Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 195 in total

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  1. Norlaili AA, Fatihah MA, Daliana NF, Maznah D
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7161-4.
    PMID: 24460269
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  2. Tan SY, Praveena SM, Abidin EZ, Cheema MS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Dec;25(34):34623-34635.
    PMID: 30315534 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3396-x
    This study aimed to determine bioavailable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) and their potential sources in classroom dust collected from children's hand palms in Rawang (Malaysia). This study also aimed to determine the association between bioavailable heavy metal concentration in classroom dust and children's respiratory symptoms. Health risk assessment (HRA) was applied to evaluate health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) due to heavy metals in classroom dust. The mean of bioavailable heavy metal concentrations in classroom dust found on children's hand palms was shown in the following order: Zn (1.25E + 01 μg/g) > Cu (9.59E-01 μg/g) > Ni (5.34E-01 μg/g) > Cr (4.72E-02 μg/g) > Co (2.34E-02 μg/g) > As (1.77E-02 μg/g) > Cd (9.60E-03 μg/g) > Pb (5.00E-03 μg/g). Hierarchical cluster analysis has clustered 17 sampling locations into three clusters, whereby cluster 1 (S3, S4, S6, S15) located in residential areas and near to roads exposed to vehicle emissions, cluster 2 (S10, S12, S9, S7) located near Rawang town and cluster 3 (S13, S16, S1, S2, S8, S14, S11, S17, S5) located near industrial, residential and plantation areas. Emissions from vehicles, plantations and industrial activities were found as the main sources of heavy metals in classroom dust in Rawang. There is no association found between bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and respiratory symptoms, except for Cu (OR = 0.03). Health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) indicated that there are no potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals in classroom dust toward children health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  3. Chin YSJ, De Pretto L, Thuppil V, Ashfold MJ
    PLoS One, 2019;14(3):e0212206.
    PMID: 30870439 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212206
    As in many nations, air pollution linked to rapid industrialization is a public health and environmental concern in Malaysia, especially in cities. Understanding awareness of air pollution and support for environmental protection from the general public is essential for informing governmental approaches to dealing with this problem. This study presents a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Klang Valley and Iskandar conurbations to examine urban Malaysians' perception, awareness and opinions of air pollution. The survey was conducted in two languages, English and Malay, and administered through the online survey research software, Qualtrics. The survey consisted of three sections, where we collected sociodemographic information, information on the public perception of air quality and the causes of air pollution, information on public awareness of air pollution and its related impacts, and information on attitudes towards environmental protection. Of 214 respondents, over 60% were positive towards the air quality at both study sites despite the presence of harmful levels of air pollution. The air in the Klang Valley was perceived to be slightly more polluted and causing greater health issues. Overall, the majority of respondents were aware that motor vehicles represent the primary pollution source, yet private transport was still the preferred choice of transportation mode. A generally positive approach towards environmental protection emerged from the data. However, participants showed stronger agreement with protection actions that do not involve individual effort. Nonetheless, we found that certain segments of the sample (people owning more than three vehicles per household and those with relatives who suffered from respiratory diseases) were significantly more willing to personally pay for environmental protection compared to others. Implications point to the need for actions for spreading awareness of air pollution to the overall population, especially with regards to its health risks, as well as strategies for increasing the perception of behavioural control, especially with regards to motor vehicles' usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  4. Rouffaer LO, Lens L, Haesendonck R, Teyssier A, Hudin NS, Strubbe D, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(5):e0155366.
    PMID: 27168186 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155366
    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: <1.3%) of a reservoir in healthy house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  5. Masseran N, Razali AM, Ibrahim K, Latif MT
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Jan;188(1):65.
    PMID: 26718946 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-5070-9
    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  6. Mohamad M, Selamat MI, Ismail Z
    J Environ Public Health, 2014;2014:459173.
    PMID: 25309602 DOI: 10.1155/2014/459173
    In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  7. Aziz S, Aidil RM, Nisfariza MN, Ngui R, Lim YA, Yusoff WS, et al.
    J Vector Borne Dis, 2014 Jun;51(2):91-6.
    PMID: 24947215
    Dengue fever (DF) is a major vector-borne disease in Malaysia. The incidences of DF in Malaysia are caused by viruses transmitted through the bites of infected female Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This study aims to establish the spatial density of mosquito population or breteau index (BI) in the areas of Kuala Lumpur using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and spatial statistical tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  8. Jaber AA, Khan AH, Syed Sulaiman SA, Ahmad N, Anaam MS
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0156258.
    PMID: 27257990 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156258
    BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) patients is important because it directly influences the outcome of TB patients in several aspects. The current study aims to evaluate and to find the factors influencing the HRQoL of TB patients in two major TB-prevalent cities (Taiz and Alhodidah) in Yemen.

