRNA-mediated silencing of survivin on U-937 acute myeloid leukemia cells. The AML cells were transfected with survivin specific siRNA and gene knockdown was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR and western blotting. Subsequently, U-937 cells were assessed for response to etoposide treatment and apoptosis rate was measured with flowcytometery. The cytotoxic effects in siRNA-etoposide group were measured and compared to etoposide single therapy group. Survivin siRNA effectively knocked down the mRNA and protein levels of survivin, which led to lower cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, combined treatment of etoposide and survivin siRNA synergistically increased the cell toxic effects of etoposide and its ability to induce apoptosis.
  12. Ahmad U, Ahmed I, Keong YY, Abd Manan N, Othman F
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:127828.
    PMID: 25821783 DOI: 10.1155/2015/127828
    Breast cancer is the malignant tumour that developed from cells of the breast and is the first leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the available treatments for breast cancer, but these were reported to have side effects. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) known as Avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV1) belongs to the genus Avulavirus in a family Paramyxoviridae. NDV is shown to be a promising anticancer agent, killing tumour cells while sparing normal cells unharmed. In this study, the oncolytic and cytotoxic activities of NDV AF2240 strain were evaluated on MDA-MB-231, human mammary carcinoma cell line, using MTT assay, and its inhibitory effects were further studied using proliferation and migration assays. Morphological and apoptotic-inducing effects of NDV on MD-MB-231 cells were observed using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes. Detection of DNA fragmentation was done following terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated Br-dUTP nick end labeling staining (TUNEL) assay, which confirmed that the mode of death was through apoptosis and was quantified by flow cytometry. Furthermore, analysis of cellular DNA content demonstrated that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic peak) of the cell cycle. It appears that NDV AF2240 strain is a potent anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in time-dependent manner.
  13. Adham MI, Shirazi SM, Othman F, Rahman S, Yusop Z, Ismail Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:379763.
    PMID: 25152911 DOI: 10.1155/2014/379763
    Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN), soil conservation service (SCS), and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling.
  14. Movahedi A, Basir R, Rahmat A, Charaffedine M, Othman F
    PMID: 25197311 DOI: 10.1155/2014/726724
    The term cancer has been concomitant with despair, agony, and dreadful death. Like many other diseases, herbal therapy has been used to prevent or suppress cancer. The present study investigated the capability of the decoction of Teucrium polium L. from Lamiaceae family to protect liver cells against hepatocellular carcinoma in carcinogenesis-induced animal model. After 28 weeks of treatment with decoction of Teucrium polium L., serum biochemical markers including ALT, AST, AFP, GGT, ALP, HCY, TNF-α, α2MG, and CBG have been regulated auspiciously. Total antioxidant status also has been increased intensely. Liver lesion score in treated group was lessened and glucocorticoid activity has been intensified significantly. In conclusion, Teucrium polium L. decoction might inhibit or suppress liver cancer development.
  15. Saedi TA, Md Noor S, Ismail P, Othman F
    PMID: 25250054 DOI: 10.1155/2014/494136
    In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75-80% of the world's population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body's symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia.
  16. Hussin F, Eshkoor SA, Rahmat A, Othman F, Akim A
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Jan 20;14:32.
    PMID: 24444147 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-32
    BACKGROUND: This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line.

    METHODS: Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells.

    RESULTS: The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.

  17. Mohd Zainudin M, Zakaria Z, Megat Mohd Nordin NA, Othman F
    PMID: 24228062 DOI: 10.1155/2013/705950
    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000 mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats.
  18. Kamisah Y, Othman F, Qodriyah HM, Jaarin K
    PMID: 23956777 DOI: 10.1155/2013/709028
    Parkia speciosa Hassk., or stink bean, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. It displays many beneficial properties. Its extracts from the empty pods and seeds have a high content of total polyphenol, phytosterol, and flavonoids. It demonstrates a good antioxidant activity. Its hypoglycemic effect is reported to be attributable to the presence of β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmast-4-en-3-one. The cyclic polysulfide compounds exhibit antibacterial activity, while thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid possesses anticancer property. The pharmacological properties of the plant extract are described in this review. With ongoing research conducted on the plant extracts, Parkia speciosa has a potential to be developed as a phytomedicine.
  19. Sulaiman H, Hamid RA, Ting YL, Othman F
    J Cancer Res Ther, 2012 Jul-Sep;8(3):404-10.
    PMID: 23174723 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.103521
    CONTEXT: Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC (Myrsinaceae) or locally known as hen's eyes has been used in local folk medicine as a remedy in various illnesses. Previously, it has been reported to inhibit various inflammatory diseases. However, research done on this plant is still limited.
    AIMS: In the present study, the hexane fraction of the A. crispa root (ACRH) was evaluated on the peri-initiation and promotion phases of skin carcinogenesis.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This two-stage skin carcinogenesis was induced by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by repeated treatment with croton oil for 10 weeks in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. Morphological observation would be conducted to measure tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor volume. Histological evaluation on the skin tissue would also be done.
    RESULTS: The carcinogen control group exhibited 66.67% of tumor incidence. Although, in the ACRH-treated groups, at 30 mg/kg, the mice showed only 10% of tumor incidence with a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the values of tumor burden and tumor volume of 2.00 and 0.52 mm(3), respectively. Furthermore, the result was significantly lower than that of the carcinogen and curcumin control. At 100 mg/kg, ACRH showed a comparable result to carcinogen control. On the contrary, at 300 mg/kg, ACRH exhibited 100% tumor incidence and showed a significant elevated (P < 0.05) value of tumor burden (3.80) and tumor volume (14.67 ± 2.48 mm(3)).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study thus demonstrates that the anti-tumor effect of the chemopreventive potential of ACRH is at a lower dosage (30 mg/kg bwt) in both the initiating and promotion period, yet it exhibits a promoting effect at a higher dosage (300 mg/kg bwt).
  20. Jafarlou M, Baradaran B, Shanehbandi D, Saedi TA, Jafarlou V, Karimi P, et al.
    J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents, 2016 Jan-Mar;30(1):55-65.
    PMID: 27049076
    A key issue in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the development of drug resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Overexpression of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an anti-apoptotic protein, is associated with tumor progression and drug resistance in leukemia and several cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of specific Mcl-1 small interference RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation and chemosensitivity of U-937 AML cell to etoposide. The siRNA transfection was conducted using Lipofectamine™ 2000. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were employed to measure the expression levels of mRNA and protein, respectively. To evaluate tumor cell growth after siRNA transfection, Trypan blue exclusion assay was conducted. The cytotoxic effects of siRNA and etoposide were determined using MTT assay on their own and in combination. DNA-histone ELISA and annexin-V/FITC assays were performed to study the apoptosis. Mcl-1 siRNA transfection significantly blocked the expression of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein in a time-dependent manner, leading to a strong growth inhibition and enhanced apoptosis (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, pretreatment with Mcl-1 siRNA, synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of etoposide (P less than 0.05). Our results demonstrated that Mcl-1 plays a fundamental role in the survival and resistance of U-937 cells to etoposide. Therefore, Mcl-1 can be considered an attractive target in gene therapy of AML patients and siRNA-mediated silencing of this gene may be a novel strategy in AML treatment.
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