Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 313 in total

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  1. Au LF, Othman F, Mustaffa R, Vidyadaran S, Rahmat A, Besar I, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:16-7.
    PMID: 19024962
    Biofilms are adherent, multi-layered colonies of bacteria that are typically more resistant to the host immune response and routine antibiotic therapy. HA biomaterial comprises of a single-phased hydroxyapatite scaffold with interconnected pore structure. The device is designed as osteoconductive space filler to be gently packed into bony voids or gaps following tooth extraction or any surgical procedure. Gentamycin-coated biomaterial (locally made hydroxyapatite) was evaluated to reduce or eradicate the biofilm on the implant materials. The results indicated that the HA coated with gentamycin was biocompatible to human osteoblast cell line and the biofilm has been reduced after being treated with different concentrations of gentamycin-coated hydroxyapatite (HA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  2. Munirah S, Samsudin OC, Chen HC, Salmah SH, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:35-6.
    PMID: 19024971
    Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage biopsy and were cultivated in vitro. Approximately 30 million of cultured chondrocytes per ml were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted either with the autologous 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blank (AF). Sheep were euthanized after 12 weeks. The gross morphology of all defects treated with ACFC implantation, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly normal appearance according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. ACFC significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF in accordance with the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale. The relative sulphated glycosaminoglycans content (%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ACFC when compared to control groups; ACI vs. fibrin only vs. untreated (blank). Results showed that ACFC implantation exhibited superior cartilage-like tissue regeneration compared to ACI. If the result is applicable to the human, it possibly will improve the existing treatment approaches for cartilage restoration in orthopaedic surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  3. Vellayappan MV, Jaganathan SK, Muhamad II
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e1388.
    PMID: 26819837 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1388
    Design of blood compatible surfaces is obligatory to minimize platelet surface interactions and improve the thromboresistance of foreign surfaces when they are utilized as biomaterials particularly for blood contacting devices. Pure metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and nitric acid (HNO3) treated mPE antithrombogenicity and hydrophilicity were investigated. The contact angle of the mPE treated with HNO3 decreased. Surface of mPE and HNO3 treated mPE investigated with FTIR revealed no major changes in its functional groups. 3D Hirox digital microscopy, SEM and AFM images show increased porosity and surface roughness. Blood coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) for HNO3 treated mPE. Hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion of the treated surface resulted in the lysis of red blood cells and platelet adherence, respectively indicating improved hemocompatibility of HNO3 treated mPE. To determine that HNO3 does not deteriorate elastic modulus of mPE, the elastic modulus of mPE and HNO3 treated mPE was compared and the result shows no significant difference. Hence, the overall observation suggests that the novel HNO3 treated mPE may hold great promises to be exploited for blood contacting devices like grafts, catheters, and etc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  4. Kannan, T.P., Quah, B.B., Azlina, A., Samsudin, A.R.
    MyJurnal
    Dentistry has searched for an ideal material to place in osseous defects for many years. Endogenous bone replacement has been the golden standard but involves additional surgery and may be available in limited quantities. Also, the exogenous bone replacement poses a risk of viral or bacterial transmission and the human body may even reject them. Therefore, before new biomaterials are approved for medical use, mutagenesis systems to exclude cytotoxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic properties are applied worldwide. The present preliminary study was carried out in five male New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Porous form of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (500 mg), manufactured by School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, was implanted in the femur of the rabbits. Blood samples were collected prior to implantation and one week after implantation. The blood was cultured in vitro and the cell division was arrested at metaphase using colcemid. This was followed by the hypotonic treatment and fixation. Then, the chromosomes were prepared and stained for analysis. The modal chromosome number of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was found to be 2n=44. The mean mitotic index values prior to and after implantation were 3.30 ± 0.66 and 3.24 ± 0.27 per cent respectively. No gross chromosome aberrations, both numerical and structural were noticed either prior to or after implantation of the biomaterial. These findings indicate that the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules does not produce gross chromosome aberrations under the present test conditions in rabbits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  5. Law JX, Liau LL, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2016 Dec;91:55-63.
