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  1. Khatoon H, Abdulmalek E
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 18;26(4).
    PMID: 33670436 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26041055
    Quinoxalines, a class of N-heterocyclic compounds, are important biological agents, and a significant amount of research activity has been directed towards this class. They have several prominent pharmacological effects like antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial. Quinoxaline derivatives have diverse therapeutic uses and have become the crucial component in drugs used to treat cancerous cells, AIDS, plant viruses, schizophrenia, certifying them a great future in medicinal chemistry. Due to the current pandemic situation caused by SARS-COVID 19, it has become essential to synthesize drugs to combat deadly pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) for now and near future. Since quinoxalines is an essential moiety to treat infectious diseases, numerous synthetic routes have been developed by researchers, with a prime focus on green chemistry and cost-effective methods. This review paper highlights the various synthetic routes to prepare quinoxaline and its derivatives, covering the literature for the last two decades. A total of 31 schemes have been explained using the green chemistry approach, cost-effective methods, and quinoxaline derivatives' therapeutic uses.
  2. Khatoon H, Abdulmalek E
    Molecules, 2021 Nov 17;26(22).
    PMID: 34834028 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26226937
    Lawesson's reagent (LR) is a well-known classic example of a compound with unique construction and unusual chemical behavior, with a wide range of applications in synthetic organic chemistry. Its main functions were rounded for the thionation of various carbonyl groups in the early days, with exemplary results. However, the role of Lawesson's reagent in synthesis has changed drastically, and now its use can help the chemistry community to understand innovative ideas. These include constructing biologically valuable heterocycles, coupling reactions, and the thionation of natural compounds. The ease of availability and the convenient usage of LR as a thionating agent made us compile a review on the new diverse applications on some common functional groups, such as ketones, esters, amides, alcohols, and carboxylic acids, with biological applications. Since the applications of LR are now diverse, we have also included some new classes of heterocycles such as thiazepines, phosphine sulfides, thiophenes, and organothiophosphorus compounds. Thionation of some biologically essential steroids and terpenoids has also been compiled. This review discusses the recent insights into and synthetic applications of this famous reagent from 2009 to January 2021.
  3. Yusof R, Abdulmalek E, Sirat K, Rahman MB
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 13;19(6):8011-26.
    PMID: 24932572 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068011
    Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.
  4. Jumbri K, Abdul Rahman MB, Abdulmalek E, Ahmad H, Micaelo NM
    Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2014 Jul 21;16(27):14036-46.
    PMID: 24901033 DOI: 10.1039/c4cp01159g
    Molecular dynamics simulation and biophysical analysis were employed to reveal the characteristics and the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) on the structural properties of DNA. Both computational and experimental evidence indicate that DNA retains its native B-conformation in ILs. Simulation data show that the hydration shells around the DNA phosphate group were the main criteria for DNA stabilization in this ionic media. Stronger hydration shells reduce the binding ability of ILs' cations to the DNA phosphate group, thus destabilizing the DNA. The simulation results also indicated that the DNA structure maintains its duplex conformation when solvated by ILs at different temperatures up to 373.15 K. The result further suggests that the thermal stability of DNA at high temperatures is related to the solvent thermodynamics, especially entropy and enthalpy of water. All the molecular simulation results were consistent with the experimental findings. The understanding of the properties of IL-DNA could be used as a basis for future development of specific ILs for nucleic acid technology.
  5. Abdulmalek E, Arumugam M, Basri M, Rahman MB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(10):13140-9.
    PMID: 23202943 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131013140
    Herein, an efficient epoxidation of 1-nonene is described. In a simple epoxidation system, commercially available Novozym 435, an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were utilized to facilitate the in situ oxidation of phenylacetic acid to the corresponding peroxy acid which then reacted with 1-nonene to give 1-nonene oxide with high yield and selectivity. The aliphatic terminal alkene was epoxidised efficiently in chloroform to give an excellent yield (97%-99%) under the optimum reaction conditions, including temperature (35 °C), initial H(2)O(2) concentration (30%), H(2)O(2) amount (4.4 mmol), H(2)O(2) addition rate (one step), acid amount (8.8 mmol), and stirring speed (250 rpm). Interestingly, the enzyme was stable under the single-step addition of H(2)O(2) with a catalytic activity of 190.0 Ug-1. The entire epoxidation process was carried out within 12 h using a conventional water bath shaker.