    METHODS: A prospective study was conducted, and all TB patients meeting the HRQoL criteria were asked to complete the HRQoL SF-36 survey. The records of TB patients were examined for disease confirmation, and a follow-up was consequently performed for patients during treatment between March 2013 and February 2014 in Taiz and Alhodidah Cities. HRQol scores were calculated by using QM scoring software version 4.5, in which the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) were obtained. The scores obtained between 47-53 normal based score (NBS) were considered equivalent to the US normal score. Low scores indicate the poor health situation of TB patients.

    RESULTS: A total of 243 TB patients enrolled in the study at the beginning of the treatment. A total of 235 and 197 TB patients completed the questionnaire at the end of the intensive phase (I.P.) and continuation phase (C.P.), respectively. The final dropout rate was 16.2%. The mean PCS and MCS scores at the beginning of treatment were low, thus showing the poor health situation of TB patients. The mean PCS scores at the beginning of treatment, end of I.P., and end of treatment were (36.1), (44.9), and (48), respectively. Moreover, the mean MCS score at the beginning of treatment, end of I.P., and end of treatment were (35.1), (42.2), and (44.3), respectively. The result shows that significant increases are observed at the end of I.P. for PCS and MCS because of the treatment and slight changes at the end of C.P. Despite this finding, the MCS score remains below the normal range (47), thus indicating a significant risk of depression among TB patients. Furthermore, general linear repeated measure ANOVA was performed for selected variables, to examine the changes of PCS and MCS over time. It was found that Alhodiah city, chewing khat habit, stigmatization, and duration of treatment more than six months were greatly associated with low mean MCS score of TB patient, indicating great risk of depression which may result in poor treatment outcome.

    CONCLUSION: TB patients in Yemen were found to have poor QoL, with a significant likelihood of depression. Highly risk depression was found among TB patients in Alhodiah city, khat chewers, stigmatization and having a duration of treatment more than 6 months. Therefore, additional efforts should be made to improve their QoL because it may affect the final clinical outcome of patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  9. Kay, Sin Tan, Navarro, Jose C, Ka, Sing Wong, Yi, Ning Huang, Hou, Chang Chiu, Poungvarin, Niphon, et al.
    Neurology Asia, 2014;19(2):117-127.
    MyJurnal
    Background and Objective: There is a lack of international collaborative studies on young adults with ischaemic stroke in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors, aetiology and outcome at hospital discharge of these patients across 8 participating countries in Asia. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, multicentre, hospital based cohort study. Consecutive young stroke patients with confirmed cerebral infarction between the ages of 18-49 were recruited from December 2011 to May 2012. Data was collected for patient demography, risk factors, investigations, clinical profile and TOAST classification. Outcome measures were death and independence (modified Rankin score≤ 2) at hospital discharge. Results: Two hundred and eighteen patients with the mean age was 40.8±6.7 years were recruited. There was a larger proportion of male patients with a ratio of 1.9:1. Traditional risk factors observed were hypertension (n=103; 47.3%), dyslipidaemia (n=93; 42.4%), smoking (n=85; 38.8%), diabetes (n=53; 24.3%), alcohol use (n=33; 15.0%), a previous history of stroke and transient ischaemic attacks (6.4%), family history (n=12; 5.5%), migraine (n=6;2.8%), pregnancy related (n=5; 2.3%) and numerous cardiac risk factors (0.9-5.5%). The majority suffered arterial infarction; n=216 (99.4%) while n=2 (0.6%) had venous strokes. The predominant stroke subtypes were large artery atherosclerosis (LAA); 29.8% and small vessel occlusion (SVO); 20.2%. LAA and SVO accounted for 37.5% of all stroke subtypes in the ≤36 year age-group. Cardioembolism (15.1%) and stroke of determined aetiology (14.7%) contributed to the other categories of identified stroke subtypes. Mortality on hospital discharge was 3.1% while 65.1% of patients were independent on discharge. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the substantial presence of premature atherosclerosis and conventional risk factors in young ischaemic stroke patients from 8 Asian cities. Venous infarction from cerebral venous thrombosis was rare in this study. Outcome on hospital discharge was poorer compared to Western studies. Detection of vascular risk factors and primary prevention measures should be initiated during late adolescence or early adulthood in urban Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  10. Kim WJ, Gupta V, Nishimura M, Makita H, Idolor L, Roa C, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2018 07 01;22(7):820-826.
    PMID: 29914609 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.17.0524
    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition that can differ in its clinical manifestation, structural changes and response to treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify subgroups of COPD with distinct phenotypes, evaluate the distribution of phenotypes in four related regions and calculate the 1-year change in lung function and quality of life according to subgroup.

