Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 40 healthy children aged between 10 and 12 years of age who were randomly assigned to either of the groups: Group I--Chewable Toothbrushes and Group II--Manual Toothbrushes. Following oral prophylaxis, baseline records of oral hygiene indices (Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) in indexed teeth and Turesky modification of Quigley Hein plaque index (TMQHI) were taken. Baseline Saliva samples were collected and sent for Streptococcus mutans counts. Children were then instructed to use their respective toothbrush twice daily for a week. Oral hygiene indices and S. mutans counts were repeated after 1 week.
Results: Differences in pre-brushing and post-brushing plaque scores and salivary S. mutans counts were statistically significant when compared using paired-sample t test and independent-sample t test. There was a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans counts after using both chewable and manual toothbrushes. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.08).
Conclusion: Chewable toothbrushes are equally effective in plaque control when compared to manual toothbrushes. These can be a reliable alternative for children who lack manual dexterity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP) and 20 nonsnuff users (NS). 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC). The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine(®)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc Tukey's, Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97). However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS) had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001). The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002) whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.