Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

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  1. Sinniah M, Halimah M, Krishnamurthy T, Lye MS, Choo CH, Shamsiah I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):336-40.
    PMID: 7674968
    Immunisation of health care workers and staff working in laboratory and hospital settings has been implemented since 1988. However due to the high cost of currently available HBV vaccine, many health personnel outside the Ministry of Health are not being immunised. This study sought to determine the immunogenicity of three doses of a low cost plasma-derived Korean HBV vaccine on employees of an institute for mentally handicapped and their spouses and children. We found that the Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC to be safe and immunogenic. The response to 10 mcg and 20 mcg Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC after third dose was good with 100% seroconversion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  2. Lim CK, Tan JT, Khoo JB, Ravichandran A, Low HM, Chan YC, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2006;3(1):14-20.
    PMID: 16421626
    This study was carried out to determine the effects of hepatitis B virus genotypes, core promoter mutations (A1762G1764-->T1762A1764) as well as precore stop codon mutations (TGG-->TAG) on HBeAg expression and HBeAg/ anti-HBe status. Study was also performed on the effects of codon 15 variants (C1858/ T1858) on the predisposition of precore stop codon mutations (TGG-->TAG). A total of 77 sera samples were analyzed. Fifty one samples were successfully genotyped of which the predominant genotype was genotype B (29/ 51, 56.9 %), followed by genotype C (16/ 51, 31.4 %). Co-infections by genotypes B and C were observed in four samples (7.8 %). To a lesser degree, genotypes D and E (2.0 % each) were also observed. For core promoter mutations, the prevalence was 68.8 % (53/ 77) for A1762G1764 wild-type and 14.3 % (11/ 77) for T1762A1764 mutant while 9.1 % (7/ 77) was co-infected by both strains. The prevalence of codon 15 variants was found to be 42.9 % (33/ 77) for T1858 variant and 16.9 % (13/ 77) for C1858 variant. No TAG mutation was found. In our study, no associations were found between genotypes (B and C) and core promoter mutations as well as codon 15 variants. Also no correlation was observed between HBeAg/ anti-HBe status with genotypes (B and C) and core promoter mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies
  3. Ng KP, Saw TL
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):352-7.
    PMID: 11045062
    Hepatitis B surface antigen can be serologically defined as ayw1, ayw2, ayw3, ayw4, ayr, adw2, adw4 and adrq+ or adrq-. A study of common HBsAg subtypes in 44 HBsAg reactive sera in University Hospital was conducted using a solid-phase sandwich EIA. Eleven samples were found not typable and among the 33 typable HBsAg reactive sera, 3 HBsAg subtypes: adw, adr and ayw were identified. Subtype adw was found in 66.7% (22/33) of the typable HBsAg reactive sera; 24.2% (8/33) was of subtype adr and 6.0% (2/33) of subtype ayw. One sample was found to be reactive to both adw and adr. HBsAg subtype adw was found more commonly in Chinese but among the Malays, HBsAg subtype adr appeared to predominate. However, the small sample size precludes firm conclusions on the predominant subtype among the Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  4. Tan TC, Vadivale M, Ong CN
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1992;6(3):134-9.
    PMID: 1342800 DOI: 10.1177/101053959200600303
    This study was based on a hepatitis B screening program conducted in one of the states in Malaysia in 1989. The majority (84.6%) of the 2986 health employees were screened. One quarter (25%) was found to have serological markers for the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV); 2.1% had Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and 22.8% had antibody to the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (anti-HBs). The occurrence of HBsAg was higher in ethnic Chinese (6.3%) compared to Malays (1.8%) and Indians (0.9%), even when analyzed by sex, but not with age, type of institution and geographical locality. The distribution of anti-HBs was higher with ethnic Chinese (41.6%), male sex (27.2%) and age. There was a wide variation of the prevalence of serological markers among occupations and increased relative risks of HBsAg were found among medical assistants (RR3.7; 95% CI 1.4-9.1) and laboratory staff (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1-8.8), and that of anti-HBs among medical assistants (RR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-3.7). The variations of HBsAg among occupations by type of institutions was marginal while that of anti-HBs was higher among attendants and midwives in hospitals, medical assistants in health departments, and assistant nurses and dentists in dental centers. The patterns of distribution of serological markers of HBV among health staff reflect the situation in the community with high endemicity and resemble specific occupational factors noted in previous studies in the West.