    METHODS: Using clinical characteristics, we performed factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in a cohort of 1676 COPD patients from 13 Asian cities. We compared the 1-year change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score and exacerbations according to subgroup derived from cluster analysis.

    RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed that body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, SGRQ total score and FEV1 were principal factors. Using these four factors, cluster analysis identified three distinct subgroups with differing disease severity and symptoms. Among the three subgroups, patients in subgroup 2 (severe disease and more symptoms) had the most frequent exacerbations, most rapid FEV1 decline and greatest decline in SGRQ total score.

    CONCLUSION: Three subgroups with differing severities and symptoms were identified in Asian COPD subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  11. Adrus M, Zainudin R, Ahamad M, Jayasilan MA, Abdullah MT
    J Med Primatol, 2019 02;48(1):22-31.
    PMID: 30370934 DOI: 10.1111/jmp.12389
    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine gastrointestinal (GI) parasites commonly found in Malaysia's non-human primates (NHP) living in three different types of populations (wild, urban, and captive) and the basis of major GI parasites of zoonotic importance.

    METHODS: A total of 308 samples was collected and microscopically screened from the NHP in the wild (n = 163), urban (n = 76), and captive (n = 69) populations. The samples were taken from 12 species of local NHPs.

    RESULTS: At least, 44 species of GI parasites comprising of protozoans (seven species), nematodes (26 species), cestodes (five species), trematodes (five species), and pentastomida (one species) were detected. There were no significant differences for the overall prevalence and no great differences in GI parasite species among the wild, urban, and captive NHP populations.

