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  1. Othman F, Ambak R, Omar MA, Shahar S, Nor NSM, Ahmad MH, et al.
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):10.
    PMID: 34059149 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00232-3
    BACKGROUND: Monitoring sodium intake through 24-h urine collection sample is recommended, but the implementation of this method can be difficult. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an equation using spot urine concentration to predict 24-h sodium excretion in the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: This was a Malaysian Community Salt Study (MyCoSS) sub-study, which was conducted from October 2017 to March 2018. Out of 798 participants in the MyCoSS study who completed 24-h urine collection, 768 of them have collected one-time spot urine the following morning. They were randomly assigned into two groups to form separate spot urine equations. The final spot urine equation was derived from the entire data set after confirming the stability of the equation by double cross-validation in both study groups. Newly derived spot urine equation was developed using the coefficients from the multiple linear regression test. A Bland-Altman plot was used to measure the mean bias and limits of agreement between estimated and measured 24-h urine sodium. The estimation of sodium intake using the new equation was compared with other established equations, namely Tanaka and INTERSALT.

    RESULTS: The new equation showed the least mean bias between measured and predicted sodium, - 0.35 (- 72.26, 71.56) mg/day compared to Tanaka, 629.83 (532.19, 727.47) mg/day and INTERSALT, and 360.82 (284.34, 437.29) mg/day. Predicted sodium measured from the new equation showed greater correlation with measured sodium (r = 0.50) compared to Tanaka (r =0.24) and INTERSALT (r = 0.44), P < 0.05.

    CONCLUSION: Our newly developed equation from spot urine can predict least mean bias of sodium intake among the Malaysian population when 24-h urine sodium collection is not feasible.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium*; Sodium, Dietary*
  2. Cheong SM, Ambak R, Othman F, He FJ, Salleh R, Mohd Sallehudin S, et al.
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):5.
    PMID: 34059162 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00231-4
    BACKGROUND: Excessive intake of sodium is a major public health concern. Information on knowledge, perception, and practice (KPP) related to sodium intake in Malaysia is important for the development of an effective salt reduction strategy. This study aimed to investigate the KPP related to sodium intake among Malaysian adults and to determine associations between KPP and dietary sodium intake.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) which is a nationally representative survey with proportionate stratified cluster sampling design. A pre-tested face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic background, and questions from the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization were adapted to assess the KPP related to sodium intake. Dietary sodium intake was determined using single 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Respondents were categorized into two categories: normal dietary sodium intake (< 2000 mg) and excessive dietary sodium intake (≥ 2000 mg). Out of 1440 respondents that were selected to participate, 1047 respondents completed the questionnaire and 798 of them provided valid urine samples. Factors associated with excessive dietary sodium intake were analyzed using complex sample logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Majority of the respondents knew that excessive sodium intake could cause health problems (86.2%) and more than half of them (61.8%) perceived that they consume just the right amount of sodium. Overall, complex sample logistic regression analysis revealed that excessive dietary sodium intake was not significantly associated with KPP related to sodium intake among respondents (P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The absence of significant associations between KPP and excessive dietary sodium intake suggests that salt reduction strategies should focus on sodium reduction education includes measuring actual dietary sodium intake and educating the public about the source of sodium. In addition, the relationship between the authority and food industry in food reformulation needs to be strengthened for effective dietary sodium reduction in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium; Sodium, Dietary*; Sodium Chloride, Dietary*
  3. Haron H, Hiew I, Shahar S, Michael V, Ambak R
    PMID: 32260382 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072469
    Salt content in processed foods is high, and it is usually used as preservatives, stabilizers, and color enhancers in the products. Increased consumption of processed foods in the modern world has contributed to a high salt intake and thus increased the prevalence of hypertension among Malaysian populations. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and compare salt content in processed food products available in supermarkets and determine the percentage of processed food products exceeding the reference value stated in International Product Criteria (2016). The percentage of processed food products without salt and sodium labeling was determined in this study, in which 76.5% of unlabeled processed food products were made in Malaysia, while 23.5% were imported products. The food group with the highest average salt content was gravy and sauce (3.97 g/100 g), followed by soup (2.95 g/100 g), cheese (2.14 g/100 g), meat (1.37 g/100 g), fish (1.25 g/100 g), chicken (1.20 g/100 g), vegetables (1.18 g/100 g), butter and margarine (1.13 g/100 g), breakfast cereal (0.94 g/100 g), savory snacks (0.90 g/100 g), flatbread (0.86 g/100 g), sweet snacks (0.30 g/100 g), and potato (0.29 g/100 g). In addition, 79.5% of butter and margarine products had an average salt content above the reference value stated in the International Product Criteria, followed by gravy and sauce (79.3%), vegetables (72%), soup (50%), fish (49.2%), breakfast cereal (41%), cheese (36.6%), potato (36%), savory and sweet snacks (29.1), meat (12.5%) and chicken products (2.3%). Most processed food products available in local supermarkets were high in salt content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium, Dietary*; Sodium Chloride, Dietary*
  4. Brown MK, Shahar S, You YX, Michael V, Majid HA, Manaf ZA, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2021 07 23;11(7):e044628.
    PMID: 34301647 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044628
    INTRODUCTION: Current salt intake in Malaysia is high. The existing national salt reduction policy has faced slow progress and does not yet include measures to address the out of home sector. Dishes consumed in the out of home sector are a known leading contributor to daily salt intake. This study aims to develop a salt reduction strategy, tailored to the out of home sector in Malaysia.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a qualitative analysis of stakeholder views towards salt reduction. Participants will be recruited from five zones of Malaysia (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern regions and East Malaysia), including policy-makers, non-governmental organisations, food industries, school canteen operators, street food vendors and consumers, to participate in focus group discussions or in-depth interviews. Interviews will be transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers will be identified and used to develop a tailored salt reduction strategy.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Research Ethics Committee (UKM PPI/1118/JEP-2020-524), the Malaysian National Medical Research Ethics Committee (NMRR-20-1387-55481 (IIR)) and Queen Mary University of London Research Ethics Committee (QMERC2020/37) . Results will be presented orally and in report form and made available to the relevant ministries for example, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Trade to encourage adoption of strategy as policy. The findings of this study will be disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and webinars.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride*; Sodium Chloride, Dietary*
  5. Ahmad MH, Man CS, Othman F, He FJ, Salleh R, Noor NSM, et al.
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):4.
    PMID: 34059160 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00230-5
    BACKGROUND: Sodium is an essential mineral needed by the human body that must be obtained from food. An excess intake, however, can lead to many diseases. As food is the main source of sodium, this study aims to provide information on high sodium food consumption patterns in the Malaysian adult population.

