Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Akram Z, Abduljabbar T, Hanif A, Khan A, Vohra F
    Niger J Clin Pract, 2017 05;20(5):595-599.
    PMID: 28513519 DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.197017
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners (FMPs) towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed and a 13-item survey questionnaire was given to FMPs practicing in 12 different teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The questions were aimed at exploring the knowledge of FMP's regarding the association of obesity and periodontal disease and their attitude towards the association of obesity and periodontal disease. Chi-square and Spearman co-efficient were conducted to compare subgroups and correlate factors with the knowledge score of FMPs.

    RESULTS: A total of 314 questionnaires were completed (response rate = 92%). Median age of participants was 41 years and 57% were females. Almost 61% of FMPs answered all the knowledge questions correctly and 64% reported moderate understanding of the association between periodontal health and obesity. Nearly 73% FMPs inquired from obese patients regarding the periodontal disease and more than half (58%) refer patients to a dentist for evaluation. More than half of FMPs perform periodontal disease screening. Nearly all FMPs considered informing obese patients regarding periodontal disease as one of their roles.

    CONCLUSIONS: FMP's play an important role in the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal conditions in obese patients. More than two thirds of FMPs showed good knowledge of the association of obesity and periodontal disease. The attitudes of FMPs towards assessing and referring obese patients at a risk of having periodontal disease were reassuring.

  2. Daood U, Abduljabbar T, Al-Hamoudi N, Akram Z
    J Periodontal Res, 2018 Feb;53(1):123-130.
    PMID: 28940417 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12496
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare clinical periodontal parameters and to assess the release of C-telopeptides pyridinoline cross-links (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide (CTX) from gingival collagen of naswar (NW) and non-naswar (control) dippers.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-seven individuals (42 individuals consuming NW and 45 controls) were included. Clinical (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment loss) and radiographic (marginal bone loss) periodontal parameters were compared among NW and control groups. Gingival specimens were taken from subjects in NW and control groups, assessed for ICTP and CTX levels (using ELISA) and analyzed using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The significance of differences in periodontal parameters between the groups was determined using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The percent loss of dry mass over exposure time and the rate of release of ICTP and CTX from all groups were compared using the paired t-test to examine the effects of exposure time.

    RESULTS: Clinical and radiographic periodontal parameters were significantly higher in the NW group than the control group (P 

  3. Akram Z, Abduljabbar T, Sauro S, Daood U
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2016 Dec;16:142-153.
    PMID: 27619532 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2016.09.004
    BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) or laser therapy (LT) alone as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) inflammatory proteins in periodontal disease.

    METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched from 1980 up to and including July 2016. The addressed PICO question was: "What effect does aPDT and/or LT as an adjunct to SRP have on the GCF inflammatory proteins in periodontal disease patients?"

    RESULTS: Eight studies used aPDT while 10 studies used laser alone. Eight cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were eligible for qualitative analysis for aPDT and LT studies. Four aPDT studies showed significant reduction in IL-1β while one study showed significant reduction in TNF-α levels after aPDT application at follow-up. One study showed significant reduction of IFN-γ, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels after aPDT at follow-up. IL-1β significantly reduced in 4 LT studies, while one study showed significant decrease for IL-6 and TIMP-1 levels. MMP-8 and TNF-α showed significant reduction in three and one study respectively.

    CONCLUSION: It remains debatable whether adjunctive aPDT or LT is effective in the reduction of GCF inflammatory proteins in periodontal disease due to non-standard laser parameters and short follow up period. These findings should be considered preliminary and further studies with long-term follow up and standardized laser parameters are recommended.

  4. Daood U, Akram Z, Matinlinna JP, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2019 07;35(7):1017-1030.
    PMID: 31064669 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.04.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate EDC-assisted collagen crosslinking effect with different concentrations of tiopronin-protected gold (TPAu) nanoparticles on demineralized dentine.

    METHODS: TPAu nanoparticles were fabricated from 0.31-g tetrachloroauric acid and 0.38-g of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (2.4-mmol). Then co-dissolved using 35-mL of 6:1 methanol/acetic acid and mixed using NaBH4. EDC (0.3-M) was conjugated to TPAu nanoparticles at TPAU/EDC-0.25:1, and TPAU/EDC-0.5:1 treatment formulations ratios. Dentin specimens treated with 0.3-M EDC solution alone or left untreated were used as control. Nanoparticles formulations were characterized in term of particles morphology and size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering. Dentin substrates were characterized in term of TEM investigation, dentin proteases characterization, hydroxyproline liberation, elastic modulus measurement, Raman analysis and confocal microscopy viewing.

