METHODS: Review of the literature was conducted using keywords (and MeSH) like Bioreactor, Regenerative Dentistry, Fourth Factor, Stem Cells, etc., from the journals published in English. All the searched abstracts, published in indexed journals were read and reviewed to further refine the list of included articles. Based on the relevance of abstracts pertaining to the manuscript, full-text articles were assessed.
RESULTS: Bioreactors provide a prerequisite platform to create, test, and validate the biomaterials and techniques proposed for dental tissue regeneration. Flow perfusion, rotational, spinner-flask, strain and customize-combined bioreactors have been applied for the regeneration of bone, periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, oral mucosa, temporomandibular joint and vascular tissues. Customized bioreactors can support cellular/biofilm growth as well as apply cyclic loading. Center of disease control & dip-flow biofilm-reactors and micro-bioreactor have been used to evaluate the biological properties of dental biomaterials, their performance assessment and interaction with biofilms. Few case reports have also applied the concept of in vivo bioreactor for the repair of musculoskeletal defects and used customdesigned bioreactor (Aastrom) to repair the defects of cleft-palate.
CONCLUSIONS: Bioreactors provide a sterile simulated environment to support cellular differentiation for oro-dental regenerative applications. Also, bioreactors like, customized bioreactors for cyclic loading, biofilm reactors (CDC & drip-flow), and micro-bioreactor, can assess biological responses of dental biomaterials by simultaneously supporting cellular or biofilm growth and application of cyclic stresses.
Methods: Autologous whole blood collected 72 h before surgery was processed to prepare platelet concentrates and cryoprecipitate. In a closed system, calcium was added to the cryoprecipitate to release autologous thrombin and generate a firm fibrin clot. The fibrin clot, platelets and calcium were then placed in a conical flask in which a PRF glue formed. The protocol was validated through determination of pre- and post-platelet counts and fibrinogen amounts in the product.
Results: Platelets were recovered with 68% efficiency during the preparation. Essentially no platelets or fibrinogen were found in the supernatant of the PRF glue, suggesting that nearly all had been incorporated in a PRF glue having a relatively large (8 cm × 10 cm) size.
Conclusion: The protocol described here is a cost-effective, simple and closed system that can be used to produce large-size PRF glue to promote repair of major surgical defects.