Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 462 in total

  1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1997 Mar;6(1):41-5.
    PMID: 24394652
    Palm oil, unlike many other dietary oils, does not increase the yield of chemically-induced mammary tumors in rats when fed at high levels in the diet. This difference appears to be due to the vitamin E fraction of palm oil, which is rich in tocotrienols, since palm oil stripped of this fraction does increase tumor yields. Experiments in our laboratory have shown that tocotrienols inhibit proliferation and growth of both MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells in culture much more effectively than a-tocopherol. In addition, it was found that combinations of tocotrienols with Tamoxifen, a drug widely used for treatment of breast cancer, inhibit these cells more effectively than either tocotrienols or Tamoxifen alone. The present studies have now shown synergistic effects between tocotrienols and a number of other flavonoids from various plant sources, including citrus fruits, in the inhibition of both MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells (IC50s 0.05-25 and 0.02-5 μg/mL respectively). In the MCF-7 cells, 1:1:1 combinations of tocotrienols, flavonoids and Tamoxifen were even more effective, with the best combination being d-tocotrienol, hesperetin and Tamoxifen (IC50 0.0005 μg/mL). These results suggest that diets containing palm oil may reduce the risk of breast cancer, particularly when eaten with other plant foods containing flavonoids, and may also enhance the effectiveness of Tamoxifen for treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Salmijah S., Anita Mohd. Zubir, Maimon A.
    Metaldehyde is used widely in Malaysia for the control of molluscs. This communication reports the cytotoxic effects of this chemical on cultured cells as assessed by cell morphology and the DNA synthesising capability as well as its transport into cells. After 15 days of exposure with 20.0 ppm of the compound, the DNA synthesising capability was shown to be unaffected. The IC50 for Vero cells was 276.0 ppm. Transport of thymidine across cells was found to be not significantly affected even at high metaldehyde concentrations (up to 320.0 ppm) suggesting integrity of cells were not significantly affected. The present cellular studies have therefore shown that the cytotoxic effects of this chemical is rather low.
    Metaldehida digunakan dengan meluas di Malaysia untuk mengawal perosak moluska. Kesan sitotoksik bahan kimia ini di peringkat sel dari segi ciri-ciri perubahan moifologi dan keupayaan mensintesis DNA serta kajian awal kesannya terhadap proses kemasukan ke dalam sel dilaporkan di sini. Keupayaan mensintesis DNA didapati tidak terjejas secara signifikan selepas diberikan 20.0 ppm metaldehida secara berterusan selama 15 hari. Nilai IC50 bagi sel Vero adalah 276.0 ppm. Kemasukan timidina ke dalam sel tidak terjejas secara signifikan apabila sel diperlakukan dengan metaldehida, walaupun pada kepekatan yang agak tinggi iaitu sehingga 320.0 ppm. Kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa kesan sitotoksik oleh metaldehida adalah rendah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Baerson SR, Rodriguez DJ, Tran M, Feng Y, Biest NA, Dill GM
    Plant Physiol., 2002 Jul;129(3):1265-75.
    PMID: 12114580
    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD(50) value approximately 2- to 4-fold greater than the sensitive biotype collected from the same region. A comparison of the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity by glyphosate in extracts prepared from the resistant (R) and sensitive (S) biotypes revealed an approximately 5-fold higher IC(50)(glyphosate) for the (R) biotype. Sequence comparisons of the predicted EPSPS mature protein coding regions from both biotypes revealed four single-nucleotide differences, two of which result in amino acid changes. One of these changes, a proline to serine substitution at position 106 in the (R) biotype, corresponds to a substitution previously identified in a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. Kinetic data generated for the recombinant enzymes suggests that the second substitution identified in the (R) EPSPS does not contribute significantly to its reduced glyphosate sensitivity. Escherichia coli aroA- (EPSPS deficient) strains expressing the mature EPSPS enzyme from the (R) biotype exhibited an approximately 3-fold increase in glyphosate tolerance relative to strains expressing the mature EPSPS from the (S) biotype. These results provide the first evidence for an altered EPSPS enzyme as an underlying component of evolved glyphosate resistance in any plant species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Ling SK, Tanaka T, Kouno I
    Biol Pharm Bull, 2003 Mar;26(3):352-6.