  6. Asmawi AA, Salim N, Abdulmalek E, Abdul Rahman MB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jun 19;21(12).
    PMID: 32575390 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21124357
    The synergistic anticancer effect of docetaxel (DTX) and curcumin (CCM) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic candidate for lung cancer treatment. However, the lack of optimal bioavailability because of high toxicity, low stability, and poor solubility has limited their clinical success. Given this, an aerosolized nanoemulsion system for pulmonary delivery is recommended to mitigate these drawbacks. In this study, DTX- and CCM-loaded nanoemulsions were optimized using the D-optimal mixture experimental design (MED). The effect of nanoemulsion compositions towards two response variables, namely, particle size and aerosol size, was studied. The optimized formulations for both DTX- and CCM-loaded nanoemulsions were determined, and their physicochemical and aerodynamic properties were evaluated as well. The MED models achieved the optimum formulation for DTX- and CCM-loaded nanoemulsions containing a 6.0 wt% mixture of palm kernel oil ester (PKOE) and safflower seed oils (1:1), 2.5 wt% of lecithin, 2.0 wt% mixture of Tween 85 and Span 85 (9:1), and 2.5 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous phase. The actual values of the optimized formulations were in line with the predicted values obtained from the MED, and they exhibited desirable attributes of physicochemical and aerodynamic properties for inhalation therapy. Thus, the optimized formulations have potential use as a drug delivery system for a pulmonary application.
  7. Yusof R, Jumbri K, Ahmad H, Abdulmalek E, Abdul Rahman MB
    PMID: 33636491 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2021.119543
    The binding characteristics of DNA in deep eutectic solvents (DESs), particularly the binding energy and interaction mechanism, are not widely known. In this study, the binding of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) based DES of different hydrogen bond donors (HBD), including ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gly), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and 1,5-pentanediol (1,5-PD), to calf thymus DNA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the shorter the alkyl chain length (2 carbons) and higher EG ratios of TBABr:EG (1:5) increased the binding constant (Kb) between DES and DNA up to 5.75 × 105 kJ mol-1 and decreased the binding of Gibbs energy (ΔGo) to 32.86 kJ mol-1. Through displacement studies, all synthesised DESs have been shown to displace DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and were able to bind on the minor groove of Adenine-Thymine (AT)-rich DNA. A higher number of hydroxyl (OH) groups caused the TBABr:Gly to form more hydrogen bonds with DNA bases and had the highest ability to quench DAPI from DNA, with Stern-Volmer constants (Ksv) of 115.16 M-1. This study demonstrated that the synthesised DESs were strongly bound to DNA through a combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and groove binding. Hence, DES has the potential to solvate and stabilise nucleic acid structures.
  8. Borzehandani MY, Abdulmalek E, Abdul Rahman MB, Latif MAM
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03;13(11).
    PMID: 34205141 DOI: 10.3390/polym13111861
    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have a distinguished surface as they are mostly made by boron, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Many applications of COFs rely on polarity, size, charge, stability and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of their surface. In this study, two frequently used COFs sheets, COF-1 and covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTF-1), are studied. In addition, a theoretical porous graphene (TPG) was included for comparison purposes. The three solid sheets were investigated for aromaticity and stability using quantum mechanics calculations and their ability for water and ethanol adsorption using molecular dynamics simulations. COF-1 demonstrated the poorest aromatic character due to the highest energy delocalization interaction between B-O bonding orbital of sigma type and unfilled valence-shell nonbonding of boron. CTF-1 was identified as the least kinetically stable and the most chemically reactive. Both COF-1 and CTF-1 showed good surface properties for selective adsorption of water via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. Among the three sheets, TPG's surface was mostly affected by aromatic currents and localized π electrons on the phenyl rings which in turn made it the best platform for selective adsorption of ethanol via van der Waals interactions. These results can serve as guidelines for future studies on solvent adsorption for COFs materials.
