Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Abu Ismaiel A, Aroua MK, Yusoff R
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(7):13102-13.
    PMID: 25051034 DOI: 10.3390/s140713102
    In this study, a potentiometric sensor composed of palm shell activated carbon modified with trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate (TOMATS) was used for the potentiometric determination of mercury ions in water samples. The proposed potentiometric sensor has good operating characteristics towards Hg (II), including a relatively high selectivity; a Nernstian response to Hg (II) ions in a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-2) M, with a detection limit of 1 × 10(-10) M and a slope of 44.08 ± 1.0 mV/decade; and a fast response time (~5 s). No significant changes in electrode potential were observed when the pH was varied over the range of 3-9. Additionally, the proposed electrode was characterized by good selectivity towards Hg (II) and no significant interferences from other cationic or anionic species.
  2. Owlad M, Aroua MK, Wan Daud WM
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jul;101(14):5098-103.
    PMID: 20156679 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.01.135
    Removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution was investigated using modified palm shell activated carbon. Low Molecular Weight Polyethyleneimine (LMW PEI) was used for impregnation purpose. The maximum amount of LMW PEI adsorbed on activated carbon was determined to be approximately 228.2mg/g carbon. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system using potassium dichromate K(2)Cr(2)O(7) as the source of Cr(VI) in the synthetic waste water and modified palm shell activated carbon as the adsorbent. The effects of pH, concentration of Cr(VI) and PEI loaded on activated carbon were studied. The adsorption data were found to fit well with the Freundlich isotherm model. This modified Palm shell activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for chromium ions.
  3. Mook WT, Ajeel MA, Aroua MK, Szlachta M
    J Environ Sci (China), 2017 Apr;54:184-195.
    PMID: 28391928 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.02.003
    In this work a novel anode configuration consisting of an iron mesh double layer is proposed for the electrochemical treatment of wastewater. The removal of Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) from synthetic contaminated water was used as a model system. At a constant anode surface area, identical process operating parameters and batch process mode, the iron mesh double layer electrode showed better performance compared to the conventional single layer iron mesh. The double layer electrode was characterized by RB5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 98.2% and 97.7%, respectively, kinetic rate constant of 0.0385/min, diffusion coefficient of 4.9×10(-5)cm(2)/sec and electrical energy consumption of 20.53kWh/kgdye removed. In the continuous flow system, the optimum conditions suggested by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) are: initial solution pH of 6.29, current density of 1.6mA/cm(2), electrolyte dose of 0.15g/L and flow rate of 11.47mL/min which resulted in an RB5 removal efficiency of 81.62%.
  4. Hussin F, Aroua MK, Szlachta M
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 3):132250.
    PMID: 34547565 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132250
    Water pollution is one of the most concerning global environmental problems in this century with the severity and complexity of the issue increases every day. One of the major contributors to water pollution is the discharge of harmful heavy metal wastes into the rivers and water bodies. Without proper treatment, the release of these harmful inorganic waste would endanger the environment by contaminating the food chains of living organisms, hence, leading to potential health risks to humans. The adsorption method has become one of the cost-effective alternative treatments to eliminate heavy metal ions. Since the type of adsorbent material is the most vital factor that determines the effectiveness of the adsorption, continuous efforts have been made in search of cheap adsorbents derived from a variety of waste materials. Fruit waste can be transformed into valuable products, such as biochar, as they are composed of many functional groups, including carboxylic groups and lignin, which is effective in metal binding. The main objective of this study was to review the potential of various types of fruit wastes as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) removal. Following a brief overview of the properties and effects of Pb(II), this study discussed the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetic by various adsorption models. The possible adsorption mechanisms and regeneration study for Pb(II) removal were also elaborated in detail to provide a clear understanding of biochar produced using the pyrolysis technique. The future prospects of fruit waste as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) was also highlighted.
  5. Baroutian S, Aroua MK, Raman AA, Sulaiman NM
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jan;102(2):1095-102.
    PMID: 20888219 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.076
    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor.
  6. Issabayeva G, Aroua MK, Sulaiman NM
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Jun 30;155(1-2):109-13.
    PMID: 18179867 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.036
    The continuous adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution on commercial, granular, unpretreated palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was studied. Effect of pH, flow rates and presence of complexing agents (malonic and boric acids) were examined. The breakthrough period was longer at pH 5 indicating higher adsorption capacity of lead ions at higher pH. Increase of the flow rate, expectedly, resulted in the faster saturation of the carbon bed. Presence of complexing agents did not improve adsorption uptake of lead ions. However, presence of malonic acid resulted in smoother pH stabilization of solution compared to single lead and lead with boric acid systems. The results on continuous adsorption of lead were applied to the model proposed by Wang et al. [Y.-H. Wang, S.-H. Lin, R.-S. Juang, Removal of heavy metals ions from aqueous solutions using various low-cost adsorbents, J. Hazard. Mater. B 102 (2003) 291-302]. The agreement between experimental and modelled breakthrough curves was satisfactory at both pHs.