    PMID: 12612446
    Enzyme inhibitory activities of 14 iridoids previously obtained from two Malaysian medicinal plants, Saprosma scortechinii and Rothmannia macrophylla, were evaluated in vitro using soybean lipoxygenase and bovine testis hyaluronidase. Most of the iridoids, including asperulosidic acid, paederosidic acid, and an epimeric mixture of gardenogenins A and B, did not show any effect on the enzyme activities, except for the bis-iridoids, which inhibited the lipoxygenase activity with their IC(50) values of approximately 1.3 times that of a known inhibitor, fisetin. Structural modification of asperulosidic acid and paederosidic acid through enzymatic hydrolysis by beta-glucosidase resulted in their inhibition towards the enzyme activities, and these activities were enhanced by the presence of some amino acids (lysine, leucine or glutamic acid) or ammonium acetate. Mixtures of gardenogenins A and B; isomers of non-glucosidic iridoids, incubated with amino acid or ammonium acetate did not show any inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities during the 6 h incubation period, except for lysine where spontaneous reaction between the iridoids and amino acid resulted in the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity. The results from these biomimetic reactions suggested that the iridoid aglycons and the intermediates formed by these reactive species could inhibit the enzyme activities, and thus substantiate previous reports that the formation of iridoidal aglycons is a prerequisite for the iridoid glycosides to demonstrate some of the biological activities. In addition, the results also indicated that it is worthwhile to further explore these intermediates as potential anti-inflammatory agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Khamis S, Bibby MC, Brown JE, Cooper PA, Scowen I, Wright CW
    Phytother Res, 2004 Jul;18(7):507-10.
    PMID: 15305306
    Bioassay guided fractionation of the roots of Cyathostemma argenteum using the brine shrimp resulted in the isolation of two uncommon flavanones, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone 1 and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone 2 while the stem bark yielded the related compounds 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavone 3 and 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavone 4. The alkaloids liriodenine 5 and discretamine 6 as well as benzyl benzoate 7 were isolated from the roots and 6 was also isolated from the stembark. In cytotoxicity tests using four human breast cancer cell lines, 1 and 2 were weakly toxic to MCF-7 cells (IC(50) = 19.6 and 19.0 microM, respectively) but showed little activity against MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin or against two oestrogen receptor-deficient cell lines. Compound 5, but not 6 and 7, was moderately cytotoxic against all four cell lines. These results are discussed in the context of the traditional use of C. argenteum in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Jantan I, Pisar M, Sirat HM, Basar N, Jamil S, Ali RM, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2004 Dec;18(12):1005-7.
    PMID: 15742349
    Ten compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Kaempferia rotunda Linn. (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated for their platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonistic activities on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, four compounds showed significant inhibitory effects. Alpinetin and 5,6-dehydrokawain isolated from A. mutica exhibited IC50 values of 41.6 and 59.3 microM, respectively. The IC50 values of 3-deacetylcrotepoxide and 2-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from K. rotunda were 45.6 and 57.4 microM, respectively. 1-Methoxy-2-methyl-5-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-benzene, synthesized by methylation of xanthorrhizol which was obtained from C. xanthorrhiza, showed an IC50 value of 40.9 microM. The results indicated that these compounds were relatively strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Abdul Wahab K, Ahmad FB, Din LB, Cheah SH, Mock SL
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):139-44.
    PMID: 16493406 MyJurnal
    The crude methanol extracts of Gelsemium elegans leaves were assessed for their cytotoxic activity using the microculture 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability. This study utilized two different types of human cancer cell lines, CaOV-3 (human ovarian cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells), allowing for comparison of toxicity of G. elegans against these two cancer cells lines. Our results showed that the methanol extract of G. elegans exhibited high cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 with an IC50 value of 5microg/ml after 96 h incubation. However, G. elegans displayed discernibly less toxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value 40microg/ml after 96 h incubation and this effect was dose- and time-dependent, up to 72h and 20-30 microg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that G. elegans is potently cytotoxic against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 and to a lesser extend towards the human breast carcinoma cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the extract is selective towards CaOV-3 cells and may have a chemotherapeutic role for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Rahmat A, Kumar V, Fong LM, Endrini S, Sani HA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(3):308-11.