    CONCLUSION: The most common GI parasite was Ascaris spp. (49.7%), followed by Oesophagostomum spp. (26.9%), and 31 species discovered in this study are of known public health importance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  12. Sehreen F, Masud MM, Akhtar R, Masum MRA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Jun 22;191(7):457.
    PMID: 31230139 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7595-9
    The city of Dhaka has been ranked repeatedly as the most polluted, the most populous, and the most unbearable city in the world. More than 19.5 million inhabitants live in Dhaka, and the population growth rate of urban areas in Bangladesh is almost double that of rural areas. Rapid urbanization is one of the leading contributors to water pollution in Dhaka and could prevent the country from achieving sustainable development. Therefore, this study estimates respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to improve water pollution management systems and identifies factors that influence WTP in Dhaka. This study employed the contingent valuation method (CVM) to estimate WTP of the respondents. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with CVM questions, which was distributed to households in the study areas. The results revealed that 67% of the respondents are willing to pay for an improved water pollution management system, while 31.8% of households are unwilling to pay. The study also found that socio-economic factors (e.g., income and education) and perception significantly influence WTP. Therefore, this paper will provide directives for policymakers in developing an effective policy framework, as well as sensitize all stakeholders to the management of water pollution in Dhaka. The study suggests that social institutions, financial institutions, banks, non-government organizations (NGOs), insurance companies, and the government could provide effective outreach programs for water pollution management as part of their social responsibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  13. Razak HA, Wahid NBA, Latif MT
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2019 Nov;77(4):587-593.
    PMID: 31359072 DOI: 10.1007/s00244-019-00656-3
    Anionic surfactants are one of the pollutants derived from particulate matter (PM) and adversely affect the health of living organisms. In this study, the compositions of surfactants extracted from PM and vehicle soot collected in an urban area were investigated. A high-volume air sampler was used to collect PM sample at urban area based on coarse (> 1.5 µm) and fine (
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  14. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Nik Sulaiman NM
    Biomed Environ Sci, 2018 09;31(9):705-711.
    PMID: 30369349 DOI: 10.3967/bes2018.095
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  15. Zee KY, Asib N, Ismail SI
    Plant Dis, 2021 Apr 14.
    PMID: 33851868 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2732-PDN
    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an economically important tropical fruit crop and is cultivated extensively in Malaysia. In September and October 2019, postharvest fruit rot symptoms were observed on 30% to 40% of guava fruit cv. Kampuchea in fruit markets of Puchong and Ipoh cities in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia. Initial symptoms appeared as brown, irregular, water-soaked lesions on the upper portion of the fruit where it was attached to the peduncle. Subsequently, lesions then progressed to cover the whole fruit (Fig.1A). Lesions were covered with an abundance of black pycnidia and grayish mycelium. Ten symptomatic guava fruit were randomly collected from two local markets for our investigation. For fungal isolation, small fragments (5×5 mm) were excised from the lesion margin, surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl for 2 min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25 °C with 12-h photoperiod for 2-3 days. Eight single-spore isolates with similar morphological characteristics were obtained and two representative isolates (P8 and S9) were characterized in depth. Colonies on PDA were initially composed of grayish-white aerial mycelium, but turned dark-gray after 7 days (Fig. 1B). Abundant black pycnidia were observed after incubation for 4 weeks. Immature conidia were hyaline, aseptate, ellipsoid, thick-walled, and mature conidia becoming dark brown and 1-septate with longitudinal striations, 25.0 - 27.0 ± 2.5 × 13.0 - 14.0 ± 1.0 μm (n = 30) (Fig.1C, D). On the basis of morphology, both representative isolates were identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl. (Alves et al. 2008). For molecular identification, genomic DNA of the two isolates was extracted using the DNeasy plant mini kit (Qiagen, USA). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) genes were amplified using ITS5/ITS4 and EF1-728F/EF1-986R primer set, respectively (White et al. 1990, Carbone and Kohn 1999). BLASTn analysis of the resulting ITS and EF1-α sequences indicated 100% identity to L. theobromae ex-type strain CBS 164.96 (GenBank accession nos: AY640255 and AY640258, respectively) (Phillips et al. 2013). The ITS (MW380428, MW380429) and EF1-α (MW387153, MW387154) sequences were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood based on the combined ITS-TEF sequences indicated that the isolates formed a strongly supported clade (100% bootstrap value) to the related L. theobromae (Kumar et al. 2016) (Fig.2). A pathogenicity test of two isolates was conducted on six healthy detached guava fruits per isolate. The fruit were surface sterilized using 70% ethanol and rinsed twice with sterile water prior inoculation. The fruit were wound-inoculated using a sterile needle according to the method of de Oliveira et al. (2014) and five-mm-diameter mycelial agar plugs from 7-days-old PDA culture of the isolates were placed onto the wounds. Six additional fruit were wound inoculated using sterile 5-mm-diameter PDA agar plugs to serve as controls. Inoculated fruit were placed in sterilized plastic container and incubated in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 90% relative humidity with a photoperiod of 12-h. The experiment was conducted twice. Five days after inoculation, symptoms as described above developed on the inoculated sites and caused a fruit rot, while control treatment remained asymptomatic. L. theobromae was reisolated from all symptomatic tissues and confirmed by morphological characteristics and confirmed by PCR using ITS region. L. theobromae has recently been reported to cause fruit rot on rockmelon in Thailand (Suwannarach et al. 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of L. theobromae causing postharvest fruit rot on guava in Malaysia. The occurrence of this disease needs to be monitored as this disease can reduce the marketable yield of guava. Preventive strategies need to be developed in the field to reduce postharvest losses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  16. Rosenthal VD, Bat-Erdene I, Gupta D, Belkebir S, Rajhans P, Zand F, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2020 05;41(5):553-563.
    PMID: 32183925 DOI: 10.1017/ice.2020.20
    BACKGROUND: Short-term peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.

