Materials and methods: This study was a retrospective research using data collected from Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Kedah between the years 2008-2018. We measured outcomes such as age, gender, hospital stay, default rate, ambulation post-surgery, American Society of Anaesthesiologists score (ASA) and surgical timing in correlation with mortality rate and 10-year survival of elderly patients treated with Total Hip Arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in this centre.
Results: A total of 291 traumatic femoral neck fractures aged above 60 years post total hip arthroplasty performed were included. There was higher number of female (n =233) compared to male (n=53) Estimated 10 years survival from Kaplan Meier was 42.88% (95% CI: 33.15, 52.54). One year mortality rate in our study was found to be 18.9%. The average time to event was 7.1 years (95% CI:33.15, 52.24) with a mean age group of 75.
Discussion: Total hip arthroplasty patients not ambulating after surgery had a 4.2 times higher hazard ratio compared to ambulators. Those with pre-existing systemic disease (ASA III and IV) were found to have the highest hazard ratio, almost five times that of healthy patients, after adjusting for confounding factors. Delay of more than seven days to surgery was found to be a significant factor in 10-year survival with a hazard ratio of 3.8, compared to surgery performed earlier.
Conclusion: Delay of more than 7 days to surgery in 10 years survival was significant with high hazard ratio. It is a predictor factor for survival in 10 years. A larger sample size with a prospective design is required to confirm our findings regarding "unacceptable surgical timing" for femoral neck fractures in patients above 60 years of age.
METHODS: A cross sectional study on nationally representative sample deaths that occurred in Malaysia during 2013 was used. A VA questionnaire suitable for local use was developed. Trained field interviewers visited the family members of the deceased at their homes and conducted face to face interviews with the next of kin. Completed questionnaires were reviewed by trained physicians who assigned multiple and underlying causes. Reference diagnoses for validation were obtained from review of medical records (MR) available for a sample of the overall study deaths.
RESULTS: Corresponding MR diagnosis with matched sample of the VA diagnosis were available in 2172 cases for the validation study. Sensitivity scores were good (>75%) for transport accidents and certain cancers. Moderate sensitivity (50% - 75%) was obtained for ischaemic heart disease (64%) and cerebrovascular disease (72%). The validation sample for deaths due to major causes such as ischaemic heart disease, pneumonia, breast cancer and transport accidents show low cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) changes. The scores obtained for the top 10 leading site-specific cancers ranged from average to good.
CONCLUSION: We can conclude that VA is suitable for implementation for deaths outside the health facilities in Malaysia. This would reduce ill-defined mortality causes in vital registration data, and yield more accurate national mortality statistics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs of patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Hospital Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists. The radiographic pattern, distribution among subgroups and evolution of the disease over time were determined.
RESULTS: Among the 82 patients studied, 65 (79.3%) were males. Mean age of our cohorts was 37 ± 15 years. Baseline chest radiographs were abnormal in 37 patients (45.1%). Over half (52.9%) of the symptomatic patients had abnormal baseline radiograph. Among the children, patients with comorbidities, and patients 60 years of age and above, the abnormal radiographs were 14.3%, 71.4% and 69.3% respectively. Ground glass opacities were the commonest abnormal radiographic feature (35.4%), were peripherally located (35.4%) with predilection for the lower zones (29.3%). Most radiographic abnormalities were multifocal (20.7%) and frequently located in the left lung (19.5%). Radiographic recovery was observed in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated greater extent of the disease than observed in radiographs of the same patient.
CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pneumonia presented with a specific radiographic pattern in our cohort of patients, comprising of ground glass opacities in peripheral and basilar distribution, affecting a single lung field and was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Chest radiograph is a useful adjunct screening tool, and in combination with clinical and epidemiological assessment may facilitate in early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia.
