Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 195 in total

  1. Ghazally Ismail
    ASM Science Journal, 2011;5(1):73-74.
    Human activity has ‘very likely’ been the primary cause of global warming since the start of the Industrial Revolution (18th–19th century). As a new player in industrial transformation, Malaysia can choose to ignore the warnings of global warming. blame. This may not augur well. Release of greenhouse gases have been categorically linked to climate change and global warming. In her march towards industrialization, Malaysia too has contributed to the release of greenhouse gases. Apart from those arising from natural sources, the industrial sector in Malaysia also releases other types of gases such as the fluorocarbons. This is evident from the worsening air quality in some of our cities. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  2. Chou L, Dai J, Qian X, Karimipour A, Zheng X
    Agric Water Manag, 2021 Feb 28;245:106583.
    PMID: 33100487 DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106583
    With the development of Chinese economy, more and more attention has been paid to environmental protection, the implementation of water price policy affects economic and environmental changes in China. This paper analyzes the impact of water price policy on agricultural land use and the scale of water pollution discharge in 240 cities in China between 2001 and 2017, by including data from China Urban Statistical Yearbook and China Land & Resources Almanac. The theoretical analysis of this study indicates that the optimal scale of pollution depends on the local initial endowment, economic investment capital and the marginal cost of environmental pollution caused by government's economic activities. Furtherly, the economic activities have a worsening impact on environmental pollution, but when the government implements environmental protection and water price policy measures in response to environmental pollution caused by economic activities, it has a significant impact on the decline in the scale of pollution. The government has promoted the pollution suppression model in the formulation of water prices, which has internalized the external cost of pollution in economic activities and can effectively reduce the scale of agricultural water pollution discharge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  3. Jourabchi Z, Sharif S, Lye MS, Saeed A, Khor GL, Tajuddin SHS
    Am J Health Promot, 2019 03;33(3):363-371.
    PMID: 30011998 DOI: 10.1177/0890117118779808
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between preconception care and the risk of adverse birth outcomes.

    DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study comparing 2 groups: (1) integrated maternal health care (MHC) program (with preconception care) and (2) standard MHC program (without preconception care).

    SETTING: Maternal health-care clinics in Alvand and Qazvin cities in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 152 and 247 Iranian women aged 16 to 35 years were enrolled in the integrated MHC and standard MHC program, respectively.

    MEASURES: The birth outcomes measured included low birth weight, preterm birth, maternal and neonatal complications, and mode of delivery (normal vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery).

    ANALYSIS: Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of preconception care and risk of adverse birth outcomes with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) as effect sizes.

    RESULTS: One hundred forty-seven women in integrated MHC and 218 women in standard MHC completed this study. Preconception care was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (OR = 0.298; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.120-0.743; P = .009), low birth weight (OR = 0.406; 95% CI = 0.169-0.971; P = .043), maternal complication (OR = 0.399; 95% CI = 0.241-0.663; P < .001), and neonatal complications (OR = 0.460; 95% CI = 0.275-0.771; P = .003).

    CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study revealed advantages of preconception care with reduced adverse birth outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  4. Parvin F, Tareq SM
    Appl Water Sci, 2021;11(6):100.
    PMID: 34094797 DOI: 10.1007/s13201-021-01431-3
    Dumping of solid waste in the non-engineered landfill is very common in the developing countries. Among the different disadvantages of this kind of landfilling, leachate is the major concern to public health, which is a toxic byproduct generated from the landfill; and can percolate to the ground water and consequently migrate in surface water. Using systematic review on published data, the present study endeavors to compare the leachate contamination potential of four major landfills of Bangladesh, named Amin Bazar, Matuail, Mogla Bazar and Rowfabad; which are situated in 3 of the 6 big mega cities of Bangladesh and assessed the effects of leachate leakage on surrounding water body as well as on human health. This study, for the first time calculated the leachate pollution index (LPI) for the landfill sites of Bangladesh and found that the LPI of Matuail landfill site (19.81) is much higher which is comparable to some polluted landfill sites of India and Malaysia. The concentrations of several potentially toxic metals found in the surface and ground water in the vicinity of the landfill sites were above the maximum permissible limit values of department of Environment, Bangladesh and World Health Organization (WHO). The human health risk index for toxic heavy metals in different vegetables and rice grain showed high health risk potential for Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn. The total carcinogenic risk for Ni and Pb are found very high in the edible plants near those landfill sites, suggesting the risk of Ni and Pb induced carcinogenesis by the consumption of those plants. The present conditions of surface, ground water and agriculture products near the landfill sites of Bangladesh are much frightening to the biota and local inhabitants.

    Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13201-021-01431-3.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  5. Razak HA, Wahid NBA, Latif MT
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2019 Nov;77(4):587-593.
    PMID: 31359072 DOI: 10.1007/s00244-019-00656-3
    Anionic surfactants are one of the pollutants derived from particulate matter (PM) and adversely affect the health of living organisms. In this study, the compositions of surfactants extracted from PM and vehicle soot collected in an urban area were investigated. A high-volume air sampler was used to collect PM sample at urban area based on coarse (> 1.5 µm) and fine (
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  6. Siri JG, Newell B, Proust K, Capon A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 Mar;28(2 Suppl):15S-27S.
    PMID: 26219559 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515595694
    Extreme events, both natural and anthropogenic, increasingly affect cities in terms of economic losses and impacts on health and well-being. Most people now live in cities, and Asian cities, in particular, are experiencing growth on unprecedented scales. Meanwhile, the economic and health consequences of climate-related events are worsening, a trend projected to continue. Urbanization, climate change and other geophysical and social forces interact with urban systems in ways that give rise to complex and in many cases synergistic relationships. Such effects may be mediated by location, scale, density, or connectivity, and also involve feedbacks and cascading outcomes. In this context, traditional, siloed, reductionist approaches to understanding and dealing with extreme events are unlikely to be adequate. Systems approaches to mitigation, management and response for extreme events offer a more effective way forward. Well-managed urban systems can decrease risk and increase resilience in the face of such events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  7. Norlaili AA, Fatihah MA, Daliana NF, Maznah D
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7161-4.
    PMID: 24460269
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  8. Al-Naggar RA, Anil Sh
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016 10 01;17(10):4661-4664.
    PMID: 27892680
    Background: Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers in body sites like the breast
    and colorectum. However exposure of ALAN as an environmental risk factor and its relation to cancers in humans has
    never been studied in detail. Objective: To explore the association of ALAN with all forms of cancers in 158 countries.
    Materials and Methods: An ecological study encompassing global data was conducted from January to June 2015,
    with age-standardized rates (ASR) of cancers as the outcome measure. ALAN, in the protected areas, as the exposure
    variable, was measured with reference to the Protected Area Light Pollution Indicator (PALI) and the Protected Area
    Human Influence Indicator (PAHI). Pearson’s correlations were calculated for PALI and PAHI with ASR of cancers for
    158 countries, adjusted for country populations, electricity consumption, air pollution, and total area covered by forest.
    Stratified analysis was conducted according to the country income levels. Linear regression was applied to measure the
    variation in cancers explained by PALI and PAHI. Results: PALI and PAHI were positively associated with ASR of all
    forms of cancer, and also the four most common cancers (p < 0.05). These positive correlations remained statistically
    significant for PAHI with all forms of cancer, lung, breast, and colorectal cancer after adjusting for confounders. Positive
    associations of PALI and PAHI with cancers varied with income level of the individual countries. Variation in all forms
    of cancers, and the four most common cancers explained by PALI and PAHI, ranged from 3.3 – 35.5%. Conclusion:
    Artificial light at night is significantly correlated for all forms of cancer as well as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate
    cancers individually. Immediate measures should be taken to limit artificial light at night in the main cities around the
    world and also inside houses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  9. Dieng H, Saifur RG, Ahmad AH, Salmah MR, Aziz AT, Satho T, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;2(3):228-32.
    PMID: 23569903 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60047-1
    To identify the unusual breeding sites of two dengue vectors, i.e. Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  10. Sahu PS, Lim YAL, Mahmud R, Somanath SD, Tan CT, Ramachandran CP
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2017 Apr;10(4):332-340.
    PMID: 28552103 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.03.024
    Seizures due to neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected human-to-human transmitted disorder and an emerging problem worldwide. A substantial portion of recent onset seizures is known to be attributed to NCC in Taenia solium (T. solium) endemic areas where populations which neither raise pigs nor eat pig meat are also at risk. High prevalence of NCC causing epilepsy has been reported in the underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia (SEA) however, only fragmentary information on its incidence is available in countries like Malaysia. In Malaysia T. solium infection was previously thought to be infrequent due to Muslim population majority and the religious prohibition of consuming pork, but it is not totally absent. There is an evident lack of knowledge and awareness of the actual burden, routes of transmission, and the impact of NCC in this region. The problem is assumed to be more prevalent particularly in cities because of the frequent inflow of possibly T. solium infected individuals or carriers among those who migrate from neighboring endemic countries to Malaysia. The issue of imported cases that are likely to be emerging in Malaysia is highlighted here. An accurate quantification of regional burdens of epilepsy due to NCC in Malaysia is warranted considering the disease emergence in its neighboring countries. It is suggested that the importance of NCC be recognized through quantification of its burden, and also to collect epidemiological data for its subsequent elimination in line of World Health Organization's mission for control of cysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. In this review the need as well as a strategy for neuro-care center screening of epilepsy cases, and various issues with possible explanations are discussed. It is also proposed that NCC be declared as a reportable disease which is one of the eradicable public health problems in SEA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  11. Irfan B, Zahid I, Khan MS, Khan OAA, Zaidi S, Awan S, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Nov 21;19(1):865.
    PMID: 31752855 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4676-y
    BACKGROUND: Basic Life Support (BLS) is the recognition of sudden cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system, followed by resuscitation, and rapid defibrillation. According to WHO, Pakistan has one of the highest mortality rates from accidental deaths therefore assessment and comparison of BLS knowledge in health professionals is crucial. We thereby aim to assess and compare the knowledge of BLS in doctors, dentists and nurses.

