Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 121 in total

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  1. Zulkifli I, Che Norma MT, Israf DA, Omar AR
    Poult Sci, 2000 Oct;79(10):1401-7.
    PMID: 11055844
    This study was conducted to determine whether early age feed restriction improves heat tolerance in female broiler chickens. Chicks were brooded for 3 wk and then maintained at 24+/-1 C. On Day 0, chicks were assigned to one of four feeding regimens; each regimen was applied to four cages of chicks. The feeding regimens were 1) ad libitum feeding (ALF); 2) 40% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F40); 3) 60% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F60); and (4) 80% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F80). From 35 to 41 d of age, all birds were exposed to 38+/-1 C for 2 h/d. Serum concentrations of glucose were elevated by the heat challenge, but were not affected by the feeding regimen. The heat treatment resulted in hypocholesteremia among ALF and F80 chicks, whereas the concentrations increased and remained constant in the F60 and F40 birds, respectively. Subjecting chicks to F60 improved growth and survivability and reduced heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L) in response to the heat treatment as compared with the ALF and F80 regimens. The survivability rate and H/L of F40 chicks were similar to those attained by chicks on other regimens. Newcastle disease antibody titer of ALF birds declined with duration of heat treatment. It is concluded that the F60 regimen is beneficial for alleviating, at least in part, the detrimental effects of heat stress in female broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  2. Lim TO, Ding LM, Zaki M, Suleiman AB, Kew ST, Ismail M, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):78-89.
    PMID: 11072494 MyJurnal
    We describe the distribution of capillary blood total cholesterol (BC) by age, sex and ethnicity in Malaysian adults. A national sample of 20,041 individuals aged 30 or older had usable data. They were selected by stratified 2-stage cluster sampling. BC was measured using reflectance photometer. Percentile tables and curves by age, sex and ethnicity are presented. The BC distribution was right skewed and showed the expected increase with age. There were ethnic differences. Malay had the highest BC concentration, followed by Indian, Chinese and other indigenous ethnic group. However, for all ethnic groups, BC concentrations were low in comparison those prevailing in Western populations.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-1996)
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  3. Khoo KL, Tan H, Liew YM, Sambhi JS, Aljafri AM, Hatijah A
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Dec;55(4):439-50.
    PMID: 11221155
    The paper presents the results of a health screening programme conducted in 10 major centers in Malaysia--Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Alor Star, Kuala Terengganu, Malacca, Kota Bahru, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu during the National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997. There were 6,858 participants of both sexes aged between 6 years to 81 years old. The parameters involved in the screening programme were body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol and glucose. The following are the results of the study:- 1. The mean and standard deviation for the body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), total cholesterol (TC) and non fasting (random) blood glucose (GL) of the volunteers studied were 24.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m2, 128.3 +/- 21.1 mmHg, 79.6 +/- 11.9 mmHg, 77.2 +/- 12.1 bpm, 5.33 +/- 1.37 mmol/l and 5.11 +/- 1.97 mmol/l respectively. 2. There was a rising trend for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and GL with age. The HR was higher in the younger age group of those below 20 years. Males tended to have higher mean values than females except for HR which was similar in both sexes. 3. The Malays, Chinese and Indians seemed to have closely similar mean values for SBP, DBP and HR but the Indians possessed the highest BMI (25.62 +/- 3.90 kg/m2), TC (5.61 +/- 1.48 mmol/l) and GL (5.41 +/- 2.43 mmol/l) among the three major ethnic groups. While the Ibans had highest TC (6.07 + 1.09 mmol/l), their GL level was the lowest (4.76 +/- 1.15 mmol/l). The Kadazans had the lowest TC level (4.94 +/- 1.39 mmol/l) among all the ethnic groups. 