Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. de Toledo TA, da Costa RC, Al-Maqtari HM, Jamalis J, Pizani PS
    PMID: 28259100 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.02.051
    The heterocyclic chalcone containing thiophene ring 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-thienyl)prop-2-en-1-one, C13H9ClOS was synthesized and investigated using experimental techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at room temperature, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from room temperature to 500K and Raman scattering at the temperature range 10-413K in order to study its structure and vibrational properties as well as stability and possible phase transition. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to determine the vibrational spectrum viewing to improve the knowledge of the material properties. A reasonable agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental Raman spectrum taken at 10K since anharmonic effects of the molecular motion is reduced at low temperatures, leading to a more comprehensive assignment of the vibrational modes. Increasing the temperature up to 393K, was observed the typical phonon anharmonicity behavior associated to changes in the Raman line intensities, line-widths and red-shift, in special in the external mode region, whereas the internal modes region remains almost unchanged due its strong chemical bonds. Furthermore, C13H9ClOS goes to melting phase transition in the temperature range 393-403K and then sublimates in the temperature range 403-413K. This is denounced by the disappearance of the external modes and the absence of internal modes in the Raman spectra, in accordance with DSC curve. The enthalpy (ΔH) obtained from the integration of the endothermic peak in DSC curve centered at 397K is founded to be 121.5J/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  2. Maidur SR, Patil PS, Ekbote A, Chia TS, Quah CK
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2017 Sep 05;184:342-354.
    PMID: 28528255 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.05.015
    In the present work, the title chalcone, (2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-{[(1E)-(4-fluorophenyl) methylene]amino}phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (abbreviated as FAMFC), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound is crystallized in the monoclinic system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and hence it satisfies the essential condition for materials to exhibit second-order nonlinear optical properties. The molecular structure was further confirmed by using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The title crystal is transparent in the Vis-NIR region and has a direct band gap. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated in solution (0.01M) by Z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) DPSS laser at the wavelength of 532nm. The title chalcone exhibited significant two-photon absorption (β=35.8×10-5cmW-1), negative nonlinear refraction (n2=-0.18×10-8cm2W-1) and optical limiting (OL threshold=2.73kJcm-2) under the CW regime. In support of the experimental results, a comprehensive theoretical study was carried out on the molecule of FAMFC using density functional theory (DFT). The optimized geometries and frontier molecular orbitals were calculated by employing B3LYP/6-31+G level of theory. The optimized molecular structure was confirmed computationally by IR vibrational and 1H NMR spectral analysis. The experimental UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was interpreted using computational chemistry under time-dependent DFT. The static and dynamic NLO properties such as dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), and first hyperpolarizabilities (β) were computed by using finite field method. The obtained dynamic first hyperpolarizability β(-2ω;ω,ω) at input frequency ω=0.04282a.u. is predicted to be 161 times higher than urea standard. The electronic excitation energies and HOMO-LUMO band gap for FAMFC were also evaluated by DFT. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement, and the NLO study suggests that FAMFC molecule can be a potential candidate in the nonlinear optical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  3. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Ho WY, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e105244.
    PMID: 25286005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105244
    INTRODUCTION: The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.

    METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.

    RESULTS: We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.

    CONCLUSIONS: FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/chemical synthesis; Chalcone/pharmacology; Chalcone/therapeutic use
  4. Liew YJM, Lee YK, Khalid N, Rahman NA, Tan BC
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e9094.