    Publication year is 1992-1993
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  5. Mangalam S, Tan DS, Vijayamalar B, Collett D, Fang R
    PMID: 3787308
    Sera from 200 Malaysian male drug abusers were tested for markers of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, viz. HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc using commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits supplied by Abbot Laboratories, Chicago. Of these, 103 (51.5%) were positive for at least one HBV marker, 11 (5.5%) were positive for HBsAg; 4 (2%) for HBeAg, 74 (37%) for anti-HBs and 85 (42.5%) for anti-HBc. The HBsAg carrier rate was roughly the same as the carrier rate in the general population of Malaysia. The majority of drug abusers (95%) have had subclinical, asymptomatic HBV infection. Racially the Malay drug abusers had the highest exposure rate (54.2%). The HBsAg carrier rate was highest in the Chinese drug abusers (15.3%) and lowest in the Indians (0%). The mean age for the HBsAg carriers was found to be 26 years with a mean duration of drug abuse of 72 months. The Malaysian Anti-Narcotics Task Force of the National Security Council reported in the Malay Mail (July 13, 1985) that there were about 106,000 identified drug abusers in Malaysia and that 63% of these were in the 20-29 age groups. It appears from our study that this age group also coincides with the period of high HBsAg carrier rate. Age wise, those less than 21 years old had the highest HBsAg (11%) and HBeAg (5.6%) prevalence rates indicating high infectivity. After the age of 30 years, nearly 50% of the drug abusers appear to be immune with the HBe prevalence of 0%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  6. Ton SH, Lopez CG, Hasnah H
    PMID: 483004
    A study of Kuala Lumpur blood donors for HBsAG, anti-HBc and DNA polymeraes showed that 5.5% in the sample population was positive for HBsAG, 50.1% for anti-HBc and 10.1% for DNA polymerase activity. There was no significant difference of the HBsAG among the Malay, Chinese and Indian groups. However, a significant difference was observed for the anti-HBc and DNA polymerase activity between the Indian and the Malay/Chinese groups. Both analysis were significantly lower in the Indians but there was no significant difference between the Chinese and the Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  7. Ton SH, Lopez CG, Noriah R
    PMID: 6635764
    The incidence of HBsAg in random blood donors was found to be twice that of the prisoner population. The anti-HBe however, was about twice that in the prisoners when compared with the random blood donors. Both the random blood donors and the prisoners had similar incidence of HBeAg. The percentage frequency of HBsAg positivity with anti-HBe positivity was also similar in both groups. The 18 normal non-blood donors did not have HBsAg, HBeAg or anti-HBe.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  8. So-Har T, Gladys LC, Ramli N
    Vox Sang., 1983;45(5):389-91.
    PMID: 6636661
    HBeAg and anti-HBe were determined in the blood of 189 male blood donors. The incidence of HBsAg was 6.9% while that for HBeAg and anti-HBe was 1.6 and 18%, respectively. Of the 13 samples positive for HBsAg, two (15.4%) were positive for HBe while six (46.2%) were positive for anti-HBe. One specimen was negative for HBsAg but was positive for HBeAg and anti-HBe. The observations are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis
  9. Kamath S, Lopez CG
    Med. J. Aust., 1973 Nov 3;2(18):867-8.
    PMID: 4782397
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis
  10. Mahmood S, Shah KU, Khan TM
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 22;8(1):12550.
    PMID: 30135554 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30512-8
    A systematic review was performed to estimate the duration of protection of Hepatitis-B vaccine after primary vaccination during infancy. The number of seropositive participants with anti-HBs antibody titer ≥ 10 mIU/ml and seronegative participants who had anti-HBs antibody titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml after booster dose was the main outcome criteria to find out the protection time of Hepatitis-B vaccine. Twelve studies were selected for systematic review. Overall, results from the meta-analysis have revealed that the risk of Anti-HBs Titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml reduced by 50%. Upon performing the sub-group analysis it was revealed that the overall risk of having Anti-HBs Titre ≤ 10 mIU/ml was reduced up to 62% among the subjects age 21-30 years (0.38 [0.34, 0.44]; I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.938). Furthermore, it was observed that the risk of having titre level less than 10 mIU/ml for plasma derived vaccines were to be 56% [0.44, CI 0.33-0.57, I2 90.9%, p = <0.001]. Vaccination in early infancy does not ensure protection against Hepatitis-B infection. There is a strong correlation between the duration of protection and time elapsed after primary immunization during infancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood
  11. Othman SN, Zainol Rashid Z, Abdul Wahab A, Abdul Samat MN, Ding CH, Ali UK
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Dec;40(3):295-302.