    PMID: 27863642 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.10.012
    Tracheal replacement is performed after resection of a portion of the trachea that was impossible to reconnect via direct anastomosis. A tissue-engineered trachea is one of the available options that offer many advantages compared to other types of graft. Fabrication of a functional tissue-engineered trachea for grafting is very challenging, as it is a complex organ with important components, including cartilage, epithelium and vasculature. A number of studies have been reported on the preparation of a graftable trachea. A laterally rigid but longitudinally flexible hollow cylindrical scaffold which supports cartilage and epithelial tissue formation is the key element. The scaffold can be prepared via decellularization of an allograft or fabricated using biodegradable or non-biodegradable biomaterials. Commonly, the scaffold is seeded with chondrocytes and epithelial cells at the outer and luminal surfaces, respectively, to hasten tissue formation and improve functionality. To date, several clinical trials of tracheal replacement with tissue-engineered trachea have been performed. This article reviews the formation of cartilage tissue, epithelium and neovascularization of tissue-engineered trachea, together with the obstacles, possible solutions and future. Furthermore, the role of the bioreactor for in vitro tracheal graft formation and recently reported clinical applications of tracheal graft were also discussed. Generally, although encouraging results have been achieved, however, some obstacles remain to be resolved before the tissue-engineered trachea can be widely used in clinical settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  6. Tan JM, Saifullah B, Kura AU, Fakurazi S, Hussein MZ
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2018 May 31;8(6).
    PMID: 29857532 DOI: 10.3390/nano8060389
    Four drug delivery systems were formulated by non-covalent functionalization of carboxylated single walled carbon nanotubes using biocompatible polymers as coating agent (i.e., Tween 20, Tween 80, chitosan or polyethylene glycol) for the delivery of levodopa, a drug used in Parkinson's disease. The chemical interaction between the coating agent and carbon nanotubes-levodopa conjugate was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies. The drug release profiles were revealed to be dependent upon the type of applied coating material and this could be further adjusted to a desired rate to meet different biomedical conditions. In vitro drug release experiments measured using UV-Vis spectrometry demonstrated that the coated conjugates yielded a more prolonged and sustained release pattern compared to the uncoated conjugate. Cytotoxicity of the formulated conjugates was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using normal mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3 cell line. Compared to the non-coated conjugate, the MTT data indicated that the coating procedure improved the biocompatibility of all systems by 34⁻41% when the concentration used exceeded 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, the comprehensive results of this study suggest that carbon nanotubes-based drug carrier coated with a suitable biomaterial may possibly be a potential nanoparticle system that could facilitate drug delivery to the brain with tunable physicochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  7. Mulimani P
    Br Dent J, 2017 Jun 23;222(12):954-961.
    PMID: 28642517 DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2017.546
    Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. Factors inherent in the profession such as enormous electricity demands of electronic dental equipment, voluminous water requirements, environmental effects of biomaterials (before, during and after clinical use), the use of radiation and the generation of hazardous waste involving mercury, lead etc have contributed towards this. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways. In such a scenario, a professional obligation and social responsibility of dentists makes it imperative to transform the practice of dentistry from a hazardous to a sustainable one, by adopting environmental-friendly measures or 'green dentistry'. The NHS in the UK has been proactive in implementing sustainability in healthcare by setting targets, developing guidance papers, initiating steering groups to develop measures and implementing actions through its Sustainable Development Unit (SDU). Such sustainable frameworks, specific to dentistry, are not yet available and even the scientific literature is devoid of studies in this field although anecdotal narratives abound. Hence this paper attempts to present a comprehensive evaluation of the existing healthcare sustainability principles, for their parallel application in the field of dentistry and lays out a blueprint for integrating the two main underlying principles of sustainability - resource use efficiency and eliminating or minimising pollution - in the day-to-day practice. The article also highlights the importance of social values, community care, engaging stakeholders, economic benefits, developing policy and providing leadership in converting the concept of green dentistry into a practised reality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  8. Mukheem A, Muthoosamy K, Manickam S, Sudesh K, Shahabuddin S, Saidur R, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2018 Sep 10;11(9).