    METHODS: Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.

    RESULTS: We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).

    CONCLUSIONS: PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  17. Wahab MIA, Razak WMAA, Sahani M, Khan MF
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Feb 10;703:135535.
    PMID: 31767333 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135535
    This study aimed to assess the concentrations and health effect of trace metals [cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)] on the road dust of selected locations in the city of Kuala Lumpur. Sampling was conducted thrice at four locations, namely, Tun Razak Road, Raja Abdullah Road, Tunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) Road, and Ayer Molek Road. The concentrations of trace metals in road dust were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. TAR Road presented the highest Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb contents compared with the other roads. The pollution level of trace metals in road dust was assessed by pollution index and pollution load index (PLI), showing that all studied locations were highly contaminated except Ayer Molek Road. Based on the PLI value, the sequence of pollution in descending order is as follows: TAR Road > Raja Abdullah Road > Tun Razak Road > Ayer Molek Road. Health risk assessment was performed to assess the health effects of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic pollutants caused by the exposure to trace metals in road dust on adults and children. Based on the integrated hazard index values for children at all locations, >1 indicates a possible noncarcinogenic effect. All incremental lifetime cancer risk values for adult and children at all locations are within acceptable limits and are considered safe.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  18. Mohd Nawawee NS, Abu Bakar NF, Zulfakar SS
    PMID: 31766289 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16224463
    Improper handling, poor hygienic practices, and lack of environmental control affect the safety of street-vended beverages. The objective of this study is to determine the bacterial contamination level of three types of beverages (cordial-based drinks, milk-based drinks, fruit juices) sold by street vendors at Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 31 samples of beverages were analyzed to determine total viable count (TVC), total coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus counts via the standard plate count method. The results showed that only 9.7% of the total samples were not contaminated with the tested microorganisms. All milk-based drink samples were positive for TVC and also had the highest average bacterial counts at 5.30 ± 1.11 log Colony Forming Unit/mL (CFU/mL). About 71% of the samples were contaminated with total coliform with the average readings ranging between 4.30 and 4.75 log CFU/mL, whereas 58.1% of the samples were positive with S. aureus, with fruit juices having the highest average reading (3.42 ± 1.15 log CFU/mL). Only one sample (milk-based drink) was E. coli positive. This study showed that the microbiological safety level of street-vended beverages in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur was average and needs to be improved. Provision of food safety education and adequate sanitary facilities at vending sites are suggested to increase the safety of food products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  19. Shabanda IS, Koki IB, Low KH, Zain SM, Khor SM, Abu Bakar NK
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Dec;26(36):37193-37211.
    PMID: 31745807 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06718-2
    Human health is threatened by significant emissions of heavy metals into the urban environment due to various activities. Various studies describing health risk analyses on soil and dust have been conducted previously. However, there are limited studies that have been carried out regarding the potential health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban road dust of < 63-μm diameter, via incidental ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation exposure routes by children and adults in developing countries. Therefore, this study evaluated the health risks of heavy metal exposure via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of urban dust particles in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) were measured using dust samples obtained from industrial, high-traffic, commercial, and residential areas by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed the dominance of these metal concentrations at sites associated with anthropogenic activities. This was suggestive of industrial, traffic emissions, atmospheric depositions, and wind as the significant contributors towards urban dust contamination in the study sites. Further exploratory analysis underlined Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn as the most representative metals in the dust samples. In accommodating the uncertainties associated with health risk calculations and simulating the reasonable maximum exposure of these metals, the related health risks were estimated at the 75th and 95th percentiles. Furthermore, assessing the exposure to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic metals in the dust revealed that ingestion was the primary route of consumption. Children who ingested dust particles in Petaling Jaya could be more vulnerable to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, but the exposure for both children and adults showed no potential health effects. Therefore, this study serves as an important premise for a review and reformation of the existing environmental quality standards for human health safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  20. Awang N, Jamaluddin F
    J Environ Public Health, 2014;2014:408275.
    PMID: 25136371 DOI: 10.1155/2014/408275
    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
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