    PMID: 32391211 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9094
    Flavonoids and prenylated flavonoids are active components in medicinal plant extracts which exhibit beneficial effects on human health. Prenylated flavonoids consist of a flavonoid core with a prenyl group attached to it. This prenylation process is catalyzed by prenyltranferases (PTs). At present, only a few flavonoid-related PT genes have been identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of PT in flavonoid production. We isolated a putative PT gene (designated as BrPT2) from a medicinal ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda. The deduced protein sequence shared highest gene sequence homology (81%) with the predicted homogentisate phytyltransferase 2 chloroplastic isoform X1 from Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis. We then cloned the BrPT2 into pRI vector and expressed in B. rotunda cell suspension cultures via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The BrPT2-expressing cells were fed with substrate, pinostrobin chalcone, and their products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We found that the amount of flavonoids, namely alpinetin, pinostrobin, naringenin and pinocembrin, in BrPT2-expressing cells was higher than those obtained from the wild type cells. However, we were unable to detect any targeted prenylated flavonoids. Further in-vitro assay revealed that the reaction containing the BrPT2 protein produced the highest accumulation of pinostrobin from the substrate pinostrobin chalcone compared to the reaction without BrPT2 protein, suggesting that BrPT2 was able to accelerate the enzymatic reaction. The finding of this study implied that the isolated BrPT2 may not be involved in the prenylation of pinostrobin chalcone but resulted in high yield and production of other flavonoids, which is likely related to enzyme promiscuous activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  5. Bukhari SN, Butt AM, Amjad MW, Ahmad W, Shah VH, Trivedi AR
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Nov 01;16(21):1368-72.
    PMID: 24511749
    Hypertension is a widespread and frequently progressive ailment that imparts a foremost threat for cardiovascular and renal disorders. Mammoth efforts are needed for the synthesis of innovative antihypertensive agents to combat this lethal disease. Chalcones have shown antihypertensive activity through inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). Hence, a series of chalcone analogues is synthesized and used as precursor for the synthesis of novel series of pyrimidines. Precursor chalcones were prepared by reacting aldehydes and ketones in presence of sodium hydroxide followed by synthesis of corresponding pyrimidines by reaction with urea in presence of potassium hydroxide. Both groups were then evaluated for their effects on ACE. The results depicted that pyrimidines were more active than chalcones with methoxy (C5 and P5) substitution showing best results to inhibit ACE. Given that chalcone analogues and pyrimidines show a potential as the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/chemical synthesis; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  6. Badroon NA, Abdul Majid N, Alshawsh MA
    Nutrients, 2020 Jun 12;12(6).
    PMID: 32545423 DOI: 10.3390/nu12061757
    Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in terms of incidence and the fourth in terms of mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents almost 90% of primary liver cancer and has become a major health problem globally. Cardamonin (CADMN) is a natural bioactive chalcone found in several edible plants such as cardamom and Alpinia species. Previous studies have shown that CADMN possesses anticancer activities against breast, lung, prostate and colorectal cancer. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CADMN were investigated against HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that CADMN has anti-proliferative effects and apoptotic action on HepG2 cells. CADMN showed potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells with an IC50 of 17.1 ± 0.592 μM at 72 h. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that CADMN arrests HepG2 cells in G1 phase and induces a significant increase in early and late apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. The mechanism by which CADMN induces apoptotic action was via activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Moreover, the findings of this study showed the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which inhibit the NF-κB pathway and further enhance the apoptotic process. Together, our findings further support the potential anticancer activity of CADMN as an alternative therapeutic agent against HCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  7. Ngaini Z, Fadzillah SM, Hussain H
    Nat Prod Res, 2012;26(10):892-902.
    PMID: 21678160 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.502896
    A series of (E)-1-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one have been successfully synthesised via Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The synthesised chalcone derivatives consisted of hydroxyl groups at either ortho, meta or para position and differed in the length of the alkyl groups, C (n) H(2) (n) (+1,) where n = 6, 10, 12 and 14. The structures of all compounds were defined by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR. The antimicrobial studies were carried out against wild-type Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collection 8739 to evaluate the effect of the hydroxyl and the alkyl groups of the synthesised chalcones. All the synthesised compounds have shown significant antimicrobial activities. The optimum inhibition was dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group as well as the length of the alkyl chains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/chemical synthesis*; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  8. Phan CW, Sabaratnam V, Yong WK, Abd Malek SN
    Nat Prod Res, 2018 May;32(10):1229-1233.