4. Among the participants screened, 31.9% were overweight (BMI > or = 25), 7.6% were obese (BMI > or = 30); 26.8% had raised SBP (> or = 140 mmHg) and 19.3% had raised DBP (> or = 90 mmHg); 13.6% of the participants had increased HR (> or = 90 bpm), 22% had raised TC (> or = 6.20 mmol/l) and 2% had raised GL (> or = 11.00 mmol/l). There was a higher prevalence for abnormal values with increasing age until between the ages of 60 or 70 years, when the values began to fall. 5. Age was positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.41***, df = 4351), DBP (r = 0.27***, df = 4351), TC (r = 0.22***, df = 3303) and GL (r = 0.16***, df = 2442) but negatively correlated with HR (r = -0.13***, df = 4351). The BMI was positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.29***, df = 2769), DBP (r = 0.31***, df = 2769), TC (r = 0.16***, df = 2137) and GL (r = 0.11**, df = 1637) but there was no correlation with HR (r = 0.03NS, df = 2771). The SBP and DBP were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.75***, df = 4351) and they also showed highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.08***-0.13***, df = 2441-3301) with TC and GL. TC was positively correlated with GL (r = 0.05* df = 2319) but only at the 5% probability level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  4. Sundram K, Hayes KC, Siru OH
    Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 Apr;59(4):841-6.
    PMID: 8147328
    In a double-blind crossover study, 17 normocholesterolemic male volunteers were fed carefully designed whole-food diets in which 5% of energy was exchanged between palmitic (16:0) and lauric + myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0) whereas all other fatty acids were held constant. Resident males received each diet during separate 4-wk periods. The test diets supplied approximately 30% of energy as fat and 200 mg cholesterol/d. Compared with the 12:0 + 14:0-rich diet, the 16:0-rich diet produced a 9% lower serum cholesterol concentration, reflected primarily by a lower (11%) low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration and, to a lesser extent, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. No diet-induced changes were noted in the cholesterol content of other lipoproteins, nor did exchange of saturated fatty acids affect the triglyceride concentration in serum or lipoprotein fractions. These data indicate that a dietary 12:0 + 14:0 combination produces a higher serum cholesterol concentration than does 16:0 in healthy normocholesterolemic young men fed a low-cholesterol diet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  5. Ong HT
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):107-12.
    PMID: 8350783
    Cholesterol reduction reduces ischaemic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the asymptomatic healthy population as well as in those with known coronary artery disease. Angiographic studies have also demonstrated regression of atherosclerotic plaques as well as retardation of new atheroma formation with such therapy. Yet, there is a consistent inability to reduce overall mortality in cholesterol-lowering drug trials. An excess of suicide, homicide and violence has been attributed to cholesterol reduction interfering with membrane lipids and receptors, leading to aggressive behaviour. The risk and benefits of cholesterol reduction must thus be weighed in the individual patient; it is more useful in those with known coronary artery disease who are at high risk of subsequent ischaemic cardiovascular events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  6. Loke DF, Viegas OA, Ratnam SS
    Gynecol. Obstet. Invest., 1993;36(2):108-13.
    PMID: 8225044
    Serum lipid profiles were studied in 167 healthy fertile Singaporean women, aged between 18 and 40 and comprising 114 Chinese, 28 Malays and 25 Indians. Parity or ethnic differences did not affect lipid concentrations. Except for triglycerides which showed a decreasing trend, there was no significant variation in lipid concentrations with age. However, all lipid concentrations except HDL cholesterol (which decreased) appeared to increase with body mass index. Compared with other populations, these Singaporean women appeared to have higher mean concentrations of total cholesterol and lower mean concentrations of HDL cholesterol. The possibility that these differences could have contributed to the increasing incidence of coronary heart disease in Singapore is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  7. Choo KE, Davis TM, Mansur MA, Azman E, Achana S
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1996 Oct;32(5):428-32.
    PMID: 8933405
    OBJECTIVE: Preliminary epidemiological data suggest that dyslipidaemia contributes significantly to rising mortality due to atherosclerosis in Peninsular Malays. The aim of this study was to determine whether abnormal serum lipid profiles are present at birth in this population.

