Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

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  1. Ho CC, Krishna KK, Praveen S, Goh EH, Lee BC, Zulkifli MZ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):229-30.
    PMID: 21939176
    We present a case of a middle-aged man who was incidentally found to have right renal solid mass while investigating for his left eye proptosis. Computerised tomography (CT) scan confirmed the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma and the tumour was successfully excised via open surgery. The histopathology examination revealed the 10x7x8 cm mass to be a clear cell type renal cell carcinoma. The rare presentation of this metastatic renal cell carcinoma, its diagnosis and management will be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  2. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/therapy*
  3. Sasongko TH, Ismail NF, Zabidi-Hussin Z
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 Jul 13;7:CD011272.
    PMID: 27409709 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011272.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown potential benefits of rapamycin or rapalogs for treating people with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although everolimus (a rapalog) is currently approved by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and the EMA (European Medicines Agency) for tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, applications for other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex have not yet been established. A systematic review is necessary to establish the clinical value of rapamycin or rapalogs for various manifestations in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex for decreasing tumour size and other manifestations and to assess the safety of rapamycin or rapalogs in relation to their adverse effects.

    SEARCH METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by authors from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, and clinicaltrials.gov. Relevant resources were also searched by the authors, such as conference proceedings and abstract books of conferences, from e.g. the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex International Research Conferences, other tuberous sclerosis complex-related conferences and the Human Genome Meeting. We did not restrict the searches by language as long as English translations were available for non-English reports.Date of the last searches: 14 March 2016.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized studies of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were independently extracted by two authors using standard acquisition forms. The data collection was verified by one author. The risk of bias of each study was independently assessed by two authors and verified by one author.

    MAIN RESULTS: Three placebo-controlled studies with a total of 263 participants (age range 0.8 to 61 years old, 122 males and 141 females, with variable lengths of study duration) were included in the review. We found high-quality evidence except for response to skin lesions which was judged to be low quality due to the risk of attrition bias. Overall, there are 175 participants in the treatment arm (rapamycin or everolimus) and 88 in the placebo arm. Participants all had tuberous sclerosis complex as proven by consensus diagnostic criteria as a minimum. The quality in the description of the study methods was mixed, although we assessed most domains as having a low risk of bias. Blinding of treatment arms was successfully carried out in all of the studies. However, two studies did not report allocation concealment. Two of the included studies were funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals.Two studies (235 participants) used oral (systemic) administration of everolimus (rapalog). These studies reported response to tumour size in terms of the number of individuals with a reduction in the total volume of tumours to 50% or more relative to baseline. Significantly more participants in the treatment arm (two studies, 162 participants, high quality evidence) achieved a 50% reduction in renal angiomyolipoma size, risk ratio 24.69 (95% confidence interval 3.51 to 173.41) (P = 0.001). For the sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma, our analysis of one study (117 participants, high quality evidence) showed significantly more participants in the treatment arm achieved a 50% reduction in tumour size, risk ratio 27.85 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 444.82) (P = 0.02). The proportion of participants who showed a skin response from the two included studies analysed was significantly increased in the treatment arms, risk ratio 5.78 (95% confidence interval 2.30 to 14.52) (P = 0.0002) (two studies, 224 participants, high quality evidence). In one study (117 participants), the median change of seizure frequency was -2.9 in 24 hours (95% confidence interval -4.0 to -1.0) in the treatment group versus -4.1 in 24 hour (95% confidence interval -10.9 to 5.8) in the placebo group. In one study, one out of 79 participants in the treatment group versus three of 39 in placebo group had increased blood creatinine levels, while the median percentage change of forced expiratory volume at one second in the treatment arm was -1% compared to -4% in the placebo arm. In one study (117 participants, high quality evidence), we found that those participants who received treatment had a similar risk of experiencing adverse events compared to those who did not, risk ratio 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.96 - 1.20) (P = 0.24). However, as seen from two studies (235 participants, high quality evidence), the treatment itself led to significantly more adverse events resulting in withdrawal, interruption of treatment, or reduction in dose level, risk ratio 3.14 (95% confidence interval 1.82 to 5.42) (P < 0.0001).One study (28 participants) used topical (skin) administration of rapamycin. This study reported response to skin lesions in terms of participants' perception towards their skin appearance following the treatment. There was a tendency of an improvement in the participants' perception of their skin appearance, although not significant, risk ratio 1.81 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 4.06, low quality evidence) (P = 0.15). This study reported that there were no serious adverse events related to the study product and there was no detectable systemic absorption of the rapamycin during the study period.