    PMID: 28539058 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1331226
    Chalcones are a group of compounds widely distributed in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to assess the neurite outgrowth stimulatory activity of selected chalcones, namely helichrysetin, xanthohumol and flavokawin-C. Using adherent rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 Adh) cells, the chalcones were subjected to neurite outgrowth assay and the extracellular nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined. Xanthohumol (10 μg/mL) displayed the highest (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/pharmacology; Chalcones/pharmacology*
  9. Suwito H, Jumina, Mustofa, Pudjiastuti P, Fanani MZ, Kimata-Ariga Y, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Dec 19;19(12):21473-88.
    PMID: 25532844 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191221473
    Some chalcones have been designed and synthesized using Claisen-Schmidt reactions as inhibitors of the ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase interaction to pursue a new selective antimalaria agent. The synthesized compounds exhibited inhibition interactions between PfFd-PfFNR in the range of 10.94%-50%. The three strongest inhibition activities were shown by (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (50%), (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (38.16%), and (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (31.58%). From the docking experiments we established that the amino group of the methoxyamino chlacone derivatives plays an important role in the inhibition activity by electrostatic interaction through salt bridges and that it forms more stable and better affinity complexes with FNR than with Fd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/chemical synthesis*
  10. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/administration & dosage; Chalcone/pharmacology*
  11. Al-Anazi M, Al-Najjar BO, Khairuddean M
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 05;23(12).
    PMID: 30563058 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123203
    Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-1 (EGFR), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK), has been associated with several types of cancer, including breast, lung, ovarian, and anal cancers. Thus, the receptor was targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches for cancer treatments. A series of chalcone derivatives are among the most highly potent and selective inhibitors of EGFR described to date. A series of chalcone derivatives were proposed in this study to investigate the intermolecular interactions in the active site utilizing molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. After a careful analysis of docking results, compounds 1a and 1d were chosen for molecular dynamics simulation study. Extensive hydrogen bond analysis throughout 7 ns molecular dynamics simulation revealed the ability of compounds 1a and 1d to retain the essential interactions needed for the inhibition, especially MET 93. Finally, MM-GBSA calculations highlight on the capability of the ligands to bind strongly within the active site with binding energies of -44.04 and -56.6 kcal/mol for compounds 1a and 1d, respectively. Compound 1d showed to have a close binding energy with TAK-285 (-66.17 kcal/mol), which indicates a high chance for compound 1d to exhibit inhibitory activity, thus recommending to synthesis it to test its biological activity. It is anticipated that the findings reported here may provide very useful information for designing effective drugs for the treatment of EGFR-related cancer disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/pharmacology; Chalcone/chemistry*
  12. Mohd Sakeh N, Md Razip NN, Mohd Ma'in FI, Abdul Bahari MN, Latif N, Akhtar MN, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Jul 28;25(15).
    PMID: 32731323 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25153403
    Excessive production of melanin implicates hyperpigmentation disorders. Flavokawain A (FLA) and flavokawain B (FLB) have been reported with anti-melanogenic activity, but their melanogenic inhibition and toxicity effects on the vertebrate model of zebrafish are still unknown. In the present study, cytotoxic as well as melanogenic effects of FLA and FLB on cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity were evaluated in α-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Master regulator of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) and the other downstream melanogenic-related genes were verified via quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Toxicity assessment and melanogenesis inhibition on zebrafish model was further observed. FLA and FLB significantly reduced the specific cellular melanin content by 4.3-fold and 9.6-fold decrement, respectively in α-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Concomitantly, FLA significantly reduced the specific cellular tyrosinase activity by 7-fold whilst FLB by 9-fold. The decrement of melanin production and tyrosinase activity were correlated with the mRNA suppression of Mitf which in turn down-regulate Tyr, Trp-1 and Trp-2. FLA and FLB exhibited non-toxic effects on the zebrafish model at 25 and 6.25 µM, respectively. Further experiments on the zebrafish model demonstrated successful phenotype-based depigmenting activity of FLA and FLB under induced melanogenesis. To sum up, our findings provide an important first key step for both of the chalcone derivatives to be further studied and developed as potent depigmenting agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/pharmacology
  13. Wong KT, Osman H, Parumasivam T, Supratman U, Che Omar MT, Azmi MN
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 05;26(7).