  7. Aroua MK, Zuki FM, Sulaiman NM
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Aug 25;147(3):752-8.
    PMID: 17339078
    This study deals with the removal of chromium species from aqueous dilute solutions using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) process. Three water soluble polymers, namely chitosan, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and pectin were selected for this study. The ultrafiltration studies were carried out using a laboratory scale ultrafiltration system equipped with 500,000 MWCO polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. The effects of pH and polymer composition on rejection coefficient and permeate flux at constant pressure have been investigated. For Cr(III), high rejections approaching 100% were obtained at pH higher than 7 for the three tested polymers. With chitosan and pectin, Cr(VI) retention showed a slight increase with solution pH and did not exceed a value of 50%. An interesting result was obtained with PEI. The retention of Cr(VI) approached 100% at low pH and decreased when the pH was increased. This behavior is opposite to what one can expect in the polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals. Furthermore, the concentration of polymer was found to have little effect on rejection. Permeate flux remained almost constant around 25% of pure water flux.
  8. Issabayeva G, Aroua MK, Sulaiman NM
    Bioresour Technol, 2006 Dec;97(18):2350-5.
    PMID: 16321520
    The performance of a commercially available palm shell based activated carbon to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption was evaluated. The adsorption experiments were carried out at pH 3.0 and 5.0. The effect of malonic and boric acid presence on the adsorption of lead ions was also studied. Palm shell activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for lead ions, especially at pH 5 with an ultimate uptake of 95.2mg/g. This high uptake showed palm shell activated carbon as amongst the best adsorbents for lead ions. Boric acid presence did not affect significantly lead uptake, whereas malonic acid decreased it. The diffuse layer surface complexation model was applied to predict the extent of adsorption. The model prediction was found to be in concordance with the experimental values.
  9. Tawfiq MF, Aroua MK, Sulaiman NM
    J Environ Sci (China), 2015 Jul 1;33:239-44.
    PMID: 26141898 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2015.01.015
    Atmospheric pollution and global warming issues are increasingly becoming major environmental concerns. Fire is one of the significant sources of pollutant gases released into the atmosphere; and tropical biomass fires, which are of particular interest in this study, contribute greatly to the global budget of CO and CO2. This pioneer research simulates the natural biomass burning strategy in Malaysia using an experimental burning facility. The investigation was conducted on the emissions (CO2, CO, and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX)) from ten tropical biomass species. The selected species represent the major tropical forests that are frequently subjected to dry forest fire incidents. An experimental burning facility equipped with an on-line gas analyzer was employed to determine the burning emissions. The major emission factors were found to vary among the species, and the specific results were as follows. The moisture content of a particular biomass greatly influenced its emission pattern. The smoke analysis results revealed the existence of BTEX, which were sampled from a combustion chamber by enrichment traps aided with a universal gas sampler. The BTEX were determined by organic solvent extraction followed by GC/MS quantification, the results of which suggested that the biomass burning emission factor contributed significant amounts of benzene, toluene, and m,p-xylene. The modified combustion efficiency (MCE) changed in response to changes in the sample moisture content. Therefore, this study concluded that the emission of some pollutants mainly depends on the burning phase and sample moisture content of the biomass.
  10. Rahim SANM, Lee CS, Abnisa F, Aroua MK, Daud WAW, Cognet P, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Feb 25;705:135137.
    PMID: 31846815 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135137
    Glycerol is a by-product produced from biodiesel, fatty acid, soap and bioethanol industries. Today, the value of glycerol is decreasing in the global market due to glycerol surplus, which primarily resulted from the speedy expansion of biodiesel producers around the world. Numerous studies have proposed ways of managing and treating glycerol, as well as converting it into value-added compounds. The electrochemical conversion method is preferred for this transformation due to its simplicity and hence, it is discussed in detail. Additionally, the factors that could affect the process mechanisms and products distribution in the electrochemical process, including electrodes materials, pH of electrolyte, applied potential, current density, temperature and additives are also thoroughly explained. Value-added compounds that can be produced from the electrochemical conversion of glycerol include glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, glycolic acid, glyceric acid, lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, tartronic acid and mesoxalic acid. These compounds are found to have broad applications in cosmetics, pharmaceutical, food and polymer industries are also described. This review will be devoted to a comprehensive overview of the current scenario in the glycerol electrochemical conversion, the factors affecting the mechanism pathways, reaction rates, product selectivity and yield. Possible outcomes obtained from the process and their benefits to the industries are discussed. The utilization of solid acid catalysts as additives for future studies is also suggested.