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that oral everolimus significantly increased the proportion of people who achieved a 50% reduction in the size of sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. Although we were unable to ascertain the relationship between the reported adverse events and the treatment, participants who received treatment had a similar risk of experiencing adverse events as compared to those who did not receive treatment. Nevertheless, the treatment itself significantly increased the risk of having dose reduction, interruption or withdrawal. This supports ongoing clinical applications of oral everolimus for renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Although oral everolimus showed beneficial effect on skin lesions, topical rapamycin only showed a non-significant tendency of improvement. Efficacy on skin lesions should be further established in future research. The beneficial effects of rapamycin or rapalogs on tuberous sclerosis complex should be further studied on other manifestations of the condition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  4. Priyanka G, Poh EY, Yeong SS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Dec;68(6):473-4.
    PMID: 24632917
    Angiomyolipomas (AML) are the most common mesenchymal renal neoplasms arising in the cortex or medulla. Intra-renal and retroperitoneal hemorrhages have been frequently reported. AML can exceptionally involve the renal vein and inferior vena cava. We report a case with extension into the inferior vena cava.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  5. Rajandram R, Perumal K, Yap NY
    Transl Androl Urol, 2019 May;8(Suppl 2):S138-S146.
    PMID: 31236331 DOI: 10.21037/tau.2018.11.10
    Obesity is a recognized risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) the commonest form of kidney cancer. Both obesity and RCC are serious diseases with increasing incidence yearly. This review examined certain obesity associated measurements and adipokines as detection/prognostic indicators for RCC. The obesity related measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) in predicting RCC are valid when used in conjunction with other risk factors such as age and sex or with histological findings. The adipokine adiponectin holds promising outcomes as a predictive marker in assessing the risk of developing RCC. In addition, tissue leptin/leptin receptor may be a distinguishing marker for RCC subtypes. However, circulating leptin may not be a suitable detection or prognostic biomarker for RCC. The other less investigated adipokines; omentin, visfatin, apelin and resistin are also expressed in RCC but their prognostic capabilities are still inconclusive. BMI, WC and adipokines may be useful additions in a nomogram which includes TNM staging and pathological grading system to detect, confirm and follow-up RCC cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  6. Caunter G, Faeez Md Noh MS, Safri LS, Kumar K, Md Idris MA, Harunarashid H, et al.
    EJVES Short Rep, 2019;44:19-22.
    PMID: 31453386 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejvssr.2019.06.003
    Introduction: The development of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) many years after a nephrectomy is not common but has been reported. A metastasis appearing as a hypervascular tumour, mimicking an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), is a highly unusual phenomenon, with a biopsy required for diagnostic confirmation. Surgery is an option for a solitary metastatic lesion amenable to complete excision, with proven survival benefits. However, widespread metastatic disease carries a very poor prognosis, and is best treated with systemic agents such as anti-angiogenic drugs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Report: A 58 year old man developed an AVM mimicking a vascular tumour within his left brachioradialis muscle 10 years after a nephrectomy for RCC. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any suspicious features of the vascular lesion.The lesion was successfully removed surgically, and was later proven histopathologically to be metastatic RCC. Further imaging showed widespread metastatic disease, and the patient survived only 15 months after receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

    Discussion: This case report aims to highlight a few important points: RCC metastases may be hypervascular, mimicking an AVM. A long disease free interval does not necessarily exclude recurrence or metastasis, as in this case, therefore long term surveillance is recommended. A high index of suspicion must be maintained to avoid delay in treatment, and biopsy of any suspicious lesion for histological examination is mandatory, albeit after many years of cancer remission. Whole body imaging with computed tomography or positron emission tomography computed tomography may detect clinically occult recurrence or metastases, and is important to guide further treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  7. YEOH GS
    Med J Malaya, 1954 Jun;8(4):351-7.