    PMID: 33916423 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26072081
    A total of fourteen pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized through cyclo-condensation reactions by chalcone derivatives with different types of semicarbazide. These compounds were characterized by IR, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C and Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer - DEPT-135) and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) as well as mass spectroscopy analysis (HRMS). The synthesized compounds were tested for their antituberculosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra in vitro. Based on this activity, compound 4a showed the most potent inhibitory activity, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 17 μM. In addition, six other synthesized compounds, 5a and 5c-5g, exhibited moderate activity, with MIC ranges between 60 μM to 140 μM. Compound 4a showed good bactericidal activity with a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 34 μM against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Molecular docking studies for compound 4a on alpha-sterol demethylase was done to understand and explore ligand-receptor interactions, and to hypothesize potential refinements for the compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  14. Al-Refai M, Ibrahim MM, Azmi MN, Osman H, Bakar MHA, Geyer A
    Molecules, 2019 Nov 10;24(22).
    PMID: 31717690 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24224072
    A series of 2-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile (5a-i)-bearing aryl substituents were successfully synthesized in good yields by the condensation of chalcones (4a-i) with malononitrile in basic medium. The condensation process, in most cases, offers a route to a variety of methoxypyridine derivatives (6a-g) as side products in poor yields. All new compounds were fully characterized using different spectroscopic methods. Mass ESI-HMRS measurements were also performed. Furthermore, these compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activities against three cancer cell lines; namely, those of the liver (line HepG2), prostate (line DU145) and breast (line MBA-MB-231). The cytotoxicity assessment revealed that compounds 5d, 5g, 5h and 5i exhibit promising antiproliferative effects (IC50 1-5 µM) against those three cancer cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  15. Bukhari SN, Jasamai M, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2012 Nov;12(13):1394-403.
    PMID: 22876958
    Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic compounds, chalcones impart key role. They have showed worth mentioning therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of various diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained heed since they own simple structures, and diverse pharmacological actions. A lot of methods and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all, Aldol condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still grasp high up position. Other distinguished techniques include Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl cinnamates etc. These inventive techniques utilize various catalysts and reagents including SOCl(2) natural phosphate, lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na(2)CO(3), PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl(4) and ionic liquid etc. The development of better techniques for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in high demand. In brief, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones along with their biological activities in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes targeting better yield, less reaction time and least side effects with utmost pharmacological properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/chemical synthesis*; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  16. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Jasamai M
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jan;13(1):87-94.
    PMID: 22876943
    Chalcones (1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) are constituted by a three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. The biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids is initiated by chalcones. Notable pharmacological activities of chalcones and its derivatives include anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antituberculosis, antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral effects respectively. Owing to simplicity of the chemical structures and a huge variety of pharmacological actions exhibited, the entities derived from chalcones are subjected to extensive consideration. This review article is an effort to sum up the anti-inflammatory activities of chalcone derived chemical entities. Effect of chalcones on lipid peroxidation, heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), cyclooxygenase (COX), interleukin 5 (IL-5), nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) is summarized stepwise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/therapeutic use
  17. Safdar MH, Hasan H, Afzal S, Hussain Z
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(12):1047-1063.
    PMID: 29173165 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666171123212039
    The immune system is an intricate and coordinated nexus serving as a natural defense to preclude internal and external pathogenic insults. The deregulation in the natural balance of immunological functions as a consequence of either over expression or under expression of immune cells tends to cause disruption of homeostasis in the body and may lead to development of numerous immune system disorders. Chalcone moieties (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) have been well-documented as ideal lead compounds or precursors to design a wide range of pharmacologically active agents to down-regulate various immune disorders. Owing to their unique structural and molecular framework, these α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties have also gained remarkable recognition due to their other multifarious pharmacological properties including antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-tuberculosis, and anticancer potential. Though a great number of methodologies are currently being employed for their synthesis, this review mainly focuses on the natural and synthetic chalcone derivatives that are exclusively synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and their immunomodulatory prospects. We have critically reviewed the literature and provided convincing evidence for the promising efficacy of chalcone derivatives to modulate functioning of various innate and adaptive immune players including granulocytes, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T-lymphocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/chemical synthesis; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  18. Bukhari SN, Franzblau SG, Jantan I, Jasamai M
    Med Chem, 2013 Nov;9(7):897-903.