  9. Yousefi S, Bayat S, Rahman MB, Ibrahim Z, Abdulmalek E
    Chem Biodivers, 2017 Apr;14(4).
    PMID: 28036129 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600362
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the main risk factor for developing colorectal cancer which is common in patients of all ages. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), structurally related to the salicylates, is highly active in the treatment of IBD with minor side effects. In this study, the synthesis of galactose and fructose esters of 5-ASA was planned to evaluate the role of glycoconjugation on the bioactivity of the parent drug. The antibacterial activity of the new compounds were evaluated against two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive species of bacteria, with a notable effect observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in comparisons with the 5-ASA. Cytotoxicity testing over HT-29 and 3T3 cell lines indicated that the toxicity of the new products against normal cells was significantly reduced compared with the original drug, whereas their activity against cancerous cells was slightly decreased. The anti-inflammatory activity test in RAW264.7 macrophage cells indicated that the inhibition of nitric oxide by both of the monosaccharide conjugated derivatives was slightly improved in comparison with the non-conjugated drug.
  10. Saminathan M, Tan HY, Sieo CC, Abdullah N, Wong CM, Abdulmalek E, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 12;19(6):7990-8010.
    PMID: 24927368 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19067990
    Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. In this study, purified condensed tannins (CTs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five different molecular weight fractions. The structures of the CT fractions were investigated using 13C-NMR. The DP of the CT fractions were determined using a modified vanillin assay and their molecular weights were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS. The protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay. The DP of the five CT fractions (fractions F1-F5) measured by the vanillin assay in acetic acid ranged from 4.86 to 1.56. The 13C-NMR results showed that the CT fractions possessed monomer unit structural heterogeneity. The number-average molecular weights (Mn) of the different fractions were 1265.8, 1028.6, 652.2, 562.2, and 469.6 for fractions F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. The b values representing the CT quantities needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable bovine serum albumin increased with decreasing molecular weight--from fraction F1 to fraction F5 with values of 0.216, 0.295, 0.359, 0.425, and 0.460, respectively. This indicated that higher molecular weight fractions of CTs from L. leucocephala have higher protein-binding affinities than those with lower molecular weights.
  11. Abdulmalek E, Arumugam M, Mizan HN, Abdul Rahman MB, Basri M, Salleh AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:756418.
    PMID: 24587751 DOI: 10.1155/2014/756418
    Here, we focused on a simple enzymatic epoxidation of alkenes using lipase and phenylacetic acid. The immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435 was used to catalyse the formation of peroxy acid instantly from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenylacetic acid. The peroxy phenylacetic acid generated was then utilised directly for in situ oxidation of alkenes. A variety of alkenes were oxidised with this system, resulting in 75-99% yield of the respective epoxides. On the other hand, the phenylacetic acid was recovered from the reaction media and reused for more epoxidation. Interestingly, the waste phenylacetic acid had the ability to be reused for epoxidation of the 1-nonene to 1-nonene oxide, giving an excellent yield of 90%.
  12. Abdul Rahman MB, Jumbri K, Basri M, Abdulmalek E, Sirat K, Salleh AB
    Molecules, 2010 Apr 05;15(4):2388-97.
    PMID: 20428050 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042388
    This paper reports the synthesis of a series of new tetraethylammonium-based amino acid chiral ionic liquids (CILs). Their physico-chemical properties, including melting point, thermal stability, viscosity and ionic conductivity, have been comprehensively studied. The obtained results indicated that the decomposition for these salts proceeds in one step and the temperature of decomposition (T(onset)) is in the range of 168-210 degrees C. Several new CILs prepared in this work showed high ionic conductivity compared to the amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) found in the literature.