    METHODS: The Malaysian Community Salt Study (MyCoSS) was a nationwide cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2017 and March 2018. A multistage complex sample was applied to select a nationally representative sample of respondents aged 18 years and above. Face to face interview by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) comprising 104 food items was used to gain information on high sodium food consumption patterns.

    RESULTS: A total of 1047 respondents were involved in this study, with 1032 (98.6%) answering the FFQ. From the number, 54.1% exceed the recommendation of sodium intake <2000mg/day by FFQ assessment. The results also demonstrated that fried vegetables (86.4%) were the most common high sodium food consumed, followed by bread (85.9%) and omelet (80.3%). In urban areas, bread was the most common while fried vegetables took the lead in rural areas. By sex, bread was most commonly eaten by males and fried vegetables by females. The results also found that kolok mee/kampua mee contributed the highest sodium, 256.5mg/day in 9.0% adult population, followed by soy sauce 248.1mg/day in 33.2% adult population, and curry noodles 164.2mg/day in 18.5% adult population.

    CONCLUSION: Fried vegetables, bread, and soy sauce were the main source of sodium consumption among adult. Reducing the amount of sodium added to these foods should be the top priority to reduce population sodium intake and thereby prevent sodium-related diseases in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium*; Sodium Chloride, Dietary*
  6. Chong E, Poh KK, Lu Q, Zhang JJ, Tan N, Hou XM, et al.
    Int J Cardiol, 2015 Dec 15;201:237-42.
    PMID: 26301645 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.07.108
    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sodium bicarbonate (SOB) therapies may prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). However, the efficacy of using combination over individual therapies was not established, and there was no large randomised study comparing abbreviated SOB therapy with conventional sustained saline pre-hydration with oral NAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Bicarbonate
  7. Lim HJ, Hasan MS, Chinna K
    Rev Bras Anestesiol, 2016 Jul-Aug;66(4):341-5.
    PMID: 27155777 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjan.2016.04.006
    A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium; Sodium Chloride
  8. Ng, X.Y., Huda, N.
    MyJurnal
    The effects of washing treatments and washing cycles on the thermal gelation properties and quality
    characteristics of duckrimi (duck-base surimi-like material) were evaluated. Minced spent layer duck (4.5 mm orifice diameter) were washed by using either tap water, 0.1M NaCl, 0.5% NaHCO3 and 0.04M sodium phosphate in one, two or three washing cycles, respectively. Washing with 0.04M sodium phosphate in three washing cycles significantly increased (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Bicarbonate
  9. Jasmine NJ, Rajam A, Muthiah PT, Stanley N, Razak IA, Rosli MM
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Sep 1;71(Pt 9):o655-6.
    PMID: 26396888 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015014796
    In the title salt, C5H7N(+)·C6H3ClNO(-), the 2-amino-pyri-din-ium cation inter-acts with the carboxyl-ate group of the 6-chloro-nicotinate anion through a pair of independent N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. In the crystal, these dimeric units are connected further via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [001]. In addition, weak C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with weak π-π inter-actions, with centroid-centroid distances of 3.6560 (5) and 3.6295 (5) Å, connect the chains, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (100).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  10. Bagabas AA, Alhoshan SB, Ghabbour HA, Chidan Kumar CS, Fun HK
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Jan 1;71(Pt 1):o62-3.
    PMID: 25705511 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989014027297
    In the title salt, C6H11NH3 (+)·SCN(-), the cyclo-hexyl-ammonium ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The ammonium group occupies an equatorial position to minimize 1,3 and 1,5 diaxial inter-actions. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯N and N-H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  11. Sivajeyanthi P, Balasubramani K, Jeevaraj M, Thanigaimani K, Khalib NC, Razak IA
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Jun 1;71(Pt 6):o376-7.
    PMID: 26090174 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015008397
    In the crystal of the title mol-ecular salt, C7H9N6O(+)·NO3 (-), the cations and anions are linked via N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to (100). Within the sheets there are numerous hydrogen-bonding ring motifs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  12. Sheshadri SN, Kwong HC, Chidan Kumar CS, Quah CK, Siddaraju BP, Veeraiah MK, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2018 May 01;74(Pt 5):752-756.
    PMID: 29850106 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989018006217
    In the cation of the title salt, C20H19N2O+·Br-, the phenyl rings are inclined to one another by 38.38 (8)°, whereas the central phenyl ring and the pyridiniminium ring are almost perpendicular with a dihedral angle of 87.37 (9)°. The N+=C cationic double bond was verified by the shortened bond length of 1.337 (2) Å. In the crystal, the Br- anion is linked to the cation by an N-H⋯Br hydrogen bond. C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link adjacent pyridiniminium cations into inversion dimers with an R22(18) graph-set motif. These dimers are stacked in a phen-yl-phenyl T-shaped geometry through C-H⋯π inter-actions. A Hirshfeld surface analysis was conducted to verify the contributions of the different inter-molecular inter-actions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  13. Abu Hassan LH
