Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

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  1. ul Haq N, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Saleem F, Aljadhey H
    PMID: 22866752 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-91
    The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  2. Quak SH, Singh R, Oon CJ, Wong HB
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1982 Jun;2(2):53-6.
    PMID: 6185078
    A study of race-related distribution of hepatitis B markers was conducted in 458 children admitted consecutively to Singapore General Hospital. The positive rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 11.2, 8.0 and 12.2% respectively and the corresponding figures for anti-HBs were 30.2, 12.0 and 14.6%. In Chinese children HBsAg prevalence was shown to be sex-related, being higher in males than females. The percentages of Chinese children positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc were also higher than those of the Indians. This study confirmed that Singapore children were exposed to hepatitis B infection from early life. All three races were equally susceptible to this infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  3. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2014;16:69-78.
    PMID: 24014801
    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide, and more than 350 million people are chronic carriers, constituting a major global threat. Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have the highest levels of endemicity in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence ranging between 2% and 31%. Mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported in many parts of the world but are most common in Asian infants; such mutants have several clinical effects, such as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagnostic failures by commercial assays have reduced the diagnostic effectiveness of HBsAg detection. For example the substitution of an amino acid in the major hydrophilic region of the S gene reduces the binding of hepatitis B surface antibodies leading to immune escape. The safety of blood transfusion may be compromised by current screening tests due to escape from being neutralised by antibodies induced by HBsAg mutants, and undetectable levels of viral surface protein. Data on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific are scant; however, this manuscript has reviewed the available information on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  4. Teoh Bing Fei J, Yee A, Habil MH, Danaee M
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2016 10;69:50-6.
    PMID: 27568510 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.07.006
    Methadone maintenance therapy has been found to be an effective harm reduction treatment for opioid use disorder. However evidence of its benefits over a longer duration of treatment is limited as most studies focus on its short term benefits. As methadone maintenance therapy reaches a decade since its implementation in Malaysia, this study sought to examine the effectiveness of methadone treatment, change in quality of life among patients since entry to methadone treatment, as well as factors predicting the magnitude of change in quality of life. This study found that methadone maintenance therapy was effective in reducing heroin use, injecting practices and crime, and in improving in social functioning and physical symptoms, but not in reducing sex-related HIV risk-taking behavior. Though patients had a significantly better quality of life at follow-up than at entry to methadone maintenance therapy, the improvement in quality of life was not significantly greater as the duration of treatment increased. Age above 50 years old, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status and physical symptoms predicted a poorer improvement in quality of life between baseline and follow-up. On the other hand, patients with hepatitis B showed a greater improvement in quality of life in the social relationships domain compared to patients without hepatitis B. In conclusion, methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder and improves quality of life but its benefits in further improving quality of life beyond a decade of treatment need further evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  5. Ross IN, Dass PK, Thavarasah AS, Noor SS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Dec;43(4):278-83.
    PMID: 3241593
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  6. Lopez CG
    Malays J Pathol, 1985 Aug;7:7-10.
    PMID: 3843253
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  7. Johnson DW, Dent H, Yao Q, Tranaeus A, Huang CC, Han DS, et al.
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2009 May;24(5):1598-603.
    PMID: 19096083 DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn684
    The impact of dialysis modality on the rates and types of infectious complications has not been well studied. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) patients in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  8. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  9. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  10. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  11. Hong YS, Chang Y, Ryu S, Cainzos-Achirica M, Kwon MJ, Zhang Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 04;7(1):4606.
    PMID: 28676706 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04206-6
    The role of hepatitis virus infection in glucose homeostasis is uncertain. We examined the associations between hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of diabetes in a cohort (N = 439,708) of asymptomatic participants in health screening examinations. In cross-sectional analyses, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for prevalent diabetes comparing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) to HBsAg (-) participants was 1.17 (95% CI 1.06-1.31; P = 0.003). The corresponding odds ratio comparing hepatitis C antibodies (HCV Ab) (+) to HCV Ab (-) participants was 1.43 (95% CI 1.01-2.02, P = 0.043). In prospective analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for incident diabetes comparing HBsAg (+) to HbsAg (-) participants was 1.23 (95% CI 1.08-1.41; P = 0.007). The number of incident cases of diabetes among HCV Ab (+) participants (10 cases) was too small to reliably estimate the prospective association between HCV infection and diabetes. In this large population at low risk of diabetes, HBV and HCV infections were associated with diabetes prevalence and HBV infection with the risk of incident diabetes. Our studies add evidence suggesting that diabetes is an additional metabolic complication of HBV and HCV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  12. Wait S, Kell E, Hamid S, Muljono DH, Sollano J, Mohamed R, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2016 11;1(3):248-255.