    PMID: 23305394
    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is amongst the foremost infectious diseases. Treatment of tuberculosis is a complex process due to various factors including a patient's inability to persevere with a combined treatment regimen, the difficulty in eradicating the infection in immune-suppressed patients, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Extensive research circumscribing molecules to counteract this disease has led to the identification of many inhibitory small molecules. Among these are chalcone derivatives along with curcumin analogs. In this review article, we summarize the reported literature regarding anti tubercular activity of chalcone derivatives and synthetic curcumin analogs. Our goal is to provide an analysis of research to date in order to facilitate the synthesis of superior antitubercular chalcone derivatives and curcumin analogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/therapeutic use; Chalcone/chemistry
  19. Bukhari SNA, Alotaibi NH, Ahmad W, Alharbi KS, Abdelgawad MA, Al-Sanea MM, et al.
    Med Chem, 2020 Sep 05.
    PMID: 32888274 DOI: 10.2174/1573406416666200905125038
    BACKGROUND: Ligustrazine and chalcones have been reported previously for various biological activities including anticancer effects.

    OBJECTIVES: Based on the multitargeted biological activities approach of ligustrazine based chalcones, in current study 18 synthetic ligustrazine-containing α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based 1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on growth of five different types of cancer cells.

    METHODS: All compounds were evaluated for anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines by propidium iodide fluorescence assay and various other assays were performed for mechanistic studies.

    RESULTS: Majority of compounds exhibited strong inhibition of cancer cells especially synthetic compounds 4a and 4b bearing 1-Pyridin-3-yl-ethanone as a ketone moiety in main structural backbone were found most powerful inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Most active 9 compounds among whole series were selected for further studies related to different cancer targets including EGFR TK kinases, tubulin polymerization, KAF and BRAFV600E.

    CONCLUSION: Synthetic derivatives including 4a-b and 5a-b showed multitarget approach and showed strong inhibitory effects on EGFR, FAK and BRAF while three compounds including 3e bearing methoxy substitution, 4a and 4b with 1- pyridin-3-yl-ethanone moiety showed the inhibition of tubulin polymerization.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  20. Sambasevam, Yogesvari, Wong, Siong Jiun, Farihah Hanani Ghazali, Ammar Izzati Amir Ramadan, Mohd Roslan Sulaiman, Mohd Khairi Hussain, et al.
    Introduction: Active compounds derived from plants are able to inhibit nerve conduction. Cardamonin, a naturally occurring chalcone, manifests anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-neuropathy properties. Consequently, cardamonin may potentially inhibit nerve action potential, whereby, it affects the nerve conduction. Compound action potential is the sum of the activity which is measured from a nerve trunk. Objective: The experiment was carried out to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardamonin on compound action potentials and its possible mechanism of action on frog sciatic nerve. Methodology: LabTutor software was used to record compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve was isolated from the frog and soaked in Ringer’s solution. Stimulating electrodes were used to stimulate the nerve and recording electrodes were used to record compound action potentials. Compound action potential of the nerve were recorded before and after treatments [vehicle, cardamonin (0.5, 1 & 2 mg/ml) & morphine (3mg/ml)]. Participation of opioid system was investigated by pre-treating the nerve with naloxone and followed by cardamonin. All the data were recorded and analysed via LabTutor software. The data were analysed by using Two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferonni’s post hoc test with significant value at P < 0.05. Results: The outcomes showed that all the doses of cardamonin significantly reduced the peak amplitude of compound action potential in frog sciatic nerves. Besides, co-treatment of naloxone and cardamonin significantly (P < 0.001) reversed the effect of cardamonin on peak amplitude of compound action potential, suggesting the involvement of opioid receptors to inhibit nerve conduction. Conclusion: Cardamonin reduces the nerve signal conduction via activation of opioid receptors to modulate pain and contribute to the analgesic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
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