    Silicon nanomaterial was prepared using the peroxide/acid/salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H2O2/HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nanomaterial production, the amount of nanomaterial produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mL of an aqueous 1 mg/L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nanomaterial present. The results indicated that using 10 mL of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nanomaterial. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/acid/salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nanomaterial at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nanomaterial is proposed. The auxiliary nanomaterial is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nanomaterial produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  14. Ng HS, Kee PE, Wu YC, Chen L, Wong SYW, Lan JC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2021 Nov;132(5):513-518.
    PMID: 34479804 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2021.07.004
    Microbial astaxanthin with strong antioxidant activity is greatly demanded for diverse applications. Extractive disruption in aqueous biphasic system (ABS) integrates the cells disruption and biomolecules recovery processes in one-step operation, allowing the direct recovery of intracellular biomolecules with biphasic system upon released from cells. In this study, astaxanthin was recovered from recombinant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast cells via extractive disruption using alcohol/salt ABS. Recombinant K. marxianus yeast is engineered to produce high concentration of free form astaxanthin. Highest partition coefficient (K = 90.02 ± 2.25) and yield (Y = 96.80% ± 0.05) of astaxanthin were obtained with ABS composed of 20% (w/w) 1-propanol and 20% (w/w) sodium citrate of pH 5, 0.5% (w/w) yeast cells loading and additional of 1% (w/w) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (Bmim)BF4 to improve the migration of astaxanthin to alcohol-rich top phase. The incorporation of 2.5 h of ultrasonication to the biphasic system further enhanced the astaxanthin recovery in ABS. The direct recovery of astaxanthin from recombinant K. marxianus cells was demonstrated with the ultrasonication-assisted alcohol/salt ABS which integrates the extraction and concentration of astaxanthin in a single-step operation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride*
  15. Ramadhan K, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Feb;51(2):256-66.
    PMID: 24493882 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0510-1
    Duck meat is less utilized than other meats in processed products because of limitations of its functional properties, including lower water holding capacity, emulsion stability, and higher cooking loss compared with chicken meat. These limitations could be improved using surimi technology, which consists of washing and concentrating myofibrillar protein. In this study, surimi-like materials were made from duck meat using two or three washings with different solutions (tap water, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium phosphate buffer). Better improvement of the meat's functional properties was obtained with three washings versus two washings. Washing with tap water achieved the highest gel strength; moderate elevation of water holding capacity, pH, lightness, and whiteness; and left a small amount of fat. Washing with sodium bicarbonate solution generated the highest water holding capacity and pH and high lightness and whiteness values, but it resulted in the lowest gel strength. Processing duck meat into surimi-like material improves its functional properties, thereby making it possible to use duck meat in processed products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Bicarbonate
  16. Faizah M, Kanaheswari Y, Thambidorai C, Zulfiqar M
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2011 Jan-Mar;7(1):e7.
    PMID: 21655116 MyJurnal DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.1.e7
    To compare echocontrast cystosonography (ECS) using in-vivo agitated saline with fluoroscopic micturating cystourethrography (MCU) in the detection and grading of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride
  17. Tang, J.Y.H., Carlson, J., Mohamad Ghazali, F., Saleha, A.A., Nishibuchi, M., Nakaguchi, Y., et al.
    MyJurnal
    The present study aimed to provide an insight of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 phenotype profiles (carbon sources and sensitivity to osmolytes and pH) using Phenotypic MicroArray (PM) system in response to optimal and suboptimal temperature. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 showed utilization carbon sources from amino acids and carboxylates but not from sugars. C. jejuni ATCC 33560 is sensitive to NaCl at 2% and above but showed survival in a wide range of food preservatives (sodium lactate, sodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate). When incubated at suboptimal temperature, no phenotype loss was observed in carbon source plates. Phenotype loss of C. jejuni ATCC 33560 was observed in sodium chloride (1%), sodium sulphate (2-3%), sodium formate (1%), sodium lactate (7-12%), sodium phosphate pH7 (100mM and 200mM), ammonium sulphate pH8 (50mM), sodium nitrate (60mM, 80mM and 100mM), sodium nitrite (10mM), and growth in pH5. The phenotypic profile from present study will provide a better insight related to survival of C. jejuni ATCC 33560.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium Chloride; Sodium Nitrite; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Benzoate
  18. Tan CH, Chow ZY, Ching SM, Devaraj NK, He FJ, MacGregor GA, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 05 01;9(4):e024702.
    PMID: 31048428 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024702
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the salt content in instant noodles sold in Malaysia.