    PMID: 15331345
    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infections and degenerative diseases. Literature shows that the antioxidant activity is high on herbal and vegetable plants. Realizing the fact, this research was carried out to determine total antioxidant activity and the potential anticancer properties in three types of selected local vegetable shoots such as Diplazium esculentum (paku shoot), Manihot utillissima (tapioca shoot) and Sauropous androgynus (cekur manis). The research was also done to determine the effect of boiling, on total antioxidant activity whereby samples of fresh shoots are compared with samples of boiled shoots. In every case, antioxidant activity is compared to alpha-tocopherol and two methods of extraction used are the organic and the aqueous methods. Besides that, two research methods used were the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) with absorbance of 500nm and 532nm respectively. Oneway ANOVA test at P<0.05 determines significant differences between various samples. In the cytotoxic study, the ethanolic extract and several cell lines i.e. breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), colon cancer (Caco-2), liver cancer (HepG2) and normal liver (Chang liver) were used. The IC(50)-value was determined by using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The antioxidant study found that all the samples in both aqueous and organic extraction were significantly different. The total antioxidant activity values of aqueous extract in descending order are as follows: M. utilissima (fresh) >D. esculentum (fresh) >S.androgynus (fresh) > M.utilissima (boiled) > D. esculentum (boiled) > S.androgynus (boiled). It also was found that S.androgynus shoots ethanolic extract was able to inhibit the viability of the breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 with the IC50 value of 53.33 micrograms/ml. However, S.androgynus shoots and D. esculentum shoots ethanolic extracts did not inhibit the viability of MDA-MB-231 cell line. While, the tapioca shoot ethanolic extract was able to inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cell line with the IC(50) value of 52.49 micrograms/ml. S.androgynus shoots and D.esculentum shoots ethanolic extracts did not give an IC(50) value against the MCF-7 cell line. S.androgynus, tapioca and D.esculentum shoots ethanolic extracts did not show cytotoxic effect against the Caco-2 and HepG2. There was no IC(50)-value from any sample against Chang Liver cell line. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of both fresh and boiled samples were higher than alpha-tocopherol, although fresh vegetable shoots were found to be higher in antioxidant activity compared to boiled shoots. This study also suggested that S.androgynus shoots and tapioca shoots have potential as an anticancer agent against certain breast tumours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Jantan I, Rafi IA, Jalil J
    Phytomedicine, 2005 Jan;12(1-2):88-92.
    PMID: 15693713
    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Israf DA, Stanslas J, Yusuf UK, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2005 Jul;68(7):1090-3.
    PMID: 16038556
    A new labdane diterpene glucoside, curcumanggoside (1), together with nine known compounds, including labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial (2), calcaratarin A (3), zerumin B (4), scopoletin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, curcumin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR techniques. All diarylheptanoids and scopoletin showed significant antioxidant activity. Zerumin B, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and curcumin also exhibited cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human tumor cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Har CH, Keong CK
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):374-80.
    PMID: 16326644
    The effects of tocotrienols on murine liver cell viability and their apoptotic events were studied over a dose range of 0-32 microg mL(-1). Normal murine liver cells (BNL CL.2) and murine liver cancer cells (BNL 1ME A.7R.1) were treated with tocotrienols (T(3)), alpha tocopherol (alpha-T) and the chemo drug, Doxorubicin (Doxo, as a positive control). Cell viability assay showed that T(3) significantly (P < or = 0.05) lowered the percentage of BNL 1ME A.7R.1 cell viability in a dose-responsive manner (8-16 microg mL(-1)), whereas T did not show any significant (P>0.05) inhibition in cell viability with increasing treatment doses of 0-16 microg mL(-1). The IC(50) for tocotrienols were 9.8, 8.9, 8.1, 9.7, 8.1 and 9.3 microg mL(-1) at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours respectively. Early apoptosis was detected 6 hours following T(3) treatment of BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells, using Annexin V-FITC fluorescence microscopy assay for apoptosis, but none were observed for the non-treated liver cancer cells at the average IC(50) of 8.98 microg mL(-1) tocotrienols for liver cancer cells. Several apoptotic bodies were detected in BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells at 6 hours post-treatment with tocotrienols (8.98 microg mL(-1)) using Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide fluorescence assay. However, only a couple of apoptotic bodies were seen in the non-treated liver cancer cells and the BNL CL.2 normal liver cells. Some mitotic bodies were also observed in the T(3)-treated BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells but were not seen in the untreated BNL 1ME A.7R.1 cells and the BNL CL.2 liver cells. Following T(3)-treatment (8.98 microg mL(-1)) of the BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells, 24.62%, 25.53% and 44.90% of the cells showed elevated active caspase 3 activity at 9, 12 and 24 hours treatment period, respectively. DNA laddering studies indicated DNA fragmentation occurred in the T(3)-treated liver cancer cells, BNL 1ME A.7R.1 but not in non-treated liver cancer cells and the T(3)-treated and non-treated normal liver cells. These results suggest that tocotrienols were able to reduce the cell viability in the murine liver cancer cells at a dose of 8-32 microg mL(-1) and that this decrease in percentage cell viability may be due to apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Tee TT, Azimahtol HL
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13.