    METHODS: A multi-centric cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karachi at different institutions belonging to the private as well as government sector from January to March 2018. We used a structured questionnaire which was adapted from pretested questionnaires that have been used previously in similar studies. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using SPSS v22.0, where adequate knowledge was taken as a score of at least 50%. P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  12. Ahmed A, Saqlain M, Tanveer M, Tahir AH, Ud-Din F, Shinwari MI, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2021 Jan 07;21(1):35.
    PMID: 33413164 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-05714-z
    BACKGROUND: Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), a tropically neglected infectious disease caused by Nairovirus, is endemic in low middle-income countries like Pakistan. Emergency health care professionals (HCPs) are at risk of contracting nosocomial transmission of CCHF. We, therefore, aim to analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) of at-risk physicians, nurses, and pharmacists in Pakistan and the factors associated with good KAP.

    METHOD: A validated questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha 0.71) was used to collect data from HCPs in two CCHF endemic metropolitan cities of Pakistan by employing a cross-sectional study design. For data analysis percentages, chi-square test and Spearman correlation were applied by using SPSS version 22.

    RESULTS: Of the 478 participants, 56% (n = 268) were physicians, 37.4% (n = 179) were nurses, and 6.5% (n = 31) were pharmacists. The proportion of HCPs with good knowledge, attitude, and perception scores was 54.3%, 81, and 69%, respectively. Being a physician, having more work experience, having a higher age, working in tertiary care settings, were key factors for higher knowledge (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  13. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Aghazadeh S, Nik Sulaiman NM
    Biomed Environ Sci, 2018 Jul;31(7):545-550.
    PMID: 30145991 DOI: 10.3967/bes2018.074
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  14. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Nik Sulaiman NM
    Biomed Environ Sci, 2018 09;31(9):705-711.
    PMID: 30369349 DOI: 10.3967/bes2018.095
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  15. Yuswir NS, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Ismail SN, Hashim Z
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2015 Jul;95(1):80-9.
    PMID: 25904089 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-015-1544-2
    Urban environmental quality is vital to be investigated as the majority of people live in cities. However, given the continuous urbanization and industrialization in urban areas, heavy metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat to human. In this study, a total of 76 urban surface soil samples were collected in the Klang district (Malaysia), and analyzed for total and bioavailable heavy metal concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Results showed that the concentrations of bioavailable heavy metals declined in the order of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr, and the concentrations of total heavy metals declined in the order of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, and Cd. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that heavy metals could be grouped into three principal components, with PC1 containing Al and Fe, PC2 comprising Cd, Co, Cr, and Cu, and PC3 with only Zn. PCA results showed that PC1 may originate from natural sources, whereas PC2 and PC3 most likely originated from anthropogenic sources. Health risk assessment indicated that heavy metal contamination in the Klang district was below the acceptable threshold for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in adults, but above the acceptable threshold for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  16. Oliveira JA, Doll CN, Siri J, Dreyfus M, Farzaneh H, Capon A
    Cad Saude Publica, 2015 Nov;31 Suppl 1:25-38.
    PMID: 26648361 DOI: 10.1590/0102-311X00010015
    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  17. Capon A, Siri J
    Cad Saude Publica, 2015 Nov;31 Suppl 1:21-2; discussion 22-3.
    PMID: 26648359 DOI: 10.1590/0102-311XCO06S115
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  18. Chen WL, Ling YS, Lee DJH, Lin XQ, Chen ZY, Liao HT
    Chemosphere, 2020 Mar;242:125268.
    PMID: 31896175 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125268