    PMID: 28404097 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30031-0
    In 2015, the Coalition to Eradicate Viral Hepatitis in Asia Pacific gathered leading hepatitis experts from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand to discuss common challenges to the burden posed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), to learn from each other's experience, and identify sustainable approaches. In this report, we summarise these discussions. Countries differ in their policy responses to HBV and HCV; however, substantial systemic, cultural, and financial barriers to achievement of elimination of these infections persist in all countries. Common challenges to elimination include limited availability of reliable epidemiological data; insufficient public awareness of risk factors and modes of transmission, leading to underdiagnosis; high rates of transmission through infected blood products, including in medical settings; limited access to care for people who inject drugs; prevailing stigma and discrimination against people infected with viral hepatitis; and financial barriers to treatment and care. Despite these challenges, promising examples of effective programmes, public-private initiatives, and other innovative approaches are evident in all countries we studied in Asia Pacific. The draft WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-21 provides a solid framework upon which governments can build their local strategies towards viral hepatitis. However, greater recognition by national governments and the international community of the urgency to comprehensively tackle both HBV and HCV are still needed. In all countries, strategic plans and policy goals need to be translated into resources and concrete actions, with national governments at the helm, to enable a sustainable response to the rising burden of hepatitis B and C in all countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  13. André F
    Vaccine, 2000 Feb 18;18 Suppl 1:S20-2.
    PMID: 10683538
    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  14. Gan CY, Yap SF, Ngeow YF, Wong HC
    Sex Transm Dis, 1991 4 1;18(2):84-8.
    PMID: 1862464
    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  15. Tan DS, Zaini Rahman M, Fang R, Collett D, Ooi BG
    PMID: 3538435
    Sera were obtained from 494 non-icteric patients admitted with illnesses other than overt hepatitis into the medical wards of the rural and urban hospitals in Malaysia. They were tested for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HBs by enzyme immunoassay. The overall HBsAg carrier rate was 18.0% ranging from 9.6% in children, (10 years and under), to a maximum of 23.5% in the adolescents (11 to 20 years), the rates decreasing subsequently to 16.5% and 20.8% in the adult and middle-age groups, respectively. The Chinese (18.6%) and Malays (19.9%) had similar HBsAg carrier rates but the rate in the Indians (9.0%) was distinctly lower. Similar rates were observed in the males (16.5%) and the females (19.8%). The carrier rate was 17.1% in rural patients compared with 21.4% in the urban ones. The 'e' antigen was found in 14 of the 89 HBsAg carriers (15.7%). The overall prevalence was 14/494 (2.8%) rising sharply from childhood (2.9%) to adolescence (5.3%), subsequently declining with advancing age. The Chinese had the highest rate (6.2%) followed by the Indians (1.5%) and the Malays (1.1%). Males had a rate of 3.3% compared to the females with 2.3%. Anti-HBs was found in 33.8% of the patients, increasing steadily from childhood (18.3%) to middle-age (46.4%). The Chinese had a higher prevalence rate (41.6%) than the Indians (32.8%) and the Malays (29.3%). The rates were similar for the males (35.6%) and the females (31.5%). Rural patients (46.1%) had a higher rate than urban patients (35.7%). Both areas showed rising prevalence with increasing age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  16. Goh KT
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1980 Apr;9(2):136-41.
    PMID: 6775577
    257 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported between January 1977 and June 1979. This constituted about one-third of all reported acute viral hepatitis cases in Singapore. The mean annual morbidity and mortality rates per 100,000 was 4.4 and 0.12 respectively. The case-fatality rate was 2.7%. The age-specific morbidity rates were high in the 15-24 and 25-34 years age groups, while the ethnic specific morbidity rate was highest in Indians. The male to female ratio was 4.6: 1. Cases were concentrated in urban and suburban areas with high population density. Three outbreaks, one traced to contaminated needles and syringes, one to contaminated tattoo neeedles, and amongst close contacts, were described. Although parenteral procedures were associated with hepatitis B infection (p < 0.005), non-parenteral or inapparent parenteral mode of transmission probably contributes to a significant extent in the transmission of hepatitis B in Singapore. Studies to determine the role of perinatal transmission, and of vectors, in maintaining the endemicity of the disease, were suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  17. Chan WK, Yeoh KY, Lim CY, Lai SM, Lee JL, Leow AHR, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):137-140.