    PMID: 16158965
    Extracts of the plant Eurycoma longifolia have been shown to possess cytotoxic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antipyretic and plant growth inhibition activities. The present study investigated the effects of extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the root of E. longifolia on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data indicated that E. longifolia extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF-7. The bioassay-guided root fractionation resulted in the isolation of three active fractions, F5, F6 and F7, which displayed IC50 values of (6.17+/-0.38) microg/ml, (4.40+/-0.42) microg/ml and (20.00+/-0.08) microg/ml, respectively. The resultant from F7 purification, F16, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, (IC50=15.23+/-0.66 microg/ml) and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A (IC50=66.31-0.47 microg/ml). F16 significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. F16, however, did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. These results, therefore, suggest that F16 has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Khairul MF, Min TH, Low JH, Nasriyyah CH, A'shikin AN, Norazmi MN, et al.
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2006 Oct;59(5):329-31.
    PMID: 17060702
    Fluoxetine (FLX), a P-glycoprotein inhibitor with antimalarial activity, is promising candidate for reversing chloroquine/mefloquine (CQ/MQ) resistance. The Dd2 strain of CQ- and MQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was synchronized and assayed with various concentrations of CQ/MQ individually and in combination with FLX or verapamil (VPL). Our results indicated the 50% inhibitory concentration values of CQ and MQ were greatly lowered when FLX was used simultaneously. Isobolograms indicated that CQ-FLX combinations are more synergistic (mean fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index 0.55) than MQ-FLX (mean FIC index 0.64), and their synergistic effect was better than or at par with CQ-VPL (mean FIC index 0.88) and MQ-VPL (mean FIC index 0.60) combinations. We conclude that the FLX potentiates the CQ and MQ response on multidrug-resistant P. falciparum at clinically achievable concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Latifah, S. Y., Faujan, H. A., Sze, L. P., Raha, A. R., Hisyam, A. H., Li, O. C.
    Introduction: Curcumin, a natural compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been known to possess both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activities and to determine the mode of cell death induced by curcumin towards the human mammary carcinoma cells (MDAMB-231). Methodology: Cytotoxicity of curcumin and its effect on cell viability were determined by using MTT assay and trypan blue dye exclusion method, respectively. The mode of cell death was detected by viewing under a light microscope and through DNA fragmentation analysis. Results and discussion: Curcumin was cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 cells with the IC50 of 17.25 ì g/ml. Cell viability treatment using curcumin at concentrations of 30 ì g/ml and 10 ì g/ml was significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Fazlina N, Maha A, Jamal R, Zarina AL, Cheong SK, Hamidah H, et al.
    Hematology, 2007 Feb;12(1):33-7.
    PMID: 17364990
    The expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence the outcome of treatment in patients with acute leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the IC50 of cytotoxic drugs (cytosine arabinoside, ara-C and daunorubicin, dnr) using the in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay method. A total of 82 newly diagnosed acute leukemia cases (43 adult myeloid leukaemia, AML cases and 39 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL cases) and 16 relapsed cases (8 AML cases and 8 ALL cases) were studied. The MTS assay was performed using two cytotoxic drugs, dnr and ara-C. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of drugs for 4 days and the IC50 was extrapolated from the viability curve. In newly diagnosed cases, we found that childhood ALL samples showed higher IC50 values of dnr (0.040 +/- 2.320) compared to adult AML samples (0.021 +/- 0.158). In contrast, newly diagnosed adult AML samples showed higher IC50 values of ara-C (0.157 +/- 0.529) compared to childhood ALL samples (0.100 +/- 2.350). In relapsed cases, two samples of childhood ALL showed IC50 values of dnr (0.910 +/- 1.760) and ara-C (1.310 +/- 2.390), which was higher compared to childhood AML samples (0.129 +/- 0.214 and 0.210 +/- 0.003, respectively). However, there was no correlation between IC50 values of these drugs tested with clinical outcome. In conclusion, we found that MTS assay is an easy, rapid and non laborious method to study in vitro drug resistance in acute leukaemia cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Min TH, Khairul MF, Low JH, Che Nasriyyah CH, A'shikin AN, Norazmi MN, et al.