    PMID: 30201852 DOI: 10.3390/ma11091673
    Many wounds are unresponsive to currently available treatment techniques and therefore there is an immense need to explore suitable materials, including biomaterials, which could be considered as the crucial factor to accelerate the healing cascade. In this study, we fabricated polyhydroxyalkanoate-based antibacterial mats via an electrospinning technique. One-pot green synthesized graphene-decorated silver nanoparticles (GAg) were incorporated into the fibres of poly-3 hydroxybutarate-co-12 mol.% hydroxyhexanoate (P3HB-co-12 mol.% HHx), a co-polymer of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family which is highly biocompatible, biodegradable, and flexible in nature. The synthesized PHA/GAg biomaterial has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), elemental mapping, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An in vitro antibacterial analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy of PHA/GAg against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain 12,600 ATCC and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain 8739 ATCC. The results indicated that the PHA/GAg demonstrated significant reduction of S. aureus and E. coli as compared to bare PHA or PHA- reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in 2 h of time. The p value (p < 0.05) was obtained by using a two-sample t-test distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  9. Rafieerad AR, Bushroa AR, Amiri A, Kalaiselvam K, Vellasamy KM, Vadivelu J
    J Hazard Mater, 2018 10 15;360:132-140.
    PMID: 30099356 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.107
    Antibacterial ability is vital in biological approaches as well as functional biomaterials. Besides, cytocompatibility aspect of biologic media, tissue and organs is always concern for appropriate synthesis. From the past, metallic/oxide phases of silver (Ag) material in various macro, micro or nano configurations have been widely used for antibacterial targets. While, background of Ag toxicity within particle, film and composites is posing gradual ion release affected by molecular bounding. Recent researches conducted to control, optimize and neutralize Ag limitations finding the benefits of ideal (∼ 100%) mediation against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Whereas, non-degradable releases history is still a challenge and its longer accumulation may cause to disrupt biostructures and disease risk. Thus, facile development of large-area organic materials with switchable bacteria toxicity and normal cell compatibility function is interesting for concerned approaches. Here, smart positively-charged stable arginine amino acid incorporated mono layer graphene (Arg-EMGr) nanobiocomposite introduced as useful antibacterial and safe bactericidal agent competitive with Ag direct. The immunity characteristic versus Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) comparably assessed with graphene oxide (GO) and different concentrations GO-AgNPs morphology. As cell viability matter, 1,3,5,7-days vitro culture assay shown attachment proliferation and cytotoxicity due to short interaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  10. Saadi S, Saari N, Abdulkarim MS, Ghazali HM, Anwar F
    J Control Release, 2018 03 28;274:93-101.
    PMID: 29031897 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.10.011
    Cell impurities are an emerging nucleating molecular barriers having the capability in disordering the metabolic chain reactions of proteolysis, glycolysis and lipolysis. Their massive effects induced by copolymer crystal growth in compaction with metal and mineral transients are extended as well as in damaging DNA and mRNA structure motif and other molecular assembly e.g. histones structure unites. Their polycrystalline packing modes, polydispersity and their tendency to surface and interface adhesion prompted us in structuring scaffold biomaterials enriched with biopeptides, layered by phospho-glycerides ester-forms. The interface tension of the formed map is flexible and dependent to the surface exposure and its collapse modes to the surrounding molecular ligands. Thus, the attempts in increasing surface exposure e.g. the viscoelastic of structured lipopeptides and types of formed network structures interplays an extra- conjugating biomolecules having a least cytotoxicity effects to cells constituents. Disulfides molecules are selected to be the key regulatory element in rejoining both lipidic and proteic moieties by disordering atoms status via chemical ionization using organic catalyst. The insertion of methionine based peptidic chain at the lateral surfaces of scaffold biomaterials enhances the electron-meta-static motions by raising a molecular disordering status at distinct regions of the map e.g. epimerization into a nonpolar side that helps the chemical conjunction of disulfide groups with the esterified phosphoglycerides mono-layers. These effects in turn are accomplished by the formation of meso-sphere nonpolar- vesicles. The oxidation of disulfide group would alter the ordering of initial molecules by raising a newly molecular disorders to the map with high polarity to surface regions. In the same time indicates a continuation in the crystallization growth factor via a low chemical lesions between the impurities and a supersaturation in the intra-atomic distances with maximum cross linking to the deformed ligand with scaffold biomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  11. Higuchi A, Ku NJ, Tseng YC, Pan CH, Li HF, Kumar SS, et al.
    Lab Invest, 2017 10;97(10):1167-1179.