    PMID: 29962496 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There have been no published data on the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of all the children of HBsAg-positive mothers who delivered at the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 and 2000.

    RESULTS: A total of 60 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 154 children participated in the study. HBsAg was detected in four children (2.6%) while IgG antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgG) was detected in seventeen children (11.0%). The mother's age at childbirth was significantly lower in the children with detectable HBsAg (22.5±6.1 years vs. 29.7±4.5 years, p=0.043) and anti-HBc IgG (26.6±6.1 years vs. 30.0±4.3 years, p=0.004). Children born in the 1980s were significantly more likely to have detectable HBsAg (18.8% vs. 0.7%, p=0.004) and anti-HBc IgG (37.5% vs. 8.0%, p=0.000) compared with those born later. All children with detectable HBsAg were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin was either not given or the administration status was unknown. The majority of mothers with chronic HBV infection (70.4%) were not under any regular follow-up for their chronic HBV infection and the main reason was the lack of awareness of the need to do so (47.4%).

    CONCLUSION: Transmission of HBV infection among children of HBsAg-positive mothers in Malaysia is low. However, attention needs to be given to the high rate of HBsAgpositive mothers who are not on any regular follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  18. Yap SF
    Malays J Pathol, 2004 Jun;26(1):1-12.
    PMID: 16190102
    "Parenteral" or "serum" hepatitis is known to have afflicted man for centuries. However, it was not until the mid-1960s that the causative agent of this infection, the hepatitis B virus, was discovered. Since then, the biology and the replication strategy of the virus, and the clinical features and the epidemiology of the hepatitis B infection have been determined. Knowledge about the virus and the infection it causes led to the development of firstly, a plasma-derived vaccine and later a recombinant vaccine for the prevention of the infection. Integration of the hepatitis B vaccine into newborn vaccination programmes on a worldwide basis represents a major step in the effort to eliminate this infectious disease and its complications. Laboratory tests are available for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Therapies have been developed to halt the progress of the chronic infection in affected individuals. While these developments have resulted in a decrease of the frequency of infection in many countries, particularly those that have implemented universal immunization of newborns, the chronic infection remains a significant global problem. Worldwide, over 300 million individuals are infected and each year, an estimated 1 million persons die from chronic complications of the disease including hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic failure. The therapies currently available result in elimination of the virus in only a relatively small proportion of subjects and carry with it serious side effects. Geopolitical, economic and other factors hinder the vision of elimination of the infection through immunization programmes. Nevertheless, work continues to clarify further the underlying pathological mechanism of the infection, the host and viral factors that promote elimination or persistence of the virus in the human host. It is hoped that such investigations will reveal viral targets for the design of newer and potentially more effective drugs to treat the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  19. Khairullah NS, Merican DI
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2004 Mar;19 Suppl:S13-6.
    PMID: 15156929
    The MLF since its inception in 1996 has endeavored to develop a coordinated approach towards the improved care and treatment of liver diseases in Malaysia. Its close liaison with the Malaysian MOH, local medical associations, and corporate bodies has contributed to the success of its many programs. Educating the public, research, and training have been important elements of successful hepatitis disease control programs. Hepatitis Days have been proven to be very successful in raising the awareness of the general public to hepatitis disease. Rapid screening and vaccination has also helped to remove the social stigma associated with the disease, eliminated the need for numerous clinic appointments, and rendered vaccination more accessible to the public. The MLF perspective emphasizes the need for collaborative effort between Government bodies and other agencies, such as non-governmental organizations, laboratories, and the medical fraternity, to ensure the overall success of hepatitis disease management programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  20. Ng KP, Saw TL, Baki A, Rozainah K, Pang KW, Ramanathan M
    Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 2005 May;194(3):163-8.
    PMID: 15834754
    The implementation of the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in 1989 has dramatic impact on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in school children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study of HBV infection in 190,077 school children aged 7-12 years from 1997 to 2003 showed a steady decline of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence rate from 2.5% for children born in 1985 to 0.4% among school children born in 1996. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 0.6%, 0.7% in males and 0.6% in females. Over 92.7% of school children had been vaccinated with HBV vaccine, in which 93.7% were vaccinated under the EPI and 6.3% on voluntary basis. The school children vaccinated under EPI had a 0.4% HBsAg carrier rate, which was significantly lower than school children vaccinated on a voluntary basis (HBsAg carrier rate 1.3%) and non-vaccinated school children (HBsAg carrier rate 2.7%), suggesting that HBV vaccination of infants was the most effective measure in preventing vertical transmission of HBV in the hyperendemic region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
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