  11. Nadhirah Md Rahim SA, Lee CS, Abnisa F, Ashri Wan Daud WM, Aroua MK, Cognet P, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Feb 11.
    PMID: 35157890 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133949
    Redox mediators supply an effective way to promote electrons (and protons) transport between the electrode and substrate without being in direct physical contact with the electrode. Here, the carbon-based electrodes with Amberlyst-15 as the redox mediator were used in the electrocatalytic reduction to investigate their ability to indirectly convert glycerol into 1,2-propanediol. The process aims to study the influence of different activated carbon compositions (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% of total weight) in the activated carbon composite (ACC) electrodes on the electrochemical properties, reaction mechanisms, and selectivity of the yielded products. Their electrochemical behavior and physicochemical properties were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), followed by FESEM-EDX for the selected ACC electrode. Electroactive surface area (EASA) plays a role in glycerol mass transport and electrons transfer. EASA of 60ACC, 70ACC, 80ACC, and 90ACC (geometrical surface area of 0.50 cm2) were 19.62, 24.50, 36.74 and 30.83 cm2, respectively. With the highest EASA, 80ACC enhanced the mass transport and electrons transfer process that eventually improved its electrocatalytic activity. It outperformed other ACC electrodes by generating Amberlyst-15 radicals (A-15•-) with high current density at low potential (-0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl). A-15•- served as the electron-donor for the homogeneous redox reaction with glycerol in delivering highly reactive glycerol radical for further intermediates development and generated 1,2-propanediol at -2.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl (current density of -0.2018 A cm-2). High activated carbon content portrayed a dominant role in controlling EASA and favored consecutive acetol-1,2-propanediol production through the C-O bond breakage. From the galvanostatic electrolysis, 1,2-propanediol selectivity was higher on 80ACC (88.6%) compared to 60ACC (61.4%), 70ACC (70.4%) and 90ACC (72.5%). Diethylene glycol formation was found to be the side reaction but preferred low activated carbon percentage in 60ACC and 70ACC.
  12. Mook WT, Aroua MK, Szlachta M, Lee CS
    Water Sci Technol, 2017 02;75(3-4):952-962.
    PMID: 28234295 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.563
    In this work, a regression model obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) was proposed for the electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of textile wastewater. The Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) was used as a model dye to evaluate the performance of the model design. The effect of initial solution pH, applied current and treatment time on RB5 removal was investigated. The total number of experiments designed by RSM amounted to 27 runs, including three repeated experimental runs at the central point. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the F-test, coefficient of determination (R(2)), adjusted R(2) and standard deviation. The optimum conditions for RB5 removal were as follows: initial pH of 6.63, current of 0.075 A, electrolyte dose of 0.11 g/L and EC time of 50.3 min. The predicted RB5 removal was 83.3% and the percentage error between experimental and predicted results was only 3-5%. The obtained data confirm that the proposed model can be used for accurate prediction of RB5 removal. The value of the zeta potential increased with treatment time, and the X-ray diffraction pattern shows that iron complexes were found in the sludge.
  13. Halilu A, Hayyan M, Aroua MK, Yusoff R, Hizaddin HF
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019 Jul 24;11(29):25928-25939.