    This study investigated chlorinated transformation products (TPs) and their parent micropollutants, aromatic pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the urban water bodies of two metropolitan cities. Nine PPCPs and 16 TPs were quantitatively or semi-quantitatively determined using isotope dilution techniques and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TPs and most PPCPs were effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatments in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Chlorinated parabens and all PPCPs (at concentrations below 1000 ng/L) were present in the waters receiving treated wastewater. By contrast, the waters receiving untreated wastewater contained higher levels of PPCPs (up to 9400 ng/L) and more species of chlorinated TPs including chlorinated parabens, triclosan, diclofenac, and bisphenol A. The very different chemical profiles between the water bodies of the two cities of similar geographical and climatic properties may be attributed to their respective uses of chemicals and policies of wastewater management. No apparent increase in the number of species or abundances of TPs was observed in either the chlorinated wastewater or the seawater rich in halogens. This is the first study to elucidate and compare the profiles of multiple TPs and their parent PPCPs in the water bodies of coastal cities from tropical islands. Our findings suggest that chlorinated derivatives of bisphenol A, diclofenac, triclosan, and parabens in the surface water originate from sources other than wastewater disinfection or marine chlorination. Although further studies are needed to identify the origins, conventional wastewater treatments may protect natural water bodies against contamination by those chlorinated substances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  19. Chew KW, Khoo KS, Foo HT, Chia SR, Walvekar R, Lim SS
    Chemosphere, 2020 Dec 15;268:129322.
    PMID: 33359993 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129322
    With the rapid urbanisation happening around the world followed by the massive demand for clean energy resources, green cities play a pivotal role in building a sustainable future for the people. The continuing depletion of natural resources has led to the development of renewable energy with algae as the promising source. The high growth rate of microalgae and their strong bio-fixation ability to convert CO2 into O2 have been gaining attention globally and intensive research has been conducted regarding the microalgae benefits. The focus on potential of microalgae in contributing to the development of green cities is rising. The advantage of microalgae is their ability to gather energy from sunlight and carbon dioxide, followed by transforming the nutrients into biomass and oxygen. This leads to the creation of green cities through algae cultivation as waste and renewable materials can be put to good use. The challenges that arise when using algae and the future prospect in terms of SDGs and economy will also be covered in this review. The future of green cities can be enhanced with the adaptation of algae as the source of renewable plants to create a better outlook of an algae green city.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  20. Liang Y, Ahmad Mohiddin MN, Bahauddin R, Hidayatul FO, Nazni WA, Lee HL, et al.
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2019;2019:1923479.
    PMID: 31481976 DOI: 10.1155/2019/1923479
    In this paper, we will start off by introducing the classical Ross-Macdonald model for vector-borne diseases which we use to describe the transmission of dengue between humans and Aedes mosquitoes in Shah Alam, which is a city and the state capital of Selangor, Malaysia. We will focus on analysing the effect of using the Mosquito Home System (MHS), which is an example of an autodissemination trap, in reducing the number of dengue cases by changing the Ross-Macdonald model. By using the national dengue data from Malaysia, we are able to estimate λ, which represents the initial growth rate of the dengue epidemic, and this allows us to estimate the number of mosquitoes in Malaysia. A mathematical expression is also constructed which allows us to estimate the potential number of breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes. By using the data available from the MHS trial carried out in Section 15 of Shah Alam, we included the potential effect of the MHS into the dengue model and thus modelled the impact MHS has on the spread of dengue within the trial area. We then extended our results to analyse the effect of the MHSs on reducing the number of dengue cases in the whole of Malaysia. A new model was constructed with a basic reproduction number, R0,MalaMHS, which allows us to identify the required MHSs coverage needed to achieve extinction in Malaysia. Numerical simulations and tables of results were also produced to illustrate our results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities/epidemiology
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