  13. Asmawi AA, Salim N, Ngan CL, Ahmad H, Abdulmalek E, Masarudin MJ, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):543-554.
    PMID: 29691812 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0526-4
    Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted. The selected nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using high-energy emulsification technique and subjected to physicochemical and aerodynamic characterizations. The formulated nanoemulsion had mean particle size and ζ-potential in the range of 90 to 110 nm and - 30 to - 40 mV respectively, indicating high colloidal stability. The pH, osmolality, and viscosity of the systems met the ideal requirement for pulmonary application. The DNE4 formulation exhibited slow drug release and excellent stability even under the influence of extreme environmental conditions. This was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy as uniform spherical droplets in nanometer range were observed after storage at 45 ± 1 °C for 3 months indicating high thermal stability. The nebulized DNE4 exhibited desirable aerosolization properties for pulmonary delivery application and found to be more selective on human lung carcinoma cell (A549) than normal cell (MRC-5). Hence, these characteristics make the formulation a great candidate for the potential use as a carrier system for docetaxel in targeting lung cancer via pulmonary delivery.
  14. Hasan HA, Abdulmalek E, Rahman MBA, Shaari KB, Yamin BM, Chan KW
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Dec 20;12(1):145.
    PMID: 30570683 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0509-z
    BACKGROUND: Although the development of antibiotic and antioxidant manufacturing, the problem of bacterial resistance and food and/or cosmetics oxidation still needs more efforts to design new derivatives which can help to minimize these troubles. Benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines are nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds that possess many pharmaceutical properties such as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, immunoenhancer, and anticancer.

    RESULTS: A comparative study between two methods, (microwave-assisted and conventional heating approaches), was performed to synthesise a new quinazoline derivative from 2-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole and octanal to produce 6-heptyl-5,6-dihydrobenzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline (OCT). The compound was characterised using FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, DIMS, as well as X-ray crystallography. The most significant peak in the 13C NMR spectrum is C-7 at 65.5 ppm which confirms the cyclisation process. Crystal structure analysis revealed that the molecule grows in the monoclinic crystal system P21/n space group and stabilised by an intermolecular hydrogen bond between the N1-H1A…N3 atoms. The crystal packing analysis showed that the molecule adopts zig-zag one dimensional chains. Fluorescence study of OCT revealed that it produces blue light when expose to UV-light and its' quantum yield equal to 26%. Antioxidant activity, which included DPPH· and ABTS·+ assays was also performed and statistical analysis was achieved via a paired T-test using Minitab 16 software with P 

  15. Maarof NNN, Alsalahi A, Abdulmalek E, Fakurazi S, Tejo BA, Abdul Rahman MB
    Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;13(4).
    PMID: 33567737 DOI: 10.3390/cancers13040688
    Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the afatinib efficacy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC). This review systemically outlined and meta-analyzed the afatinib efficacy in NSCLC and R/M HNSCC in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) endpoints. Records were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect from 2011 to 2020. Eight afatinib RCTs were included and assessed for the risk of bias. In meta-analysis, overall pooled effect size (ES) of OS in afatinib group (AG) significantly improved in all RCTs and NSCLC-RCTs [hazard ratios (HRs): 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81-0.98, p = 0.02); I2 = 0%, p = 0.71/ 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.97; p = 0.02); I2 = 0%, p = 0.50, respectively]. ES of PFS in AG significantly improved in all RCTs, NSCLC-RCTs, and HNSCC-RCTs [HRs: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.83; p < 0.00001); I2 = 26%, p = 0.24; 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.84; p < 0.00001); I2 = 47%, p = 0.15/0.76 (95% CI: 0.65-88; p = 0.0004); I2 = 34%, p = 0.0004, respectively]. From a clinical viewpoint of severity, interstitial lung disease, dyspnea, pneumonia, acute renal failure, and renal injury were rarely incident adverse events in the afatinib group. In conclusion, first- and second-line afatinib monotherapy improved the survival of patients with NSCLC, while second-line afatinib monotherapy could be promising for R/M HNSCC. The prospective protocol is in PROSPERO (ID = CRD42020204547).