    PMID: 28869589 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2017.100
    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in advanced countries. Stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for acute and chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. The current status of stem cell therapies for patients with myocardial infarction is discussed from a bioengineering and biomaterial perspective in this review. We describe (a) the current status of clinical trials of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) compared with clinical trials of human adult or fetal stem cells, (b) the gap between fundamental research and application of human stem cells, (c) the use of biomaterials in clinical and pre-clinical studies of stem cells, and finally (d) trends in bioengineering to promote stem cell therapies for patients with myocardial infarction. We explain why the number of clinical trials using hPSCs is so limited compared with clinical trials using human adult and fetal stem cells such as bone marrow-derived stem cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  12. Muhammad Lutfi Mohamed Halim, Nora Azirah Mohd Zayi, Mohd Yusof Mohamad, Mohd Hafiz Arzmi
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. It is a major concern in Southeast Asia primarily due to betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In Malaysia, oral cancer related cases accounts for 1.55% of the cause of deaths. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the survival rate of oral cancer patients only reached 50% in the last few decades. Tissue engineering (TE) principles may pro-vide new technology platforms to study mechanisms of angiogenesis and tumour cell growth as well as potentially tumour cell spreading in cancer research. The use of biomaterial, appropriate cell source and proper signalling mol-ecules are vital components of TE. Collagen biomaterial are widely used scaffold or membrane in oral application. Nevertheless, no review has been performed on the its usage for the study of oral cancer. This study aimed to sys-tematically review the use of collagen scaffold in oral cancer application. Methods: Research articles were searched using Scopus, Pubmed and Web of Science (WOS) databases. The keywords were limited to “collagen membrane OR collagen scaffold” AND “oral cancer”. Results: Initial search yielded 61 papers (Scopus:37, Pubmed: 12, WOS: 12). Further scrutinization of the papers based on the inclusion criteria resulted total of 3 papers. Two of the papers used collagen membrane for regeneration of oral mucosal defect and increment of alveolar ridge height post-surgery. The remaining paper utilize collagen biomaterial as scaffold for the culture of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) cells. All papers reported significant role of collagen biomaterial in terms of tissue formation, healing scaffold and cellular proliferation. Conclusion: Collagen utilization as biomaterial offers potential use for regeneration of oral related structures as well providing useful model for therapeutics anti-cancer research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  13. Chan SK, Lim TS
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019 Apr;103(7):2973-2984.
    PMID: 30805670 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-019-09669-3
    Microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) is commonly known in the food industry as meat glue due to its incredible ability to "glue" meat proteins together. Aside from being widely exploited in the meat processing industries, mTGase is also widely applied in other food and textile industries by catalysing the formation of isopeptide bonds between peptides or protein substrates. The advancement of technology has opened up new avenues for mTGase in the field of biomedical engineering. Efforts have been made to study the structural properties of mTGase in order to gain an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship. This review highlights the developments in mTGase engineering together with its role in biomedical applications including biomaterial fabrication for tissue engineering and biotherapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  14. Rozman NAS, Tong WY, Leong CR, Tan WN, Hasanolbasori MA, Abdullah SZ
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019 Jul 28;29(7):1009-1013.
    PMID: 31288302 DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1904.04065
    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely used for drug delivery due to their biodegradability property. Among the wide array of polymers, chitosan has received growing interest among researchers. It was widely used as a vehicle in polymeric nanoparticles for drug targeting. This review explored the current research on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (ChNP) and the impact on the clinical applications. The antimicrobial activities of ChNP were widely reported against bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. For pharmaceutical applications, ChNP were used as antimicrobial coating for promoting wound healing, preventing infections and combating the rise of infectious disease. Besides, ChNP also exhibited significant inhibitory on foodborne microorganisms, particularly on fruits and vegetables. It is noteworthy that ChNP can be also applied to deliver antimicrobial drugs, which further enhance the efficiency and stability of the antimicrobial agent. The present review addresses the potential antimicrobial applications of ChNP from these few aspects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  15. Chen LH, Sung TC, Lee HH, Higuchi A, Su HC, Lin KJ, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2019 Aug 14.