    PMID: 13193273
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms*
  8. Ng KL, Morais C, Bernard A, Saunders N, Samaratunga H, Gobe G, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2016 Aug;69(8):661-71.
    PMID: 26951082 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2015-203585
    Numerous immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers have been employed to aid in the difficult differentiation between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature was carried out to summarise and analyse the evidence for discriminatory IHC biomarkers to differentiate the two entities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  9. Tiang KW, Ng KL, Vega-Vega A, Wood S
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2014;1(1):12-16.
    PMID: 28326245 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2014.6
    Urological tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are rare. However, the incidence seems to be increasing largely due to advancements in modern imaging techniques and improved antenatal care. The diagnosis and management of renal tumors during pregnancy poses a dilemma to clinicians. This case report highlights the challenges in managing a large chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a young primigravida patient. Proper antenatal assessment, a multidisciplinary team approach and appropriate discussion with patient are important determinants to achieve the best clinical outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  10. Wong KW
    BMJ Case Rep, 2015 Jan 16;2015.
    PMID: 25596289 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2014-208060
    We report a case of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed after a patient was treated successfully with intravenous cyclophosphamide for her active proliferative lupus nephritis (classes III and V). After the intravenous cyclophosphamide regimen, the patient was asymptomatic with persistent microscopic haematuria, and no proteinuria. The renal cell carcinoma was located on the left kidney; incidentally, this was where the initial renal biopsy was done to diagnose lupus nephritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis
  11. Syafruddin SE, Rodrigues P, Vojtasova E, Patel SA, Zaini MN, Burge J, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 03 11;10(1):1152.
    PMID: 30858363 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09116-x
    Transcriptional networks are critical for the establishment of tissue-specific cellular states in health and disease, including cancer. Yet, the transcriptional circuits that control carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we report that Kruppel like factor 6 (KLF6), a transcription factor of the zinc finger family, regulates lipid homeostasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We show that KLF6 supports the expression of lipid metabolism genes and promotes the expression of PDGFB, which activates mTOR signalling and the downstream lipid metabolism regulators SREBF1 and SREBF2. KLF6 expression is driven by a robust super enhancer that integrates signals from multiple pathways, including the ccRCC-initiating VHL-HIF2A pathway. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for high mTOR activity in ccRCC cells. More generally, the link between super enhancer-driven transcriptional networks and essential metabolic pathways may provide clues to the mechanisms that maintain the stability of cell identity-defining transcriptional programmes in cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/genetics*; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  12. Christakoudi S, Kakourou A, Markozannes G, Tzoulaki I, Weiderpass E, Brennan P, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 Jul 18.
    PMID: 31319002 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32576
    Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  13. Thanikasalam K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1991 Jun;46(2):187-91.
    PMID: 1839425
    The propensity of choriocarcinoma to metastasize to lungs, liver and brain is well known. Though theoretically metastases are possible to anywhere in the body, renal metastases are rare. A 56 year old Malay woman who had total abdominal hysterectomy in 1985 for molar pregnancy presented with haemoptysis and dyspnea in 1990. Examination showed she had choriocarcinoma with pulmonary and renal metastases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/secondary
  14. Teh GC
    Urol. Oncol., 2010 Nov-Dec;28(6):682-5.