  16. Ishak AA, Selamat J, Sulaiman R, Sukor R, Abdulmalek E, Jambari NN
    Molecules, 2019 Oct 24;24(21).
    PMID: 31652883 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24213828
    The formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was investigated using a kinetic study approach as described by first-order, Arrhenius, and Eyring equations. Chemical model systems with different amino acid precursors (proline, phenylalanine, and glycine) were examined at different times (4, 8, 12, and 16 min) and temperatures (150, 180, 210, 240, and 270 °C). PhIP was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The good fit in first-order suggested that PhIP formation was influenced by the types of amino acids and PhIP concentration significantly increased with time and temperature (up to 240 °C). PhIP was detected in proline and phenylalanine model systems but not in the glycine model system. The phenylalanine model system demonstrated low activation energy (Ea) of 95.36 kJ/mol that resulted in a high rate of PhIP formation (great amount of PhIP formed). Based on the ∆S‡ values both proline and phenylalanine demonstrated bimolecular rate-limiting steps for PhIP formation. Altogether these kinetic results could provide valuable information in predicting the PhIP formation pathway.
  17. Kamal NAMA, Abdulmalek E, Fakurazi S, Cordova KE, Abdul Rahman MB
    Dalton Trans, 2021 Feb 23;50(7):2375-2386.
    PMID: 33555001 DOI: 10.1039/d1dt00116g
    Chemotherapeutic agents used in treating certain cancer types operate in a non-selective manner tending to accumulate in normal, healthy tissue when high doses are used. To mitigate the toxicity effect resulting from this, there is an urgent need to develop active nano delivery systems capable of regulating optimal doses specifically to cancer cells without harming adjacent normal cells. Herein, we report a versatile nanoparticle - zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (nZIF-8) - that is loaded with a chemotherapeutic agent (gemcitabine; GEM) and surface-functionalized with an autonomous homing system (Arg-Gly-Asp peptide ligand; RGD) via a straightforward, one-pot solvothermal reaction. Successful functionalization of the surface of nZIF-8 loaded GEM (GEM⊂nZIF-8) with RGD was proven by spectroscopic and electron microscopy techniques. This surface-functionalized nanoparticle (GEM⊂RGD@nZIF-8) exhibited enhanced uptake in human lung cancer cells (A549), compared with non-functionalized GEM⊂nZIF-8. The GEM⊂RGD@nZIF-8, experienced not only efficient uptake within A549, but also induced obvious cytotoxicity (75% at a concentration of 10 μg mL-1) and apoptosis (62%) after 48 h treatment when compared to the nanoparticle absent of the RGD homing system (GEM⊂nZIF-8). Most importantly, this surface-functionalized nanoparticle was more selective towards lung cancer cells (A549) than normal human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) with a selectivity index (SI) of 3.98. This work demonstrates a new one-pot strategy for realizing a surface-functionalized zeolitic imidazolate framework that actively targets cancer cells via an autonomous homing peptide system to deliver a chemotherapeutic payload effectively.
  18. Zaidan UH, Abdul Rahman MB, Othman SS, Basri M, Abdulmalek E, Rahman RN, et al.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2011;75(8):1446-50.
    PMID: 21821960
    The utilization of natural mica as a biocatalyst support in kinetic investigations is first described in this study. The formation of lactose caprate from lactose sugar and capric acid, using free lipase (free-CRL) and lipase immobilized on nanoporous mica (NER-CRL) as a biocatalyst, was evaluated through a kinetic study. The apparent kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), were determined by means of the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. The Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with single substrate inhibition was adopted as it best explains the experimental findings. The kinetic results show lower K(m) values with NER-CRL than with free-CRL, indicating the higher affinity of NER-CRL towards both substrates at the maximum reaction velocity (V(max,app)>V(max)). The kinetic parameters deduced from this model were used to simulate reaction rate data which were in close agreement with the experimental values.
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