    PMID: 31305059 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b05962
    Climate engineering solutions with emphasis on CO2 removal remain a global open challenge to balancing atmospheric CO2 equilibrium levels. As a result, warnings of impending climate disasters are growing every day in urgency. Beyond ordinary CO2 removal through natural CO2 sinks such as oceans and forest vegetation, direct CO2 conversion into valuable intermediaries is necessary. Here, a direct electrosynthesis of the peroxydicarbonate anion (C2O62-) was investigated by the reaction of CO2 with the superoxide ion (O2·-), electrochemically generated from O2 reduction in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [TFSI-] anion derived ionic liquid (IL) media. This is the first time that the IL media were employed successfully for CO2 conversion into C2O62-. Moreover, the charge transfer coefficient for the O2·- generation process in the ILs was less than 0.5, indicating that the process was irreversible. Voltammetry experiments coupled with global electrophilicity index analysis revealed that, when CO2/O2 was contacted simultaneously in the IL medium, O2·- was generated in situ first at a potential of approximately -1.0 V. Also, CO2 was more susceptible to attack by O2·- before any possible interaction with the IL except for [PMIm+][TFSI-]. This was because CO2 has a higher global electrophilicity index (ωCO2 = 0.489 eV) than those for the [EDMPAmm+][TFSI-] and [MOEMMor+][TFSI-]. By further COSMO-RS modeling, CO2 absorption was proven feasible at the COSMO-surface of the [TFSI-] IL-anion where the charge densities were σ = -1.100 and 1.1097 e/nm2. Therefore, the susceptible competitiveness of either IL cations or CO2 to the nucleophilic effects of O2·- was a function of their positive character as estimated by their electrophilicity indices. As determined by experimental attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and DFT-FTIR computation, the reaction yielded C2O62- in the ILs. Consequently, the presence of O=O symmetric stretching FTIR vibrational mode at ∼844 cm-1 coupled with the disappearance of the oxidative cyclic voltammetry waves when sparging CO2 and O2 confirmed the presence of C2O62-. Moreover, based on DFT/B3LYP/6-31G, pure C2O62- has symmetric O=O stretching at ∼805 and ∼844 cm-1 when it is in association with the IL-cation. This was the first spectroscopic observation of C2O62- in ILs, and the O=O symmetric stretching vibration has peculiarity for identifying C2O62- in ILs. This will open new doors to utilize CO2 in industrial applications with the aid of reactive oxygen species.
  14. Halilu A, Hayyan M, Aroua MK, Yusoff R, Hizaddin HF
    Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2021 Jan 21;23(2):1114-1126.
    PMID: 33346756 DOI: 10.1039/d0cp04903d
    Understanding the reaction mechanism that controls the one-electron electrochemical reduction of oxygen is essential for sustainable use of the superoxide ion (O2˙-) during CO2 conversion. Here, stable generation of O2˙- in butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BMAmm+][TFSI-] ionic liquid (IL) was first detected at -0.823 V vs. Ag/AgCl using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The charge transfer coefficient associated with the process was ∼0.503. It was determined that [BMAmm+][TFSI-] is a task-specific IL with a large negative isovalue surface density accrued from the [BMAmm+] cation with negatively charged C(sp2) and C(sp3). Consequently, [BMAmm+][TFSI-] is less susceptible to the nucleophilic effect of O2˙- because only 8.4% O2˙- decay was recorded from 3 h long-term stability analysis. The CV analysis also detected that O2˙- mediated CO2 conversion in [BMAmm+][TFSI-] at -0.806 V vs. Ag/AgCl as seen by the disappearance of the oxidative faradaic current of O2˙-. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) detected the mechanism of O2˙- generation and CO2 conversion in [BMAmm+][TFSI-] for the first time. The EIS parameters in O2 saturated [BMAmm+][TFSI-] were different from those detected in O2/CO2 saturated [BMAmm+][TFSI-] or CO2 saturated [BMAmm+][TFSI-]. This was rationalized to be due to the formation of a [BMAmm+][TFSI-] film on the GC electrode, creating a 2.031 × 10-9 μF cm-2 double-layer capacitance (CDL). Therefore, during the O2˙- generation and CO2 utilization in [BMAmm+][TFSI-], the CDL increased to 5.897 μF cm-2 and 7.763 μF cm-2, respectively. The CO2 in [BMAmm+][TFSI-] was found to be highly unlikely to be electrochemically converted due to the high charge transfer resistance of 6.86 × 1018 kΩ. Subsequently, O2˙- directly mediated the CO2 conversion through a nucleophilic addition reaction pathway. These results offer new and sustainable opportunities for utilizing CO2 by reactive oxygen species in ionic liquid media.
  15. Aroua MK, Yin CY, Lim FN, Kan WL, Daud WM
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Jul 30;166(2-3):1526-9.
    PMID: 19168286 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.033
    The effects of polyethyleneimine (PEI) impregnation on the Pb(2+) adsorption kinetics of palm shell-activated carbon and pH profile of bulk solution were investigated. Adsorption data were fitted to four established adsorption kinetics models, namely, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion. It was found that PEI impregnation at 16.68 and 29.82 wt% PEI/AC increased the Pb(2+) uptake rate while the opposite was observed for PEI impregnation at 4.76 and 8.41 wt% PEI/AC. The increased uptake rates were due to higher concentration of PEI molecules on the surface of clogged pores as well as varying pore volumes. The adsorption kinetics data fitted the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model, implying chemisorption was the rate-controlling step. The bulk solution pH generally showed an increasing trend from the use of virgin to PEI-impregnated activated carbon.
  16. Yin CY, Aroua MK, Daud WM
    Water Sci Technol, 2007;56(9):95-101.