    METHODOLOGY: The patients were 487 non-diabetic Malay women who had an uncomplicated antenatal course and delivered healthy singleton babies at term. Cord blood and maternal post-partum venous blood samples were taken for assay of serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations using standard enzymatic methods.

    RESULTS: Maternal total serum cholesterol concentrations (mean +/- SD; 7.5 +/- 2.5 mmol/L) were higher than in other reported series (range of published means 5.2-6.5 mmol/L) with a correspondingly low high-density lipoprotein (HDL): total cholesterol ratio. The mean cord blood total serum cholesterol (1.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/L) was consistent with previously reported population means (1.5-1.9 mmol/L) but there was a relatively high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and depressed HDL: cholesterol ratio. Significant correlations between maternal and neonatal serum total (P = 0.038) and especially HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001) were observed. Maternal and cord blood serum triglyceride levels were comparable to those in other series.

    CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional data provide evidence that abnormal serum cholesterol profiles are found in pregnant Malay women and their neonates which may have implications for the prevalence of macrovascular disease in the Malay population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  8. Emmanuel SC
    Singapore Med J, 1989 Feb;30(1):17-23.
    PMID: 2595383
    Coronary heart disease which was responsible for 2.9% of all deaths 30 years ago, today accounts for 19% of deaths. The rising trend which declined in 1985, appears to be stabilising now. Indians have mortality rates which are 3 times that of Chinese. This is the background against which the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Register was set up in 1967 to provide incidence and prevalence data for coronary heart disease in the country. in 1987 to provide incidence and prevalence data for coronary heart disease in the country.
    Key words: Coronary heart disease mortality, Age standardised death rates, Ethnic differences, Singapore Myocardial Infarction Register
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  9. Loncin H, Gurian JM, Loncin ME
    J Atheroscler Res, 1968 5 1;8(3):471-82.
    PMID: 5660508
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  10. Ng TK, Chong YH
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Mar;30(3):169-74.
    PMID: 169458
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  11. Bhattathiry EP
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Dec;23(2):123-6.
    PMID: 4240822
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  12. Chong YH, Soh CC, Ho GS, Rajaratnam R, Nonis P
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 1971 Aug;34(1):85-92.
    PMID: 5118731 DOI: 10.1016/0009-8981(71)90070-2
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  13. Sin Teh S, Ong ASH, Choo YM, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2018;67(6):697-706.
    PMID: 29863090 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess18009
    Saturated fats are commonly claimed to raise human blood cholesterols and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Previous literature data were highlighted that although palm oil is 50% saturated, it does not behave like a saturated fat. Human trials were conducted to compare the effects on serum cholesterol levels given by palm olein and monounsaturated oils. It was postulated that saturation/unsaturation of the fatty acids situated at sn-2 positions of triglycerides in the fat molecules determine the induced blood lipid levels but not the overall saturation of oils. The results showed that the lipid parameters (LDL and HDL) effects induced by these oils are similar with no significant differences. This study provides concrete evidence that the unsaturation levels of these oils at sn-2 position of TG are similar (90-100%) which are claimed to be responsible for the lipid parameters. In conclusion, the public negative perception on believing that the overall saturation of oils is detrimental to health should be corrected because in fact the unsaturation at sn-2 positions of the saturated vegetable fat such as palm olein and cocoa butter make them behave like mono-unsaturated oils, unlike saturated animal fats that possess a high content of saturated fatty acids at sn-2 position.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
  14. Teoh MK, Chong JMK, Mohamed J, Phang KS
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):255-62.
    PMID: 7845276
    Antioxidants such as tocotrienols may protect against atherosclerosis since tissue injury from free radicals is a final common pathway of damage in arterial disease. In this study, the effects of tocotrienols on serum cholesterol, lipid peroxides, and aorta atheroma were assessed in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Tocotrienols were more effective than tocopherols in preventing increases in serum LDL (p = 0.03) and total cholesterol (p = 0.008) levels in the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Elevation of serum lipid peroxides was effectively suppressed by tocotrienols (p = 0.01). Both tocopherols and tocotrienols offered significant protection against atheroma in the rabbit aorta, but tocotrienols had a stronger hypolipidaemic effect.
    Comment in: Pathmanathan R, Wong KT. Protection by tocotrienols against hypercholesterolaemia and atheroma. Med J Malaysia. 1995 Mar;50(1):117
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  15. Gunasekaran B, Shukor MY
    Methods Mol Biol, 2020;2089:245-250.
    PMID: 31773659 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0163-1_16
    The main strategy for lowering blood cholesterol levels is through the inhibition of the NADPH-dependent HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase). The enzyme catalyses the reduction of HMG-CoA to mevalonate and this process is inhibited by statins that form the bulk of the therapeutic agents to treat high cholesterol since the 1970s. Newer drugs that are safer than statins are constantly being developed. The inhibition of candidate drugs to HMG-CoA reductase remains the mainstay of drug development research. The determination of the enzyme activity is important for the correct assessment of potency of the enzyme as well as determining the inhibition of potential therapeutic agents from the plant and microbial extracts. Also, this chapter covers the use of the popular four-parameter logistics model that can yield accurate estimation of the IC50 values of therapeutic agents and their 95% confidence intervals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  16. Adams CD, Richmond R, Ferreira DLS, Spiller W, Tan V, Zheng J, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2019 01;28(1):208-216.
    PMID: 30352818 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0079
    BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).

    METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.

    IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  17. Hawkins RC
    Clin Chem Lab Med, 2010;48(1):105-8.
    PMID: 19929751 DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2010.010
    It has been suggested that potassium concentrations may vary between different geographical regions, possibly reflecting ethnic differences in potassium status. This study compared the serum potassium concentrations of three Asian ethnicities in a single geographical location.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  18. Thambiah CS, Mohamed Pesri NA, Mazalan N, Samsudin IN, Mohamad Ismuddin S, Appannah G, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):215-225.
    PMID: 32860374
    INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidaemia is a recognised conventional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even when traditional lipid parameters are normal, CVD risk can exist. Small dense lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL) has appeared as a significant risk marker for CVD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of atherogenic lipoprotein Pattern B in the Malaysian population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 subjects aged 30 years and above who attended a health screening in a Malaysian tertiary institution. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (lipids, glucose, and sdLDL) were obtained. Lipoprotein subfraction was analysed using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.

    RESULTS: Malays and females made up the majority of subjects and the median age was 37 years. Normolipidaemic Pattern B was significantly higher in women (p=0.008). Significant independent predictors of Pattern B were gender (p=0.02), race (p=0.01), body mass index (BMI) [p=0.02] and lipid status (p=0.01). Triglyceride was the only independent predictor of sdLDL (p=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Pattern B of 33% in this study was comparatively high, of which 6.7% were normolipidaemic. Chinese males with dyslipidaemia and increased BMI independently predicted Pattern B. Differences in triglyceride levels alone among these ethnic groups do not fully explain the differences in the prevalence of Pattern B although it was the only lipid parameter to independently predict sdLDL. Individuals with atherogenic normolipidaemia are at greater risk for a CVD event as they are not included in the protective measures of primary CVD prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  19. Wei LK, Menon S, Griffiths LR, Gan SH
    J Hum Hypertens, 2015 Feb;29(2):99-104.
    PMID: 25055800 DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2014.53
    Irregular atrial pressure, defective folate and cholesterol metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, little is known about the combined roles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes, which are involved in metabolism and homeostasis. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of the MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298A>C, ACE insertion-deletion (I/D) and ApoE genetic polymorphisms with hypertension and to further explore the epistasis interactions that are involved in these mechanisms. A total of 594 subjects, including 348 normotensive and 246 hypertensive ischemic stroke subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298A>C, ACE I/D and ApoEpolymorphisms were genotyped and the epistasis interaction were analyzed. The MTHFR 677 C>T and ApoE polymorphisms demonstrated significant associations with susceptibility to hypertension in multiple logistic regression models, multifactor dimensionality reduction and a classification and regression tree. In addition, the logistic regression model demonstrated that significant interactions between the ApoE E3E3, E2E4, E2E2 and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms existed. In conclusion, the results of this epistasis study indicated significant association between the ApoE and MTHFR polymorphisms and hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood
  20. Loh TC, Choe DW, Foo HL, Sazili AQ, Bejo MH
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:149.
    PMID: 24996258 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-149
    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms. Recently, postbiotic metabolites produced from microbes have been extensively studied as feed additive in order to substitute in-feed antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol/blood*
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