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was done involving 707 different flavours and packaging of instant noodles sold in six hypermarkets and retailer chains in Malaysia and the corresponding brand's official websites in 2017.

    METHODS: The salt content (gram per serving and per 100 g) was collected from the product packaging and corresponding brand's official website.

    RESULTS: Of the 707 different packaging and flavours of instant noodles, only 62.1% (n=439) provided the salt content in their food label.The mean (±SD) salt per 100 g of instant noodles was 4.3±1.5 g and is nearly four times higher than the salt content of food classified in Malaysia as a high salt content (>1.2 g salt per 100 g). The salt content for instant noodle per packaging ranged from 0.7 to 8.5 g. 61.7% of the instant noodles exceeded the Pacific Salt Reduction Target, 11.8% exceeded the WHO recommended daily salt intake of <5.0 per day and 5.50% exceeded Malaysia Salt Action Target. 98% of instant noodles will be considered as high salt food according to the Malaysia Guidelines.The probability of the instant noodles without mixed flavour (n=324) exceeding the Pacific Salt Reduction Target was tested on univariate and multivariate analysis. Instant noodles with soup, Tom Yam flavour, pork flavour and other flavours were found to be predictors of instant noodles with the tendency to exceed Pacific Salt Reduction Target when compared with instant noodles without mixed flavours (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Only 62% of instant noodles displayed the salt content on their food label. Salt content in instant noodles is very high, with 90% exceeding the daily salt intake recommended by WHO. Prompt action from regulatory and health authorities is needed to reduce the salt content in instant noodles.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium/analysis*; Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis*
  19. Khoo CM, Deerochanawong C, Chan SP, Matawaran B, Sheu WH, Chan J, et al.
    Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021 02;23(2):299-317.
    PMID: 33155749 DOI: 10.1111/dom.14251
    Early onset of type 2 diabetes and a high prevalence of co-morbidities predispose the Asian population to a high risk for, and rapid progression of, diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Apart from renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been shown to delay renal disease progression in patients with DKD. In this review article, we consolidate the existing literature on SGLT-2 inhibitor use in Asian patients with DKD to establish contemporary guidance for clinicians. We extensively reviewed recommendations from international and regional guidelines, data from studies on Asian patients with DKD, global trials (DAPA-CKD, CREDENCE and DELIGHT) and cardiovascular outcomes trials. In patients with DKD, SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy significantly reduced albuminuria and the risk of hard renal outcomes (defined as the onset of end-stage kidney disease, substantial decline in renal function from baseline and renal death), cardiovascular outcomes and hospitalization for heart failure. In all the cardiovascular and renal outcomes trials, there was an initial decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was followed by a slowing in the decline of renal function compared with that seen with placebo. Despite an attenuation in glucose-lowering efficacy in patients with low eGFR, there were sustained reductions in body weight and blood pressure, and an increase in haematocrit. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that SGLT-2 inhibitors represent an evidence-based therapeutic option for delaying the progression of renal disease in Asian patients with DKD and preserving renal function in patients at high risk of kidney disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sodium
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