    PMID: 18025736
    Palm shell activated carbon was modified via surface impregnation with polyethyleneimine (PEI) to enhance removal of Cu(2+) from aqueous solution in this study. The effect of PEI modification on batch adsorption of Cu(2+) as well as the equilibrium behavior of adsorption of metal ions on activated carbon were investigated. PEI modification clearly increased the Cu(2+) adsorption capacities by 68% and 75.86% for initial solution pH of 3 and 5 respectively. The adsorption data of Cu(2+) on both virgin and PEI-modified AC for both initial solution pH of 3 and 5 fitted the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms considerably better than the Freundlich isotherm.
  17. Aroua MK, Leong SP, Teo LY, Yin CY, Daud WM
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Sep;99(13):5786-92.
    PMID: 18023577
    In this study, the kinetics of adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution onto palm shell-based activated carbon (PSAC) were investigated by employing ion selective electrode (ISE) for real-time Pb(II) and pH monitoring. Usage of ISE was very appropriate for real-time adsorption kinetics data collection as it facilitated recording of adsorption data at very specific and short time intervals as well as provided consistent kinetics data. Parameters studied were initial Pb(II) concentration and agitation speed. It was found that increases in initial Pb(II) concentration and agitation speed resulted in higher initial rate of adsorption. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics data. It was suggested that chemisorption was the rate-controlling step for adsorption of Pb(II) onto PSAC since the adsorption kinetics data fitted both the pseudo second-order and Elovich models well.
  18. Ang TN, Young BR, Burrell R, Taylor M, Aroua MK, Baroutian S
    Chemosphere, 2021 Feb;264(Pt 2):128535.
    PMID: 33045509 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128535
    The emission of waste anaesthetic gas is a growing contributor to global warming and remains a factor in atmospheric ozone depletion. Volatile anaesthetics in medical waste gases could be removed via adsorption using suitable activated carbon materials possessing an enhanced affinity to anaesthetic molecules. In this work, the effects of surface physical and chemical properties on sevoflurane adsorption were investigated by oxidative hydrothermal surface modification of a commercial activated carbon using only distilled water. The hydrothermal surface modification was carried out at different treatment temperatures (150-300 °C) for varying durations (10-30 min), and adsorption was conducted under fixed conditions (bed depth = 10 cm, inlet concentration = 528 mg/L, and flow rate = 3 L/min). The hydrothermal treatment generally increased the BET surface area of the activated carbons. At oxidation temperatures above 200 °C, the micropore volume of the samples diminished. The relative amount of surface oxygen was enriched as the treatment temperature increased. Treatment duration did not significantly affect the introduction of relative amount of surface oxygen, except at higher temperatures. There were no new types of functional groups introduced. However, disappearance and re-formation of oxygen functional groups containing C-O structures (as in hydroxyl and ether groups) occurred when treatment temperature was increased from 150 to 200 °C, and when treatments were conducted above 200 °C, respectively. The ester/acetal groups were enriched under the temperature range studied. The findings suggested that the re-formation of surface oxygen functionalities might lead to the development of functional groups that improve sevoflurane adsorption.
  19. Ang TN, Young BR, Taylor M, Burrell R, Aroua MK, Baroutian S
    Chemosphere, 2020 Jan;239:124839.
    PMID: 31726519 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124839
    The inhalational anaesthetic agent - sevoflurane is widely employed for the induction and maintenance of surgical anaesthesia. Sevoflurane possesses a high global warming potential that imposes negative impact to the environment. The only way to resolve the issue is to remove sevoflurane from the medical waste gas before it reaches the atmosphere. A continuous adsorption study with a fixed-bed column was conducted using two commercial granular activated carbons (E-GAC and H-GAC), to selectively remove sevoflurane. The effect of bed depth (Z, 5-15 cm), gas flow rate (Q, 0.5-6.0 L/min) and inlet sevoflurane concentration (C0, ∼55-700 mg/L) was investigated. E-GAC demonstrated ∼60% higher adsorption capacity than H-GAC under the same operating conditions. Varying the levels of Z, Q and C0 showed significant differences in the adsorption capacities of E-GAC, whereas only changing the C0 level had significant differences for H-GAC. Three breakthrough models (Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson) and Bed-depth/service time (BDST) analysis were applied to predict the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption tests and determine the characteristic parameters of the column. The Yoon-Nelson and Thomas model-predicted breakthrough curves were in good agreement with the experimental values. In the case of the Adams-Bohart model, a low correlation was observed. The predicted breakthrough time (tb) based on kinetic constant (kBDST) in BDST analysis showed satisfactory agreement with the measured values. The results suggest the possibility of designing, scaling up and optimising an adsorption system for removing sevoflurane with the aid of the models and BDST analysis.
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