    PMID: 31411209 DOI: 10.1039/c9bm00418a
    Recombinant vitronectin-grafted hydrogels were developed by adjusting surface charge of the hydrogels with grafting of poly-l-lysine for optimal culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) under xeno- and feeder-free culture conditions, with elasticity regulated by crosslinking time (10-30 kPa), in contrast to conventional recombinant vitronectin coating dishes, which have a fixed stiff surface (3 GPa). hESCs proliferated on the hydrogels for over 10 passages and differentiated into the cells derived from three germ layers indicating the maintenance of pluripotency. hESCs on the hydrogels differentiated into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free culture conditions with much higher efficiency (80% of cTnT+ cells) than those on conventional recombinant vitronectin or Matrigel-coating dishes just only after 12 days of induction. It is important to have an optimal design of cell culture biomaterials where biological cues (recombinant vitronectin) and physical cues (optimal elasticity) are combined for high differentiation of hESCs into specific cell lineages, such as cardiomyocytes, under xeno-free and feeder-free culture conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  16. Malhotra N
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2019;14(4):351-366.
    PMID: 30636614 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X14666190111105504
    OBJECTIVES: A variety of bioreactors and related approaches have been applied to dental tissues as their use has become more essential in the field of regenerative dentistry and dental tissue engineering. The review discusses the various types of bioreactors and their potential application in dentistry.

    METHODS: Review of the literature was conducted using keywords (and MeSH) like Bioreactor, Regenerative Dentistry, Fourth Factor, Stem Cells, etc., from the journals published in English. All the searched abstracts, published in indexed journals were read and reviewed to further refine the list of included articles. Based on the relevance of abstracts pertaining to the manuscript, full-text articles were assessed.

    RESULTS: Bioreactors provide a prerequisite platform to create, test, and validate the biomaterials and techniques proposed for dental tissue regeneration. Flow perfusion, rotational, spinner-flask, strain and customize-combined bioreactors have been applied for the regeneration of bone, periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, oral mucosa, temporomandibular joint and vascular tissues. Customized bioreactors can support cellular/biofilm growth as well as apply cyclic loading. Center of disease control & dip-flow biofilm-reactors and micro-bioreactor have been used to evaluate the biological properties of dental biomaterials, their performance assessment and interaction with biofilms. Few case reports have also applied the concept of in vivo bioreactor for the repair of musculoskeletal defects and used customdesigned bioreactor (Aastrom) to repair the defects of cleft-palate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bioreactors provide a sterile simulated environment to support cellular differentiation for oro-dental regenerative applications. Also, bioreactors like, customized bioreactors for cyclic loading, biofilm reactors (CDC & drip-flow), and micro-bioreactor, can assess biological responses of dental biomaterials by simultaneously supporting cellular or biofilm growth and application of cyclic stresses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  17. Hussin MSF, Mohd Serah A, Azlan KA, Abdullah HZ, Idris MI, Ghazali I, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 22;13(4).
    PMID: 33671617 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040647
    Collecting information from previous investigations and expressing it in a scientometrics study can be a priceless guide to getting a complete overview of a specific research area. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelated connection between alginate, gelatine, and hydroxyapatite within the scope of bone tissue and scaffold. A review of traditional literature with data mining procedures using bibliometric analyses was considered to identify the evolution of the selected research area between 2009 and 2019. Bibliometric methods and knowledge visualization technologies were implemented to investigate diverse publications based on the following indicators: year of publication, document type, language, country, institution, author, journal, keyword, and number of citations. An analysis using a bibliometric study found that 7446 papers were located with the keywords "bone tissue" and "scaffold", and 1767 (alginate), 185 (gelatine), 5658 (hydroxyapatite) papers with those specific sub keywords. The number of publications that relate to "tissue engineering" and bone more than doubled between 2009 (1352) and 2019 (2839). China, the United States and India are the most productive countries, while Sichuan University and the Chinese Academy of Science from China are the most important institutions related to bone tissue scaffold. Materials Science and Engineering C is the most productive journal, followed by the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. This paper is a starting point, providing the first bibliometric analysis study of bone tissue and scaffold considering alginate, gelatine and hydroxyapatite. A bibliometric analysis would greatly assist in giving a scientific insight to support desired future research work, not only associated with bone tissue engineering applications. It is expected that the analysis of alginate, gelatine and hydroxyapatite in terms of 3D bioprinting, clinical outcomes, scaffold architecture, and the regenerative medicine approach will enhance the research into bone tissue engineering in the near future. Continued studies into these research fields are highly recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  18. Chenna D, Shastry S, Das S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2021 Feb;28(1):35-40.