METHODS: A nationwide population-based survey involving 3977 community-dwelling older persons aged ≥60 years was conducted via face-to-face interview, of whom 3466 older persons were eligible for screening using a locally validated tool. Elder abuse was defined as any one occurrence of neglect, financial, psychological, physical or sexual abuse perpetrated by someone in a position of trust that was experienced in the past 12 months.
RESULTS: About 9.0% of older persons in Malaysia have experienced elder abuse in the past 12 months, with neglect being the commonest type experienced (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 10.07). There is no significant difference by age group and geographical location. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.60), poorer social support (aOR 5.0; 95% CI: 2.25, 11.22), dependency in activities of daily living (aOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.44) and a previous history of abuse (aOR 10.1; 95% CI: 4.50, 22.86) show higher odds of experiencing elder abuse. Almost 5% of abused older persons reported experiencing multiple types of abuse. Reporting is low at 19.3% with none reporting to healthcare personnel.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elder abuse in this study is lower than global estimates, but similar to local studies. Preventive measures and programs are crucial to overcoming elder abuse and need to be carried out at multiple levels - the individual, community, healthcare and other stakeholders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 85-91.
METHODS: Data were obtained from Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) which is a nationally representative survey with proportionate stratified cluster sampling design. A pre-tested face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic background, and questions from the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization were adapted to assess the KPP related to sodium intake. Dietary sodium intake was determined using single 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Respondents were categorized into two categories: normal dietary sodium intake (< 2000 mg) and excessive dietary sodium intake (≥ 2000 mg). Out of 1440 respondents that were selected to participate, 1047 respondents completed the questionnaire and 798 of them provided valid urine samples. Factors associated with excessive dietary sodium intake were analyzed using complex sample logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Majority of the respondents knew that excessive sodium intake could cause health problems (86.2%) and more than half of them (61.8%) perceived that they consume just the right amount of sodium. Overall, complex sample logistic regression analysis revealed that excessive dietary sodium intake was not significantly associated with KPP related to sodium intake among respondents (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The absence of significant associations between KPP and excessive dietary sodium intake suggests that salt reduction strategies should focus on sodium reduction education includes measuring actual dietary sodium intake and educating the public about the source of sodium. In addition, the relationship between the authority and food industry in food reformulation needs to be strengthened for effective dietary sodium reduction in Malaysia.
METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on KTRs with functioning renal allograft and at least 3 months post transplant. Dietary protein, salt, and dietary acid load were estimated using 24-hour urine collection. Demographic characteristics, concomitant medications, medical history, and laboratory results were obtained from electronic medical records.
RESULTS: A total of 204 KTRs were recruited with median age of 48 years (interquartile range [IQR], 18 years); male to female ratio was 61:39. A total of 79.9% (n = 163) were living related kidney transplants. The median duration after transplant was 71 months (IQR, 131 months), and median eGFR was 65 mL/min/1.73 m2 (IQR, 25 mL/min/1.73 m2). The prevalence rates of proteinuria (defined as ≥ 0.5 g/d) and metabolic acidosis (defined as at least 2 readings of serum bicarbonate ≤ 22 mmol/L in the past 6 months) were 17.7 % and 6.2%, respectively. High dietary protein of > 1.2 g/kg ideal body weight (adjusted odds ratio, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.35-7.28; P = .008) was significantly associated with proteinuria. Dietary protein, salt, and acid load did not correlate with chronic metabolic acidosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of proteinuria is consistent with published literature, but metabolic acidosis rate is extremely low in our cohort. High protein intake (> 1.2 g/kg ideal body weight) is a risk factor of proteinuria and may have negative impact on KTR outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients listed for bariatric surgery in a single tertiary referral center were recruited, where 31 (77.4% female, mean age 46.3 ± 8.9 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Of the eligible patients, 54.8% and 45.2% underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and gastric bypass (GB), respectively. LPR symptoms were assessed using the self-reported reflux symptom index (RSI). Video-recorded endolaryngeal signs were scored using the reflux finding score (RFS) by two blinded otolaryngologists. Patients' presurgical and 3-month postsurgical body mass index (BMI), RSI, and RFS were determined. Patients were deemed as having LPR when RSI > 13 or RFS > 7.
RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the postsurgical RSI and RFS changes (Pearson's r = 0.474, p = 0.007). Of the 31 patients, 12.9% (RSI) and 6.4% (RFS) recovered from preexisting LPR, whereas 22.6% (RSI) and 3.2% (RFS) developed new de novo LPR postsurgery. The postsurgical mean RFS change improved significantly in the GB group compared with that of the SG group (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: LPR is best assessed clinically using a multimodal approach (RSI and RFS). Bariatric surgery may worsen or lead to de novo LPR. Recognizing the LPR outcomes in these patients is paramount for optimal voice, speech, and swallowing functions.
METHODS: A study was carried out in 2013, which involved a total of 40 secondary schools. They were randomly selected using a two-stage clustering sampling method. Subsequently, all upper secondary school students (aged 16 to 17 years) from each selected school were recruited into the study. Data was collected using a validated standardised questionnaire.
RESULTS: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 14.6% (95% CI:13.3-15.9), and it was significantly higher among males compared to females (27.9% vs 2.4%, p
METHODS: A nationwide survey was conducted among individuals aged ≥60 years. Cognition was assessed with the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) tool. QoL of older caregivers was assessed using the Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization and Pleasure (CASP-19) questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia among older adults aged ≥60 years in Malaysia was found to be 8.5%. The prevalence was found to be higher among females, those with no formal education and those in rural areas in Malaysia. The mean QoL of family caregivers of PLwD was significantly lower than the caregivers of older adults without dementia were (P
METHODS: MyCoSS was a cross-sectional household survey involving 1440 adults age 18 years and above. This study utilized stratified cluster sampling to obtain a nationally representative sample. Data was collected between October 2017 and March 2018. Socio-demographic information, dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and away from home meal consumption were assessed through a face-to-face interview by trained health personnel. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were applied to identify the association of socioeconomic status and away from home meal consumption with dietary sodium intake.
RESULTS: A total of 1032 participants completed the FFQ, with a mean age of 48.8 + 15.6 years. Based on the FFQ, slightly over half of the participants (52.1%) had high sodium intake. Results showed that 43.6% of participants consumed at least one to two away from home meals per day, while 20.8% of them had their three main meals away from home. Participants aged less than 30 years old were the strongest predictor to consume more sodium (adjusted OR: 3.83; 95%CI: 2.23, 6.58) while those of Indian ethnicity had significantly lower sodium intake. Surprisingly, having three away from home meals per day was not associated with high dietary sodium intake, although a significant association (crude OR; 1.67, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.35) was found in the simple logistic regression. Obese participants were less likely to have high dietary sodium intake compared with the normal BMI participants in the final model.
CONCLUSION: Over half of the participants consumed sodium more than the recommended daily intake, especially those who consumed three away from home meals. However, there was no significant association between high sodium intake and having three away from home meals per day. The promotion of healthy cooking methods among the public must continue to be emphasized to reduce the dietary sodium intake among Malaysian adults.
METHODS: Data obtained from the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) was used partially for this study. The survey used a cross-sectional two-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above living in non-institutional living quarters (LQ). Face-to-face interviews were done by trained research assistants (RA) to obtain information on sociodemography, medical report, as well as knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the respondents towards salt intake and blood pressure.
RESULTS: Majority of the respondents have been diagnosed with hypertension (61.4%) as well as knowledge of the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure (58.8%). More than half of the respondents (53.3%) said they controlled their salt intake on a regular basis. Those who knew that a high salt diet could contribute to a serious health problem (OR=0.23) as well as those who controlled their salt intake (OR=0.44) were significantly less likely to have hypertension.
CONCLUSION: Awareness of the effects of sodium on human health, as well as the behaviour of controlling salt intake, is essential towards lowering the prevalence of hypertension among Malaysians.