Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Coquillettidia crassipes. The highest rate of insemination occurred in 60 x 60 x 120 cm cages and better insemination in laboratory adapted F15 generation. Embryonation and hatchability of eggs ranged from 69.6 to 97.9% and 63.3 to 94.3% respectively. Gravid females laid egg rafts on water in 500 ml breakers with small leaves of Salvinia for resting. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields. At present 21 generations of Cq. crassipes have been reared in the laboratory.
Satisfaction on teaching in basic science is an important element for academic performance in final postgraduate examination. Basic sciences is an important subject in bridging understanding in clinical psychiatry but often poses difficulties among young postgraduate trainees, especially if they have not been exposed frequently to the topic areas like integrative neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neurochemistry. Simple questionnaire regarding satisfaction on teaching was asked to 17 postgraduate candidates from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) and their MCQ paper performance was obtained to validate between satisfaction on teaching and their academic achievement. This simple descriptive study was to determine areas of difficulties and teaching satisfactory levels on basic sciences. Moderately satisfied candidates scored better on basic sciences topic compared to candidates with low and high satisfaction ((Mean, SD = 49.7 Â± 4.5, 41.6 Â± 5.9 and 39.6 Â± 0) respectively. Recommendation avenues for improvement in the near future, especially concerning the ongoing revision course that is organized by the Department of Psychiatry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was briefly discussed. Keywords: satisfaction, postgraduate psychiatry, training
Developing a software program to manage data in a general practice setting is complicated. Vision Integrated Medical System is an example of a integrated management system that was developed by general practitioners, within a general practice, to offer a user friendly system with multi tasking capabilities. The present report highlights the reasons behind the development of this system and how it can assist day to day practice.
Citation: Ahmad Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Ooi GS, Wong ZY. Chapter 2. Pharmacy Practice in Malaysia. In: Fathelrahman AI, Mohamed Ibrahim MI, Wertheimer AI (editors). Pharmacy Practice in Developing Countries: Achievements and Challenges. Amsterdam: Academic Press, Elsevier, 2016
The professional roles of pharmacists have evolved in many parts of the world in the recent years, including Malaysia. Malaysia is a developing country with a two-tier healthcare system consisting of the public and private sectors. Pharmacy service in Malaysia came into existence in 1951 with the enactment of three main legislations governing its profession namely, the Registration of Pharmacist Act 1951, Poison Act 1952, and Dangerous Drug Act 1952. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 registered pharmacists in Malaysia, with 33% working in the private sector. Clinical pharmacy services at public hospitals have expanded the traditional dispensing role of the pharmacist to a profession that provides pharmaceutical care to patients and drug information to both public and professionals. However, the practice of dispensing private general practitioners has limited the community pharmacist's professional roles to optimize their clinical knowledge and to deliver pharmaceutical care. Transformation of the healthcare system is essential in order to improve pharmacy practice in Malaysia.
Background. The pharmacists’ roles have been expanding around the globe in the recent years. In Malaysia, healthcare system is a two-tier system consisting of the public and private sectors. Pharmacy service in Malaysia came into existence in 1951 with the enactment of three main legislations governing its profession, namely, the Registration of Pharmacist Act 1951, Poison Act 1952 and Dangerous Drug Act 1952. However, the absence of dispensing right has limited the community pharmacists’ professional roles to deliver pharmaceutical care, optimise their clinical knowledge and utilise their skill. Aims. To describe the overview of pharmacy practice in Malaysia, by discussing on the history, challenges and future of this profession. Methods. Electronic databases MEDLINE and PUBMED were searched for articles published in English. The keywords community pharmacy, pharmacy practice, Malaysia and pharmaceutical care were used with each database. The articles were independently identified by each researcher. Results. A total of 8 full papers and 9 government reports were retrieved and critically summarised for this review. Conclusions. There is a need of transformation to bring improvement in pharmacy practice. Besides the policy makers, community pharmacists play a pivotal role to transform the current practice to a more comprehensive, clinically inclined and quality practice.
A detailed sedimentological study and facies analysis of the Permian age, uppermost succession of the Kubang Pasu Formation in Perlis was conducted in order to reconstruct the palaeo-depositional environment. Four stratigraphic sections of the uppermost Kubang Pasu Formation were logged at Bukit Chondong and Bukit Tungku Lembu, Perlis. The sections were divided into facies based on lithology and sedimentary structures. Large scale patterns in the form of facies associations and facies successions were also identified. The uppermost Kubang Pasu Formation can be divided into several coarsening upward facies successions. Each facies succession grades upward from an offshore facies association (FA1) composed of bioturbated mudstone and minor thin sandstone, into a distal lower shoreface facies association (FA 2) composed primarily of mudstone interbedded with hummocky cross-stratified sandstone (HCS) and finally a proximal lower shoreface facies association (FA 3) composed of amalgamated hummocky cross-stratified sandstone beds. The facies succession is interpreted as representing a wave- and storm-influenced coastal depositional environment. The gradual transition from siliciclastics to carbonates is probably related to post rift thermal subsidence and tectonic quiescence due to separation of Sibumasu from Gondwana during the Permian.