    PMID: 33679218 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2021.28.1.5
    Background: Biomaterials containing platelets have been used to promote healing of ulcers and burns, as well as in implantology and maxillofacial and plastic surgery to achieve wound healing and tissue repair. Commercial devices to prepare autologous biomaterials involve diverse preparation methods that can have high production costs and low yields. Hence, we designed a protocol for preparation of large amounts of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) glue using conventional processing techniques for blood components.

    Methods: Autologous whole blood collected 72 h before surgery was processed to prepare platelet concentrates and cryoprecipitate. In a closed system, calcium was added to the cryoprecipitate to release autologous thrombin and generate a firm fibrin clot. The fibrin clot, platelets and calcium were then placed in a conical flask in which a PRF glue formed. The protocol was validated through determination of pre- and post-platelet counts and fibrinogen amounts in the product.

    Results: Platelets were recovered with 68% efficiency during the preparation. Essentially no platelets or fibrinogen were found in the supernatant of the PRF glue, suggesting that nearly all had been incorporated in a PRF glue having a relatively large (8 cm × 10 cm) size.

    Conclusion: The protocol described here is a cost-effective, simple and closed system that can be used to produce large-size PRF glue to promote repair of major surgical defects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  19. Maarof M, Mohd Nadzir M, Sin Mun L, Fauzi MB, Chowdhury SR, Idrus RBH, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;13(4).
    PMID: 33567703 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040508
    The current strategy for rapid wound healing treatment involves combining a biomaterial and cell-secreted proteins or biomolecules. This study was aimed at characterizing 3-dimensional (3D) collagen hydrogels fortified with dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium (DFCM) as a readily available acellular skin substitute. Confluent fibroblasts were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (KM1 and KM2) and fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM. Subsequently, the DFCM was mixed with collagen (Col) hydrogel and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) to fabricate 3D constructs termed Col/C4S/DFCM-KM1, Col/C4S/DFCM-KM2, and Col/C4S/DFCM-FM. The constructs successfully formed soft, semi-solid and translucent hydrogels within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C with strength of <2.5 Newton (N). The Col/C4S/DFCM demonstrated significantly lower turbidity compared to the control groups. The Col/C4S/DFCM also showed a lower percentage of porosity (KM1: 35.15 ± 9.76%; KM2: 6.85 ± 1.60%; FM: 14.14 ± 7.65%) compared to the Col (105.14 ± 11.87%) and Col/C4S (143.44 ± 27.72%) constructs. There were no changes in both swelling and degradation among all constructs. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that all groups consisted of oxygen-hydrogen bonds (O-H) and amide I, II, and III. In conclusion, the Col/C4S/DFCM constructs maintain the characteristics of native collagen and can synergistically deliver essential biomolecules for future use in skin therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  20. Lo S, Fauzi MB
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Feb 28;13(3).
    PMID: 33670973 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13030316
    Tissue engineering technology is a promising alternative approach for improvement in health management. Biomaterials play a major role, acting as a provisional bioscaffold for tissue repair and regeneration. Collagen a widely studied natural component largely present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body. It provides mechanical stability with suitable elasticity and strength to various tissues, including skin, bone, tendon, cornea and others. Even though exogenous collagen is commonly used in bioscaffolds, largely in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, nano collagen is a relatively new material involved in nanotechnology with a plethora of unexplored potential. Nano collagen is a form of collagen reduced to a nanoparticulate size, which has its advantages over the common three-dimensional (3D) collagen design, primarily due to its nano-size contributing to a higher surface area-to-volume ratio, aiding in withstanding large loads with minimal tension. It can be produced through different approaches including the electrospinning technique to produce nano collagen fibres resembling natural ECM. Nano collagen can be applied in various medical fields involving bioscaffold insertion or fillers for wound healing improvement; skin, bone, vascular grafting, nerve tissue and articular cartilage regeneration as well as aiding in drug delivery and incorporation for cosmetic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
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