    RESULTS: TEM evaluation of tiopronin protected gold nanoparticles dispersion revealed nano-clusters formations in both groups. However, based on our TEM measurements, the particle-size was ranging from ˜20 to 50 nm with spherical core-shape which were almost similar for both TPAu/EDC ratios (0.5:1 and 0.25:1). Zeta potential measurements indicate negative nanoparticles surface charge. SAXS profiles for both formulations, suggest a typical profile for uni-lamellar nanoparticles. Superior dentin collagen cross-linking effect was found with the TPAu/EDC nanoparticles formulations compared to the control and EDC treated groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Cross-linking of dentin collagen using TPAu coupled with EDC through TPAu/EDC nanoparticles formulations is of potential significance in improving the biodegradation resistance, proteases inhibition, mechanical and structural stability of demineralized dentin substrates. In addition, the cross-linking effect is dependent on TPAu/EDC ratio, whereas higher cross-linking effect was found at TPAu/EDC ratio of 0.5:1.

  5. Akram Z, Daood U, Aati S, Ngo H, Fawzy AS
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Mar;122:111894.
    PMID: 33641897 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.111894
    We formulated a pH-sensitive chlorhexidine-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) modified with poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA) and incorporated into experimental resin-based dentin adhesives at 5 and 10 wt%. Nanocarriers were characterized in terms of morphology, physicochemical features, spectral analyses, drug-release kinetics at varying pH and its effect on dentin-bound proteases was investigated. The modified dentin adhesives were characterized for cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, degree of conversion (DC) along with CHX release, micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) and nano-leakage expression were studied at different pH values and storage time. CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA nanocarriers exhibited a significant pH-dependent drug release behavior than CHX-loaded/MSN nanocarriers without PLGA modification. The highest percentage of CHX release was seen with 10 wt% CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA doped adhesive at a pH of 5.0. CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA modified adhesives exhibited more profound antibiofilm characteristics against S. mutans and more sustained CHX-release which was pH dependent. After 6 months in artificial saliva at varying pH, the 5 wt% CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA doped adhesive showed excellent bonding under SEM/TEM, higher μTBS, and least nano-leakage expression. The pH-sensitive CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA could be of crucial advantage for resin-dentin bonding applications especially in reduced pH microenvironment resulting from biofilm formation; and the activation of dentin-bound proteases as a consequence of acid etching and acidic content of bonding resin monomers.
  6. Akram Z, Abduljabbar T, Abu Hassan MI, Javed F, Vohra F
    Dis Markers, 2016;2016:4801418.
    PMID: 27795608
    To investigate the cytokine profile as biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without obesity, MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases were combined with handsearching of articles published from 1977 up to May 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for each of the cytokines: resistin, adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. Forest plots were produced reporting standardized mean difference of outcomes and 95% confidence intervals. Eleven studies were included. Three studies showed comparable levels of leptin among obese and nonobese patients with CP. Four studies reported comparable levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and resistin whereas five studies reported comparable levels of adiponectin. Two studies reported similar levels of CRP in patients with periodontitis with and without obesity. One study showed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese patients with CP. One study showed higher levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in obese patients with CP. The level of localized periodontal inflammation may have a greater influence on the GCF proinflammatory biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity. Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers levels compared to nonobese individuals remains debatable.
  7. Akram Z, Safii SH, Vaithilingam RD, Baharuddin NA, Javed F, Vohra F
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Jun;20(5):903-14.
    PMID: 27005812 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-016-1793-4
    OBJECTIVE: There is a controversy over the influence of obesity on the periodontal treatment outcome in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in the management of CP among obese and non-obese patients.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "What is the efficacy, of NSPT with respect to clinical, radiographic, biochemical, microbiological, and patient-centered outcomes in obese as compared to non-obese chronic periodontitis patients?" Databases were searched from 1977 up to and including December 2014 using relevant key indexing terms. Unpublished data, experimental studies, letters to the editor, review articles, case reports, and commentaries were excluded. Meta-analysis of three studies was performed.
    RESULTS: Five clinical studies were included. The total number of patients ranged between 30 and 260 individuals. The mean age of patients was between 42.5 and 48.8 years. In three studies, the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)) in obese and non-obese patients following NSPT was comparable. Meta-analysis of PPD and CAL among obese and non-obese subjects showed comparable outcomes (PPD P = 0.91, I (2) 67.36 %; CAL P = 0.87, I (2) 77.16 %). However, in three studies, NSPT resulted in a significantly better clinical periodontal outcome among non-obese subjects than obese subjects. The difference in the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, leptin, adiponectin, and CRP) among obese and non-obese patients following treatment for CP was inconsistent.
    CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether NSPT has a significantly higher impact on the clinical periodontal outcomes in obese patients than in non-obese patients with chronic periodontitis, given that the number of selected studies was relatively low and the reported findings were inconsistent.
    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although the effect of obesity on the outcome of NSPT still remains unclear, nevertheless clinicians are prompted to manage obesity prior to and during periodontal treatment.
    KEYWORDS: Cytokines; Inflammatory markers; Obese; Overweight; Periodontal therapy; Periodontitis
  8. Vohra F, Akram Z, Safii SH, Vaithilingam RD, Ghanem A, Sergis K, et al.
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2016 Mar;13:139-147.
    PMID: 26184762 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2015.06.010
    BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (AgP).

    METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is aPDT effective in the treatment of AgP?" MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1977 till May 2015 using combinations of the following keywords: antimicrobial; photochemotherapy; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizing agents; AgP; scaling and root-planing (SRP). Reviews, case reports, commentaries, and articles published in languages other than English were excluded.

    RESULTS: Seven studies were included. In 5 studies, aPDT was performed as an adjunct to SRP. Laserwavelengths and duration of irradiation ranged between 660-690 nm and 60-120 s, respectively. Laser power output as reported in 2 studies was 75 mW. One study showed significant improvement in periodontal parameters for subjects receiving aPDT as an adjunct to SRP as compared to treatment with SRP alone at follow up. However, comparable periodontal parameters were reported when aPDT as an adjunct to SRP was compared to SRP alone in the treatment of AgP in one study. One study showed comparable outcomes when aPDT was compared to SRP in the treatment of AgP. In two studies, adjunctive antibiotic administration to SRP showed significantly better outcomes when compared to application of adjunctive use of aPDT to SRP.

    CONCLUSION: aPDT is effective as an adjunct to SRP for the management of AgP, however, further randomized clinical trials with well defined control groups are needed in this regard.

  9. Fu C, Deng S, Koneski I, Awad MM, Akram Z, Matinlinna J, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 12;112:104082.
    PMID: 32979607 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104082
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of blue light photoactivated riboflavin modified universal adhesives on dentin collagen biodegradation resistance, dentin apparent elastic modulus, and resin-dentin bond strength with interfacial morphology.

    METHODS: Dentin slabs were treated with 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate modified (powder added slowly while shaking and then sonicated to enhance the dispersion process) Universal Adhesive Scotch Bond and Zipbond™ along with control (non-modified) and experimental adhesives, photoactivated with blue light for 20s. Hydroxyproline (HYP) release was assessed after 1-week storage. Elastic-modulus testing was evaluated using universal testing machine at 24 h. Resin-dentin interfacial morphology was assessed with scanning electron-microscope, after 6-month storage. 0.1% rhodamine dye was added into each adhesive and analyzed using CLSM. Detection of free amino groups was carried out using ninhydrin and considered directly proportional to optical absorbance. Collagen molecular confirmation was determined using spectropolarimeter to evaluate and assess CD spectra. For molecular docking studies with riboflavin (PDB ID file), the binding pocket was selected with larger SiteScore and DScore using Schrodinger PB software. After curing, Raman shifts in Amide regions were obtained at 8 μm levels. Data were analyzed using Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc tests.

    RESULTS: At baseline, bond strength reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in control specimens. However, at 6 months' storage, UVA Zipbond™ had significantly higher μTBS. Resin was able to diffuse through the porous demineralized dentin creating adequate hybrid layers in both 0.1%RF modified adhesives in CLSM images. In riboflavin groups, hybrid layer and resin tags were more pronounced. The circular dichroism spectrum showed negative peaks for riboflavin adhesive specimens. Best fitted poses adopted by riboflavin compound are docked with MMP-2 and -9 proteases. Amide bands and CH2 peaks followed the trend of being lowest for control UA Scotch bond adhesive specimens and increasing in Amides, proline, and CH2 intensities in 0.1%RF modified adhesive specimens. All 0.1%RF application groups showed statistically significant (p 

