Method: Pub Med, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid Medline, EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched for English and Persian language studies published between 2009 and 2017. The primary outcome of this review was to assess the effects of behavioral interventions on glycosylated hemoglobin. Changes in the blood pressure, Lipid profiles, BMI, Self-efficacy, knowledge, attitude, practice, Self-care behaviors, social support, anxiety, and depression were the secondary outcomes.
Results: Comprehensive search procedures resulted in twenty-three experimental studies with 2208 participants. Eleven studies were included in the Meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, behavioral interventions significantly lower glycosylated hemoglobin -0.61% (95% CI -0.80, -0.41). To explore the effects of the study intervention (regarding what aspects of the intervention are most effective), we then conducted a stratified analysis for HbA1c. Larger effects were found in interventions with a longer duration and higher intensity, delivered in the group format, interventions offered to individuals with higher baseline HbA1c, and interventions delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Moreover, behavioral interventions were effective in improving blood glucose, lipid profiles, knowledge, attitude, practice, self-efficacy, quality of life, and self-care.
Conclusion: In line with other behavioral studies, our study shows that behavioral interventions improve self-management in Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes.
AIMS: To determine immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy, safety and quality of life of prophylaxis with a polyethylene glycol (peg)-ylated FVIII (BAX 855) based on full-length recombinant FVIII (ADVATE) in paediatric previously treated patients (PTPs) with severe haemophilia A.
METHODS: PTPs <12 years without history of FVIII inhibitors received twice-weekly infusions of 50 ± 10 IU kg(-1) BAX 855 for ≥50 exposure days. Prophylactic dose increases to ≤80 IU kg(-1) were allowed under predefined conditions. PK was evaluated after single infusions of 60 ± 5 IU kg(-1) .
RESULTS: T1/2 and mean residence time were extended 1.3- to 1.5-fold compared to ADVATE (n = 31), depending on the analysis used. The point estimate for the mean annualized bleeding rate in 66 subjects receiving a median of 1.9 weekly infusions of 51.3 IU kg(-1) of BAX 855 each was 3.04 (median 2.0); 1.10 (median 0) for joint and 1.16 (median 0) for spontaneous bleeds. Overall, 38% of subjects had zero bleeds. No bleeds were severe. Haemostatic efficacy was rated excellent or good for 90% of bleeds; 91% were treated with one or two infusions. In 8/14 subjects all target joints resolved. No subject developed FVIII inhibitors or persistent binding antibodies that affected safety or efficacy. No adverse reactions occurred.
CONCLUSION: Twice-weekly prophylaxis with BAX 855 was safe and efficacious in paediatric PTPs with severe haemophilia A.
METHODS: This was a cross sectional study design. A total of 347 respondents from low household income groups, including persons with disability and Orang Asli were recruited from E-kasih. A semi-guided self-administered questionnaire was used. QOL measured by EQ. 5D utility value and health status measured by visual analogue score (VAS). Descriptive statistic, bivariate Chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted to determine factors influencing low QOL and poor health status.
RESULTS: Majority of the respondents were Malay, female (61%), 63% were married, 60% were employed and 46% with total household income of less than 1 thousand Ringgit Malaysia. 70% of them were not having any chronic medical problems. Factors that associated with low QOL were male, single, low household income, and present chronic medical illness, while poor health status associated with female, lower education level and present chronic medical illness. Logistic regression analysis has showed that determinants of low QOL was present chronic illness [AOR 4.15 95%CI (2.42, 7.13)], while determinants for poor health status were; female [AOR 1.94 95%CI (1.09,3.44)], lower education [AOR 3.07 95%CI (1.28,7.34)] and present chronic illness [AOR 2.53 95%CI (1.39,4.61)].
CONCLUSION: Low socioeconomic population defined as low total household income in this study. Low QOL of this population determined by present chronic illness, while poor health status determined by gender, education level and chronic medical illness.
METHODS: A total of 323 dyads of GI cancer patients and their caregivers completed the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form (MOS SF-12) questionnaire to measure their HRQOL during face-to-face interviews. The analyses were performed using SF-12 scoring software to compute PCS and MCS scores (HRQOL parameters). The independent t test, one-way ANOVA, and the Pearson correlation test were conducted to determine the demographic factors related to the HRQOL of the dyads.
RESULTS: The caregivers had higher scores in all domains for the SF-12 than the patients. There were significant differences found in the MCS scores of the patients according to ethnicity, origin of cancer, duration of cancer, and surgery. None of these factors had a significant relationship with the caregivers' HRQOL.
CONCLUSION: Caregivers had better HRQOL than cancer patients. Early intervention for cancer patients in the form of counselling and personalised pain management may enhance the HRQOL of patients.
METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, controlled trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis visiting outpatient rheumatology clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. We will enroll patients with established diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis over 3 months. The patients would be randomized through a computer-generated list into the control group, i.e., usual care or into the intervention group, i.e., pharmaceutical care, in a ratio of 1:1, after providing signed written consent. The study will take place in two patient-visits over the course of 3 months. Patients in the intervention group would receive intervention from the pharmacist while those in the control group will receive usual care. Primary outcomes include change in mean score from baseline (week 0) and at follow up (week 12) in disease knowledge, adherence to medications and rehabilitation/physical therapy. The secondary outcomes include change in the mean direct cost of treatment, HRQoL and patient satisfaction with pharmacist counselling.
DISCUSSION: This is a novel study that evaluates the role of the pharmacist in improving treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this trial could set the foundation for future delivery of care for this patient population in Pakistan. The results of this trial would be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03827148 . Registered on February 2019.
OBJECTIVES: To determine a CE threshold for health care interventions in Malaysia.
METHODS: A cross-sectional, contingent valuation study was conducted using a stratified multistage cluster random sampling technique in four states in Malaysia. One thousand thirteen respondents were interviewed in person for their socioeconomic background, quality of life, and WTP for a hypothetical scenario.
RESULTS: The CE thresholds established using the nonparametric Turnbull method ranged from MYR12,810 to MYR22,840 (~US $4,000-US $7,000), whereas those estimated with the parametric interval regression model were between MYR19,929 and MYR28,470 (~US $6,200-US $8,900). Key factors that affected the CE thresholds were education level, estimated monthly household income, and the description of health state scenarios.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that there is no single WTP value for a quality-adjusted life-year. The CE threshold estimated for Malaysia was found to be lower than the threshold value recommended by the World Health Organization.