    PMID: 21062652 DOI: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2010.03.017
    With maturing functional and oncologic outcomes data, open partial nephrectomy (OPN) has become the standard of care for T1a renal tumor. Laparoscopic approach can provide a speedier recovery with less blood loss and postoperative pain. Presuming adequate laparoscopic expertise, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy can provide equivalent oncologic outcome as for OPN albeit with higher urologic complications rate and longer warm ischemia time. With refinement of technique and use of robotic assistant, the shortcomings of laparoscopic approach can be further reduced. This article is a mini-review on the current status of laparoscopic approach to partial nephrectomy in the management of small renal mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/surgery*
  15. Songib NA, Nazri M, Yaakup NA, Nor HM, Sun Z
    Clin Imaging, 2013 Nov-Dec;37(6):1037-42.
    PMID: 24035803 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2013.08.005
    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of eliminating the nephrographic phase from the four-phase renal computed tomography (CT) imaging to a three-phase protocol without affecting its diagnostic value. Thirty patients undergoing four-phase renal CT scans for assessment of renal lesions (>10 mm) were included in the study. A three-phase renal CT, without nephrographic phase, had similar diagnostic ability to a four-phase renal CT in the detection and characterization of renal lesions. A three-phase CT (plain, corticomedullary, and excretory phase) is therefore adequate in the clinical diagnosis of renal lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/radiography*
  16. Shepherd ARH, Hoh IMY, Goh EH, Cohen PA, Steele D
    ANZ J Surg, 2017 Dec;87(12):1054-1056.
    PMID: 25962888 DOI: 10.1111/ans.13155
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  17. Hui Min Chong, Shien Yee Ng
    MyJurnal
    The case report describes the presentation of a 19-year old female with tuberous sclerosis who presented with progressive dyspnoea over 2 days.
    Chest radiograph revealed bilateral pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed features of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and bilateral renal angiomyolipomas. The coexistence of both conditions may cause devastating morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  18. Ch'ng WC, Abd-Aziz N, Ong MH, Stanbridge EJ, Shafee N
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2015 Aug;38(4):279-88.
    PMID: 25930675 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-015-0229-5
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus that is known to have a higher preference to cancer cells than to normal cells. It has been proposed that this higher preference may be due to defects in the interferon (IFN) responses of cancer cells. The exact mechanism underlying this process, however, remains to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the antiviral response towards NDV infection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. ccRCC is associated with mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL, whose protein product is important for eliciting cellular responses to changes in oxygen levels. The most common first line treatment strategy of ccRCC includes IFN. Unfortunately, most ccRCC cases are diagnosed at a late stage and often are resistant to IFN-based therapies. Alternative treatment approaches, including virotherapy using oncolytic viruses, are currently being investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanistic pathways underlying the response of ccRCC cells to oncolytic NDV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/genetics; Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism; Kidney Neoplasms/virology
  19. Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66.
    PMID: 25866035 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29559
    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend  = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/etiology*; Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology*
  20. Yap YH, Say YH
    Cell Biol. Int., 2012 Mar 1;36(3):273-7.
    PMID: 21980981 DOI: 10.1042/CBI20110088
    Since the discovery of PrPC (cellular prion protein), most studies have focused on its role in neurodegenerative diseases, whereas its function outside the nervous system remains obscure. We investigated the ability of PrPC in resisting TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) apoptosis in three PrPC-transiently transfected cancer cell lines, renal adenocarcinoma ACHN, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 and colon adenocarcinoma LS174T. PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells had higher viabilities compared with the mock-transfected cells, while the transient overexpression of PrPC had minimal overall effect on HSC-2 cells due to its high endogenous PrPC expression. Cell cycles were also analysed, with both PrPC expressing ACHN and LS174T cells having a significantly higher proliferative index than mock-transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a G1/S-phase cell cycle transition in both PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells. PrPC resists TNFα apoptosis due to a modest, but statistically significant, cell-specific cytoprotection compared with mock-transfected cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism*
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