    Exp Parasitol, 2007 Apr;115(4):387-92.
    PMID: 17118354
    Chloroquine (CQ) and mefloquine (MQ) are no longer potent antimalarial drugs due to the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Combination therapy has become the standard for many regimes in overcoming drug resistance. Roxithromycin (ROM), a known p-glycoprotein inhibitor, is reported to have antimalarial activity and it is hoped it will potentiate the effects of both CQ/MQ and reverse CQ/MQ-resistance. We assayed the effects of CQ and MQ individually and in combination with ROM on synchronized P. falciparum (Dd2 strain) cultures. The IC(50) values of CQ and MQ were 60.0+/-5.0 and 16.0+/-3.0 ng/ml; these were decreased substantially when combined with ROM. Isobolograms indicate that CQ-ROM combinations were relatively more synergistic (mean FICI 0.70) than MQ-ROM (mean FICI 0.85) with their synergistic effect at par with CQ-verapamil (VRP) (mean FICI 0.64) and MQ-VRP (mean FICI 0.60) combinations. We conclude that ROM potentiates the CQ/MQ response on multidrug-resistant P. falciparum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Ling SK, Pisar MM, Man S
    Biol Pharm Bull, 2007 Jun;30(6):1150-2.
    PMID: 17541171
    The leaf, stem and root extracts of Chromolaena odorata were evaluated for their effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The leaf extract demonstrated high PAF receptor binding inhibitory activity of 79.2+/-2.1% at 18.2 microg/ml. A total of eleven flavonoids were subsequently isolated from the active leaf extract and evaluated for their effects on PAF receptor binding. Eight of the flavonoids exhibited >50% inhibition on the binding activity at 18.2 microg/ml. These flavonoids were identified as eriodictyol 7,4'-dimethyl ether, quercetin 7,4'-methyl ether, naringenin 4'-methyl ether, kaempferol 4'-methyl ether, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, taxifolin 4'-methyl ether, taxifolin 7-methyl ether and quercetin 4'-methyl ether. Their IC50 values ranged from 19.5 to 62.1 microM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Ee, G.C.L., Cheow, Y.L.
    Detail chemical studies on Carcinia maingayi have yielded one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone, one benzophenone, isoxanthochymol, one benzoic acid derivative 3,4-dihydroxy-methylbenzoate and two triterpenoids, stigmasterol and sitosterol. Meanwhile, investigations on Carcinia parvifolia have afforded one triterpenoid, a-amyrin and two xanthones, cowanin and rubraxanthone. Their structures were derived based on spectroscopic evidence, mainly ID and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Acetylation reaction was carried out on rubraxanthone to yield triacetate rubraxanthone. It was found that the pure rubraxanthone was strongly active against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with LC50 value of 15.49 {lg/ ml and HL-60 cells line with an IC50 value of 7.5 {lg/ ml.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Shukor MY, Masdor N, Baharom NA, Jamal JA, Abdullah MP, Shamaan NA, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2008 Mar;144(3):283-91.
    PMID: 18556817
    A heavy-metal assay has been developed using bromelain, a protease. The enzyme is assayed using casein as a substrate with Coomassie dye to track completion of hydrolysis of casein. In the absence of inhibitors, casein is hydrolysed to completion, and the solution is brown. In the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Cu2+, the hydrolysis of casein is inhibited, and the solution remains blue. Exclusion of sulfhydryl protective agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic in the original assay improved sensitivity to heavy metals several fold. The assay is sensitive to Hg2+ and Cu2+, exhibiting a dose-response curve with an IC50 of 0.15 mg 1(-1) for Hg2+ and a one-phase binding curve with an IC50 of 0.23 mg 1(-1) for Cu2+. The IC50 value for Hg2+ is found to be lower to several other assays such as immobilized urease and papain assay, whilst the IC50 value for Cu2+ is lower than immobilized urease, 15-min Microtox, and rainbow trout.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Lai CS, Mas RH, Nair NK, Majid MI, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2008 Jun 19;118(1):14-20.
    PMID: 18436400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.034
    Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume (Araceae) is a Malaysian plant used locally to combat cancer. In order to evaluate its antiproliferative activity in vitro and to possibly identify the active chemical constituents, a bioactivity guided study was conducted on the extracts of this plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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