PURPOSE: To develop a reliable and precise prognosis method for EOP activity and severity based on personalized combination of risk factors in specific patients by multidimensional linear regression modeling.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 139 patients (278 orbits) with newly diagnosed EOP associated with toxic diffuse goiter was observed during 1 year by an ophthalmologist and an endocrinologist; patient examination interval was 6 months. More than 250 indices were dynamically analyzed in the course of the study. Linear regression analysis was chosen as the research method; it allowed detection of linear dependencies between dependent and explanatory variables.
RESULTS: More than 600 various linear regression equations were derived that enabled prediction of EOP onset risk and development timeline, estimation of activity and/or severity of the disease, duration of active period in specific patients for the immediate and long-term outcome. From the derived models, the most reliable and safest for practical application were picked out. The present study introduces nine optimized models that can be used for patient follow-up since day one.
CONCLUSION: The onset risk, progression and outcome of the disease can be determined by a combination of factors revealed in the study.
METHODS: The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation.
RESULTS: The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (chi2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246). The final model shows that social support (JCQ) was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS). Job demand (JCQ) was directly related to stress (DASS) and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF). Job control (JCQ) was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Stress (DASS) was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Anxiety (DASS) was directly related to depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF). Depression (DASS) was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF). Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS) mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ) to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases the self-perceived quality of life related to environmental factors. The mediating role of depression, anxiety and stress on the relationship between working conditions and perceived quality of life in automotive workers should be taken into account in managing stress amongst these workers.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to assess the effect of health-related and psychosocial correlates on HRQOL of IDDM patients in Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited from five governmental diabetic clinics. Patients with insulin use only, IDDM diagnosed at least 1 year earlier, were identified from clinical registers. The sample was then age stratified for 20-64 years, and severe complications (e.g., end-stage renal failure, hemodialysis, and liver cirrhosis) were excluded; a total of 1003 participants were enrolled in the study. Multivariate regression analysis was used to predict the response.
Results: A total of 853 (100%) participants were enrolled and completed the study. Women exhibited significantly higher/better mental health (p < 0.013) and health perception scores (p < 0.001) despite high prevalence of impaired role (49.2%), social (24.2%), and physical (40.5%) functionings as compared to men. Women with longer diabetes exposure and uncontrolled glycemic levels (HbA1c) have poorer HRQOL. Availability of social support showed no significant association with either HRQOL or diabetes distress levels. Diabetes distress levels remained not associated with social support. Women also showed significantly higher association with health perception (15% versus 13% men, p < 0.001) and mental health (13% versus 11% men, p < 0.001) in diabetes-specific psychosocial factors. Thus, among women alone, diabetes-related specific and psychosocial factors explained 15% and 13% of variations in HRQOL extents, respectively.
Conclusion: Women exhibit extensive and significant patterns with health-related factors and diabetes-specific psychosocial factors (self-efficacy, social support, and DLC) to improve HRQOL. Also, women have significantly high reported distress levels and low social functioning compared to men.
PURPOSE: This study explores the menstrual experiences of people with DSD and sex reassignment in Nigeria.
METHODS: A qualitative approach with a phenomenological study design was employed in this study to explore and describe the experiences of people with DSD at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using NVivo software.
RESULTS: The findings show that the participants experienced menstrual problems: men with menstruation and women with amenorrhea. The female participants generally described amenorrhea as a disappointment and linked menstruation with womanhood. Amenorrhea evinced both emotional and psychological effects. However, some of the female participants considered amenorrhea in a positive light and were happy with their lives without menstruation. The menstrual experiences of male participants included menarche, lower abdominal pain, regular monthly bleeding, and ovulation. The male participants described menstruation as a disaster in their lives and a source of anxiety, suicidal ideation, and depression. Menstruation negatively affected their psychosocial well-being.
CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual experience of individuals with DSD negatively affects their quality of life. The women with DSD in this study showed a generally poor knowledge of menarche, menstruation, and puberty, indicating that their parents had ignored the initial symptoms of DSD. DSD were only recognized at puberty because of the development of ambiguous physical traits and of the onset of menstruation in men and the confirmation of amenorrhea in women.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use the 2011/2012 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data (n = 6530) for this paper. Logistic regression is used to analyse the effects of socio-demographic, economic, health, instrumental activities of daily living, family and community factors on life satisfaction and depression among the oldest-old in China.
RESULTS: Our analysis confirms the significance of many factors affecting life satisfaction among the oldest-old in China. Factors that are correlated with life satisfaction include respondent's sex, education, place of residence, self-rated health status, cognitive ability (using mini mental state examination), regular physical examination, perceived relative economic status, access to social security provisions, commercialized insurances, living arrangements, and number of social services available in the community (p<0.05 for all these variables). Although life satisfaction is negatively associated with instrumental activities of daily living (β = -0.068, 95%CI = -.093-.043), and depression (β = -0.463, 95%CI = -.644-.282), the overall effect of self-rated health status is positive (p<0.001). This confirms the primacy of health as the determinant of well-being among the oldest-old.
CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the oldest-old in China rated their life satisfaction as good or very good. Our findings show that health and economic status are by far the most significant predictors of life satisfaction. Our finding on the primacy of health and relative income as determinants of well-being among the oldest-old, and the greater influence of self-rated health status over objective health measures is consistent with the findings of many past studies. Our results suggest that efforts should be directed at enhancing family support as well as health and social service provisions in the community to improve life satisfaction of older people.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in children and adults with sickle cell disease.To determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on general health such as growth status and health-related quality of life; on musculoskeletal health including bone mineral density, pain crises, bone fracture and muscle health; on respiratory health which includes lung function tests, acute chest syndrome, acute exacerbation of asthma and respiratory infections; and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in children and adults with sickle cell disease.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched database such as PubMed, clinical trial registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 15 December 2016.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled studies and quasi-randomised controlled studies (controlled clinical studies) comparing oral administration of any form of vitamin D supplementation to another type of vitamin D or placebo or no supplementation at any dose and for any duration, in people with sickle cell disease, of all ages, gender, and phenotypes including sickle cell anaemia, haemoglobin sickle cell disease and sickle beta-thalassaemia diseases.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included study. They used the GRADE guidelines to assess the quality of the evidence.
MAIN RESULTS: One double-blind randomised controlled study including 46 people with sickle cell disease (HbSS, HbSC, HbSβ+thal and HbSβ0thal) was eligible for inclusion in this review. Of the 46 enrolled participants, seven withdrew before randomisation leaving 39 participants who were randomised. Only 25 participants completed the full six months of follow up. Participants were randomised to receive oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) (n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for six weeks and were followed up to six months. Two participants from the treatment group have missing values of baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, therefore the number of samples analysed was 37 (vitamin D n = 18, placebo n = 19).The included study had a high risk of bias with regards to incomplete outcome data (high dropout rate in the placebo group), but a low risk of bias for other domains such as random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors, selective outcome reporting; and an unclear risk of other biases.Compared to the placebo group, the vitamin D group had significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels at eight weeks, mean difference 29.79 (95% confidence interval 26.63 to 32.95); at 16 weeks, mean difference 12.67 (95% confidence interval 10.43 to 14.90); and at 24 weeks, mean difference 15.52 (95% confidence interval 13.50 to 17.54). We determined the quality of the evidence for this outcome to be moderate. There was no significant difference of adverse events (tingling of lips or hands) between the vitamin D and placebo groups, risk ratio 3.16 (95% confidence interval 0.14 to 72.84), but the quality of the evidence was low. Regarding the frequency of pain, the vitamin D group had significantly fewer pain days compared to the placebo group, mean difference -10.00 (95% confidence interval -16.47 to -3.53), but again the quality of the evidence was low. Furthermore, the review included physical functioning PedsQL scores which was reported as absolute change from baseline. The vitamin D group had a lower (worse) health-related quality of life score than the placebo group but this was not significant at eight weeks, mean difference -2.02 (95% confidence interval -6.34 to 2.30). However, the difference was significant at both 16 weeks, mean difference -12.56 (95% confidence interval -16.44 to -8.69) and 24 weeks, mean difference -12.59 (95% confidence interval -17.43 to -7.76). We determined the quality of evidence for this outcome to be low.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We included only one low-quality clinical study which had a high risk of bias with regards to incomplete outcome data. Therefore, we consider that the evidence is not of sufficient quality to guide clinical practice. Until further evidence becomes available, clinicians should consider the relevant existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation (e.g. the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines) and dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D (e.g. from the USA Institute of Medicine). Evidence of vitamin D supplementation in sickle cell disease from high quality studies is needed. Well-designed, randomised, placebo-controlled studies of parallel design, are required to determine the effects and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in children and adults with sickle cell disease.
DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity status, perceived depression and health-related quality of life were assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, fasting blood glucose and full lipid profile. Complex samples multiple logistic regression analysis was performed.
SETTING: Public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and seventy female teachers were included.
RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 41·15 (95 % CI 40·51, 41·78) years and the majority were ethnic Malays. Over 70 % of them had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/l) and two-thirds were at risk for depression. In the multivariate analysis, ethnic Malays (adjusted OR (aOR)=14·72; 95 % CI 2·12, 102·21) and Indians (aOR=14·02; 95 % CI 2·27, 86·59), those at risk for depression (aOR=1·88, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·79) and those with higher parathyroid hormone level (aOR=1·13; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·26) were associated with vitamin D deficiency, while vitamin D deficiency was negatively associated with mental health-related quality of life (Mental Component Summary) scores (aOR=0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99).
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with depression and mental health-related quality of life among women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
METHODS: Permission was obtained to translate the English versions into Malay and subsequently validate them, and to validate the existing Chinese versions. The translated questionnaires were taken for pilot testing. Validation was carried out for the face/content and discriminant validity. Reliability was assessed for test-retest and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient respectively. The responsiveness was calculated via effect size and standardized response mean.
RESULTS: Ten patients were recruited for the pilot testing. The English and Chinese versions had "substantial" or "almost perfect" agreement as measured by weighted Kappa. 284 participants (139 patients with stress urinary incontinence and 145 healthy volunteers) were included in the subsequent phases. The ICIQ-UI SF and ICIQ-LUTSqol had good discriminant validity. The ICIQ-UI SF had moderate internal consistency although the ICIQ-LUTSqol had good internal consistency. Both questionnaires had high test-retest reliability. Responsiveness was established with a moderate to large effect size and a standardized response mean.
CONCLUSIONS: The English, Chinese, and Malay versions each proved to be valid and reliable in our Malaysian population, thereby enabling more cross-cultural research in this region. Neurourol. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:438-442, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.