Case Report: Herein, we present a case of clicking larynx in a young girl followed by an overview of the latest literature on the aetiology and treatment options. This case aims to reinforce the presence of this entity further and subsequently increase its awareness among clinicians.
Conclusion: Expeditious diagnosis is imperative not just for the eventual treatment but also for timely relief to the anxious patients who would have been perplexed by the strange clicking in the throat.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted for the period from January 2000 to December 2019 by using a number of medical literature data bases including Scopus, PubMed and Embase. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: drug-induced sleep endoscopy, sleep endoscopy directed surgery, paediatrics sleep apnoea. The search was conducted over a month period (December 2019). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed when possible.
RESULTS: Seven clinical research articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. Seven studies were of level III evidence: retrospective, case-control and prospective series. Altogether, there were 996 patients with male predominance; 61%. Over 10% of patients (133 patients) were found to have comorbidities or were syndromic. The mean age of patient was 6 years and majority (87.6%) of our patients were found to be surgically naïve, that is, no previous surgical procedures were performed for OSA. Surgical decision was changed in 295 patients (30%) following DISE. Post intervention outcomes were objectively revealed in 4 studies. Most of our patients underwent a multilevel surgery based on DISE (86%). Complications were documented in 3 studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results indicated that DISE directed surgery was an effective, safe therapeutic approach to treating paediatrics obstructive sleep apnoea. DISE directed surgery has shown to have changed surgical management in most studies.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Embase.
REVIEW METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period from January 1990 to March 2020. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: voice disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux. The search was conducted over a period of a month: April 2020.
RESULTS: Five clinical research were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. Four studies were of level III evidence. Altogether, a total of 606 patients were pooled with male predominance of 63%. In all studies, reflux was suggested to have strong relation with dysphonia. Majority of cases used 24-h pH monitoring to confirm reflux which yielded positive results in 69%. The top three most common endoscopic findings include: interarytenoid erythema and edema (32/38), vocal cord erythema and edema (160/231) and postglottic edema (141/337). Vocal cord nodules were found in 28% of our patients. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment of voice was performed in only 1 study. No complication from any procedure was mentioned in any of the studies. Outcome of treatment was mentioned in 1 study, whereby after 4.5 months of follow-up, 68% of children showed improvement in symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Current evidence shows that there is strong relation between reflux and dysphonia in children. Most common laryngoscopic findings suggestive of reflux includes interarytenoid erythema and edema, vocal cord erythema and edema and postglottic edema.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period of one month (April 2022).
RESULTS: 16 articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. A total of patients was included, with a median age of 10.9 years. 11 studies diagnosed VM based on diagnostic criteria. Caloric test and electro/videonystagmography are the most favoured investigation used (50%). Imaging was performed in 56.2% of included studies.
CONCLUSION: Deciphering the ideal diagnostic approach for VM is prudent to ensure children and adolescents suffering from VM are treated earlier. VM can be diagnosed using the established diagnostic criteria, which requires thorough and meticulous history taking. The available oto-neurological examination aims to exclude other disorders as its significance in diagnosing VM is still debatable.
METHODS: A comprehensive review of recent literature on non-acid reflux and airway reflux in children was conducted. Studies ranged from January 2010 till November 2021 were searched over a period of a month: December 2021.
RESULTS: A total of eleven studies were identified. All studies included in this review revealed a strong link between non-acid reflux and airway reflux in children. 6 of the included studies are prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies, 1 cross-section study, and type of study was not mentioned in 1 study. The most common reported respiratory manifestation of non-acid reflux in children was chronic cough (7 studies). Predominant non-acid reflux was noted in 4 studies. The total number of children in each study ranges from 21 to 150 patients. MII-pH study was carried out in all studies included as a diagnostic tool for reflux investigation.
CONCLUSION: Non-acid reflux is the culprit behind airway reflux as well as other myriads of extra-esophageal manifestations in children. Multicentre international studies with a standardized protocol could improve scientific knowledge in managing non-acid reflux in airway reflux amongst children.
METHODS: A search of the literature published from 1 December 2019 to 30 April 2021 was conducted using four databases, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The search was performed over one month (May 2021).
RESULTS: Only 9 articles were identified, with a total of 316 laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 positive children and adolescents, of whom 156 reported olfactory dysfunction. Four studies reported olfactory dysfunction based on subjective tests; four studies carried out objective assessment. Most studies reported on olfaction recovery.
CONCLUSION: The literature review revealed an olfactory dysfunction rate of 49 per cent amongst children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019. Persistence of olfactory dysfunction was reported in 7.1 per cent of the patients. Further studies involving objective measures need to be carried out in children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted for the period from 1990 to 2020 by searching several databases over a 1-month period (January 2021) according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews for Interventions. Primary outcome was defined as the success of the intervention determined by the resolution of symptoms, and secondary outcome was determined by revisions surgery and presence of complications.
RESULTS: Only 7 articles were identified based on our objectives and selection criteria. All studies included are retrospective cohort case series (Level IV) and 1 cohort of matched controls (Level III). A total of 284 patients were included in this review, with a mean age of 7.8 years. A total of 463 balloon dilation were performed either bilaterally or unilaterally. The most common finding of ETD is middle ear effusion in 5 studies. Balloon dilation of eustachian tube was second-line treatment in 6 studies and first-line treatment in 1 study. Improvement of symptoms was identified in all studies through various assessments performed. Revision surgery was performed in 1 study with no major complications reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dilation of the eustachian tube may be considered as an alternative procedure following failed standard treatment in children. The quality of evidence is inadequate to recommend widespread use of the technique until a better-quality study has been completed. Future randomized controlled studies with a large sample size are warranted to determine the efficacy of this procedure amongst children.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Each patient underwent pre- and post-shift voice analysis.
RESULTS: Among 42 teleoperators, 28 patients (66.7 per cent) completed all the tests. Female predominance (62 per cent) was noted, with a mean age of 40 years. Voice changes during working were reported by 48.1 per cent. Pre- and post-shift maximum phonation time (p < 0.018) and Voice Handicap Index-10 (p < 0.011) showed significant results with no correlation noted between subjective and objective assessment.
CONCLUSION: Maximum phonation time and Voice Handicap Index-10 are good voice assessment tools. The quality of evidence is inadequate to recommend 'gold standard' voice assessment until a better-quality study has been completed.
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature to determine the outcome of CRM in children and adolescents with BPPV.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted over 1 month (March 2022). The primary outcome was defined as the resolution of positional nystagmus and symptoms, and secondary outcomes were determined by the presence of recurrence and the number of attempts of CRM.
RESULTS: Ten articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. A total of 242 patients were included, with a mean of 10.9 years. BPPV was diagnosed based on history and positional nystagmus in all patients (100%). CRM was performed in 97.9% of patients, whereby 80.5% recovered following a single attempt of CRM. Recurrence of symptoms was identified in 10% of patients with no reported major complications.
CONCLUSION: CRM has demonstrated promising results in children and adolescents. The quality of evidence is limited until a better-quality study involving randomised controlled studies with a larger sample size is completed.