METHODS: Data for 424 respondents in this study were drawn from MyCoSS, a nationwide cross- sectional study conducted among Malaysians who were 18 years and above. Respondents were recruited using stratified cluster sampling, covering urban and rural areas in each state in Malaysia. Data collection was undertaken from October 2017 until March 2018. A single urine sample was collected over 24 h for quantification of potassium excreted. Information on socio-demography and medical history of the respondents were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were measured using validated equipment. BMI was estimated using measured body weight and height. Digital blood pressure monitor (Omron HBP-1300) was used to measure blood pressure. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariable linear regression were used to analyze the data in SPSS Version 21.
RESULTS: Mean 24-h urinary potassium excretion for the 424 respondents was 37 mmol (95% CI 36, 38). Gender and ethnicity showed statistically significant associations with 24-h urinary potassium excretion. However, potassium excretion was not significantly associated with blood pressure in this study.
CONCLUSION: Potassium intake is very low among the adults in Malaysia. Therefore, further education and promotional campaigns regarding daily consumption of potassium-rich diet and its benefits to health need to be tailored for the Malaysian adult population.
METHODS: Data were obtained from Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) which is a nationally representative survey with proportionate stratified cluster sampling design. A pre-tested face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic background, and questions from the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization were adapted to assess the KPP related to sodium intake. Dietary sodium intake was determined using single 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Respondents were categorized into two categories: normal dietary sodium intake (< 2000 mg) and excessive dietary sodium intake (≥ 2000 mg). Out of 1440 respondents that were selected to participate, 1047 respondents completed the questionnaire and 798 of them provided valid urine samples. Factors associated with excessive dietary sodium intake were analyzed using complex sample logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Majority of the respondents knew that excessive sodium intake could cause health problems (86.2%) and more than half of them (61.8%) perceived that they consume just the right amount of sodium. Overall, complex sample logistic regression analysis revealed that excessive dietary sodium intake was not significantly associated with KPP related to sodium intake among respondents (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The absence of significant associations between KPP and excessive dietary sodium intake suggests that salt reduction strategies should focus on sodium reduction education includes measuring actual dietary sodium intake and educating the public about the source of sodium. In addition, the relationship between the authority and food industry in food reformulation needs to be strengthened for effective dietary sodium reduction in Malaysia.
Methods: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2018 was analysed. This survey applied a multistage stratified cluster sampling design to ensure national representativeness. Malnutrition was identified using a validated Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). Variables on sociodemographic, health status, and dietary practices were also obtained. The complex sampling analysis was used to determine the prevalence and associated factors of at-risk or malnutrition among the elderly.
Result: A total of 3,977 elderly completed the MNA-SF. The prevalence of malnutrition and at-risk of malnutrition was 7.3% and 23.5%, respectively. Complex sample multiple logistic regression found that the elderly who lived in a rural area, with no formal or primary level of education, had depression, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) dependency, and low quality of life (QoL), were underweight, and had food insecurity and inadequate plain water intake were at a significant risk of malnutrition (malnutrition and at-risk), while Chinese, Bumiputra Sarawak, and BMI more than 25 kgm-2 were found to be protective.
Conclusions: Currently, three out of ten elderly in Malaysia were at-risk or malnutrition. The elderly in a rural area, low education level, depression, IADL dependency, low QoL, underweight, food insecurity, and inadequate plain water intake were at risk of malnutrition in Malaysia. The multiagency approach is needed to tackle the issue of malnutrition among the elderly by considering all predictors identified from this study.
METHODS: The Malaysian Community Salt Study (MyCoSS) was a nationwide cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2017 and March 2018. A multistage complex sample was applied to select a nationally representative sample of respondents aged 18 years and above. Face to face interview by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) comprising 104 food items was used to gain information on high sodium food consumption patterns.
RESULTS: A total of 1047 respondents were involved in this study, with 1032 (98.6%) answering the FFQ. From the number, 54.1% exceed the recommendation of sodium intake <2000mg/day by FFQ assessment. The results also demonstrated that fried vegetables (86.4%) were the most common high sodium food consumed, followed by bread (85.9%) and omelet (80.3%). In urban areas, bread was the most common while fried vegetables took the lead in rural areas. By sex, bread was most commonly eaten by males and fried vegetables by females. The results also found that kolok mee/kampua mee contributed the highest sodium, 256.5mg/day in 9.0% adult population, followed by soy sauce 248.1mg/day in 33.2% adult population, and curry noodles 164.2mg/day in 18.5% adult population.
CONCLUSION: Fried vegetables, bread, and soy sauce were the main source of sodium consumption among adult. Reducing the amount of sodium added to these foods should be the top priority to reduce population sodium intake and thereby prevent sodium-related diseases in Malaysia.
METHODS: Data of participants in the MyBFF@home study (intervention and control groups) were analysed. Participants in the intervention group received personalised dietary counselling consisted of reduced calorie diet 1200-1500 kcal/day, while the control group was assigned to receive women's health seminars. The dietary assessment was done during the intervention phase at baseline, 1 month (m), 2 m, 3 m and 6 m using a 3-day food diary. Body fat was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyser (In-body 720) at baseline and at the end of the intervention phase. The mean differences of nutrient intake and body compositions during the intervention phase were measured with paired t-test. The changes in body fat and nutrients intake were calculated by subtracting baseline measurements from those taken at 6 months. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the extent to which the changes in each gram of nutrients per 1000 kcal were predictive of changes in body fat mass.
RESULTS: There were significant reductions in energy, all macronutrients, dietary fibre, calcium and iron intake in both study groups after the intervention phase (p