    PMID: 30580360
    INTRODUCTION: Infant hepatitis B vaccination was introduced into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in Malaysia in 1989. This study aimed to investigate seroprevalence of hepatitis B among UKM pre-clinical medical students, born between 1991 and 1995, and had their infant vaccination more than 20 years ago.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving 352 students, comprising 109 (31.0%) males and 243 (69.0%) females. Blood specimens were tested for anti-HBs, where levels of ≥10 mIU/mL was considered reactive and protective. Students with non-reactive levels were given a 20 μg HBV vaccine booster. Anti-HBs levels were tested six weeks after the first booster dose. Those with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL were then given another two booster doses, at least one month apart. Anti-HBs levels were tested six weeks after the third dose.

    RESULTS: Ninety-seven students (27.6%) had anti-HBs ranging from 10 to >1000 mIU/mL while 255 (72.4%) had anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL. After one booster dose, 208 (59.1%) mounted anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL. Among the remaining 47 (13.3%), all except two students (0.6%) responded following completion of three vaccination doses. They were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBcore antibody, thus regarded as non-responders.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HBs levels waned after 20 years post-vaccination, where more than 70% were within non-reactive levels. For healthcare workers, a booster dose followed by documenting anti-HBs levels of ≥10 mIU/mL may be recommended, to guide the management of post-exposure prophylaxis. Pre-booster anti-HBs testing may not be indicated. Serological surveillance is important in long-term assessment of HBV vaccination programs. No HBV carrier was detected.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood*
  12. Tam YJ, Zeenathul NA, Rezaei MA, Mustafa NH, Azmi MLM, Bahaman AR, et al.
    Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 2017 Sep;64(5):735-744.
    PMID: 27506960 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1528
    Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification, and the dynamic range of detection of hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip-based approach with Pichia pastoris-derived recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as recognition element were established through the scouting for optimal conditions for the improvement of immobilization efficiency and in the use of optimal regeneration buffer. Recombinant HBsAg was immobilized onto the sensor surface of a CM5 chip at a concentration of 150 mg/L in sodium acetate buffer at pH 4 with added 0.6% Triton X-100. A regeneration solution of 20 mM HCl was optimally found to effectively unbind analytes from the ligand, thus allowing for multiple screening cycles. A dynamic range of detection of ∼0.00098-0.25 mg/L was obtained, and a sevenfold higher LOD, as well as a twofold increase in coefficient of variance of the replicated results, was shown as compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Evaluation of the assay for specificity showed no cross-reactivity with other antibodies tested. The ability of SPR chip-based assay and ELISA to detect anti-HBs in human serum was comparable, indicating that the SPR chip-based assay with its multiple screening capacity has greater advantage over ELISA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood*; Hepatitis B Antibodies/metabolism*
  13. Yap WB, Tey BT, Alitheen NB, Tan WS
    J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2012 Jan;113(1):26-9.
    PMID: 22024533 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2011.09.007
    The C-terminal domain of Nipah virus (NiV) nucleocapsid protein (NP₄₀₁₋₅₃₂) was inserted at the N-terminus and the immunodominant loop of hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). The stability of NP₄₀₁₋₅₃₂ increased tremendously when displayed on the HBc particles. These particles reacted specifically with the swine anti-NiV and the human anti-HBc antisera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology
  14. Tan GH, Yusoff K, Seow HF, Tan WS
    J. Med. Virol., 2005 Dec;77(4):475-80.
    PMID: 16254965
    The immunodominant region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) located in the viral small surface antigen (S-HBsAg) elicits virus-neutralizing and protective antibodies. In order to develop an easy and inexpensive method to produce this region without the need for extensive purification, amino acid residues 111-156 of S-HBsAg were fused to the C-terminal end of the 10B capsid protein of T7 phage. Western blotting and ELISA confirmed the expression of the recombinant protein on the surface of the phage particles. The recombinant phage exhibited the antigenic and immunogenic characteristics of HBsAg, illustrating its potential as an immunological reagent and vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood
  15. Lee WS, Teh CM, Chan LL
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2005 May-Jun;41(5-6):265-8.
    PMID: 15953326 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2005.00608.x
    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risks of seroconversion of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) in children with multitransfused thalassaemia at a thalassaemic clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    METHODS: Seventy-two children (39 males, median age 11.3 years, 2.5th-97.5th centile: 1.4-19.2 years) with thalassaemia major were studied. The risks of seroconversion of HBV, HCV and HIV were estimated by comparing the seroprevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV between a defined starting point and an end point. The end point was the point when latest serological results were available while the starting point was when regular transfusion was commenced, or approximately 5 years before the end point when the duration of transfusion was longer.
    RESULTS: The median duration of the study was 49 months (range 8-69 months, total 2953 patient-months). There were 2605 transfusion episodes and 4154 units of blood transfused (0.88 transfusion episode/patient per month, 1.41 units of blood transfused/patient per month). There were three new seroconversions for anti-HCV but none for HBsAg and anti-HIV. The risk of seroconversion for HCV was one in 1384 units of blood transfused (95% CI: 4000-472). The seroprevalence rates at the starting and end points were: HBsAg (1%, 1%), anti-HCV (10%, 13%) and anti-HIV (0%, 0%), respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: The estimated risk of acquiring HCV infection in children receiving multiple blood transfusions in this study is surprisingly higher than the generally accepted estimated risk. Other routes of transmission may be important. A prospective, multicentre study to estimate such risks more precisely is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood*
  16. Yap SF, Wong NW, Goh KL
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Jun;16(1):57-62.
    PMID: 16329577
    The relationship between serum Hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) and the Hepatitis B e-antigen/ anti-Hepatitis Be (HBeAg/anti-HBe) serological status in Malaysians was studied. 212 cases of asymptomatic HBV carriers were recruited for this study. 92 cases were positive for the HBeAg at the point of recruitment. 85 (92.4%) of these patients tested positive for HBV-DNA, of whom 55 (64.7%) had levels over 100pg/ml of serum. Three of the remaining 7 HBeAg positive cases who were negative for HBV-DNA subsequently seroconverted. The other 4 cases remained negative for HBV-DNA for periods of 6-12 months. Out of 113 cases who were anti-HBe positive, 12 (10.6%) gave a positive HBV-DNA result. 2 of these 12 patients were recent seroconverters; the remaining cases had transiently increased viral replicative activity which later subsided. 7 out of the 212 carriers were in the e-window period; all 7 tested negative for HBV-DNA. Our data confirm a high frequency of HBV-DNA in HBeAg positive carriers and a negative correlation between HBV-DNA and anti-HBe. An atypical profile of anti-HBe associated with HBV-DNA was observed in 10.6% of the carriers. An inverse relationship between serum HBV-DNA levels and age was also observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood*
  17. Ng KP, Saw TL
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Jun;49(2):117-21.
    PMID: 8090089
    A total of 250 hepatitis B surface antigen positive sera were screened for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. It was found that seven (3%) sera showed concurrently circulating surface antigen and surface antibody to hepatitis B virus. The level of antibody to surface antigen was not affected by HBeAg and most of the cases were found in chronic hepatitis B carriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood*
  18. Isahak I, Abdul Malik Y, Hakim AS, Baharin R
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Aug;31(4):314-6.
    PMID: 2147781
    Fifty medical students were screened for hepatitis B serological markers of whom 42 students entered the study. Those who were found to be negative for all markers were vaccinated with 1.0 ml (20 mcg HBsAg) Engerix-B vaccine intramuscularly in the deltoid region according to the 0, 1, 6 month schedule. Blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 months. One month following the first dose, 7% showed detectable AntiHBs with a GMT of 11 IU/I. By the sixth month, just before the third dose was given, 79% seroconverted with a GMT of 2952 IU/I. Three months following the third dose all had seroconverted with a GMT of 18,381 IU/I. No serious adverse reactions were noted and none of the subjects showed evidence of hepatitis B infection during the study. This study thus confirms the high immunogenicity and safety of recombinant yeast-extract hepatitis B vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis
  19. Quak SH, Singh R, Oon CJ, Wong HB
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1982 Jun;2(2):53-6.
    PMID: 6185078
    A study of race-related distribution of hepatitis B markers was conducted in 458 children admitted consecutively to Singapore General Hospital. The positive rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 11.2, 8.0 and 12.2% respectively and the corresponding figures for anti-HBs were 30.2, 12.0 and 14.6%. In Chinese children HBsAg prevalence was shown to be sex-related, being higher in males than females. The percentages of Chinese children positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc were also higher than those of the Indians. This study confirmed that Singapore children were exposed to hepatitis B infection from early life. All three races were equally susceptible to this infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis*
  20. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Afr Health Sci, 2016 Sep;16(3):677-683.
    PMID: 27917199
    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

    PATIENT AND METHODS: A total of 1000 randomly selected hepatitis B surface antigen-negative sera from blood donors were tested for hepatitis B core antibody and hepatitis B surface antibody using an ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction was done using primers specific to the surface gene (S-gene).

    RESULTS: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result.

    CONCLUSION: This study reveals the 5.5% prevalence of occult hepatitis B among Malaysian blood donors as well as the reliability of using hepatitis B core antibody in screening for occult hepatitis B infection in low endemic, low socioeconomic settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood
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