  10. Daood U, Aati S, Akram Z, Yee J, Yong C, Parolia A, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2021 Jul 27;9(15):5344-5358.
    PMID: 34190236 DOI: 10.1039/d1bm00555c
    The aim of this study was to characterize multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and dentin collagen and associated matrix-metalloproteinases, in addition to the analysis of the effect of HIFU on bacterial biofilms and biological properties. Dentin specimens were subjected to 5, 10 or 20 s HIFU. XPS spectra were acquired and TEM was performed on dentin slabs. Collagen orientation was performed using Raman spectroscopy. Calcium measurements in human dental pulpal cells (hDPCs) were carried out after 7 and 14 days. For macrophages, CD36+ and CD163+ were analysed. Biofilms were analyzed using CLSM. Tandem mass spectroscopy was performed for the detection of hydroxyproline sequences along with human MMP-2 quantification. Phosphorus, calcium, and nitrogen were detected in HIFU specimens. TEM images demonstrated the collagen network appearing to be fused together in the HIFU 10 and 20 s specimens. The band associated with 960 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching ν1 PO43-. The control specimens showed intensive calcium staining followed by HIFU 20 s > HIFU 10 s > HIFU 5 s specimens. Macrophages in the HIFU specimens co-expressed CD80+ and CD163+ cells. CLSM images showed the HIFU treatment inhibiting bacterial growth. SiteScore propensity determined the effect of HIFU on the binding site with a higher DScore representing better site exposure on MMPs. Multiscale mapping of dentin collagen after HIFU treatment showed no deleterious alterations on the organic structure of dentin.
  11. Akram Z, Abduljabbar T, Kellesarian SV, Abu Hassan MI, Javed F, Vohra F
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2017 03;83(3):444-454.
    PMID: 27718252 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.13147
    AIMS: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of bisphosphonate therapy as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the management of periodontitis.

    METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched up to and including July 2016. The primary outcome was probing depth (PD), and the secondary outcomes were changes in clinical attachment level (CAL) and bone defect (BD) fill. The mean differences (MD) of outcomes and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each variable were calculated using random effect model.

    RESULTS: Eight clinical studies were included. Seven studies used alendronate as an adjunct to SRP; of these, four studies used topical application and three used oral alendronate. Considering the effects of adjunctive bisphosphonates as compared to SRP alone, a high degree of heterogeneity for PD (Q value = 39.6, P 

  12. Abduljabbar T, Javed F, Shah A, Samer MS, Vohra F, Akram Z
    Lasers Med Sci, 2017 Feb;32(2):449-459.
    PMID: 27686888 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-016-2086-5
    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of adjunctive use of laser therapy (LT) alone or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to improve clinical periodontal and HbA1c levels in patients with both chronic periodontitis (CP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Electronic search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct, and SCOPUS databases were combined with hand searching of articles published from 1975 up to and including March 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Six studies were selected for this review. In these six studies, laser treatment was applied, after scaling and root planing (SRP), in two ways: Three studies used laser alone and three studies used laser with photosensitizer. All the six included studies reporting clinical periodontal and glycemic parameters showed that LT and aPDT were effective in the treatment of CP in T2DM subjects at follow-up. Two studies showed significantly better periodontal outcomes for LT as an adjunct to SRP as compared to SRP alone, whereas four studies showed comparable periodontal outcomes among adjunctive LT or aPDT with SRP. Two studies showed significant reduction of HbA1c levels in LT and aPDT as compared to SRP, whereas three studies showed comparable percentage levels at follow-up. It remains debatable whether LT or aPDT as adjunct to SRP is more effective as compared to SRP alone in the improvement of clinical periodontal and glycemic control in patients with both CP and T2DM, given that the scientific evidence is weak.
  13. Abduljabbar T, Vohra F, Akram Z, Ghani SMA, Al-Hamoudi N, Javed F
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2017 Aug;173:353-359.
    PMID: 28641206 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.06.016
    BACKGROUND: Oral pigmentation, especially in the gingiva poses esthetic problems. Laser therapy has been widely used for cosmetic therapy in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy of surgical laser therapy (SLT) in the management of oral pigmented lesions (OPL).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is SLT effective in the management of OPL?" Databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched from 1970 up to and including February 2017.

    RESULTS: Ten studies were included. The reported number of OPL ranged between 8 and 140. Oral pigmented sites included, gingiva, buccal and labial mucosa, alveolar mucosa and lips. Lasers used in the studies included Q-switched alexandrite, Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, diode, Erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet and carbon dioxide laser. Laser wavelength, power output and number of irradiations were 635-10,600nm, 1-10W and 1 to 9 times, respectively. The follow up period ranged from 6 to 24months. All studies reported SLT to be effective in the treatment of OPL. In five studies, recurrence of OPL occurred which ranged from 21.4% to 45%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lasers are effective in the management of OPL including physiologic gingival pigmentation, smokers' melanosis and pigmentation in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Different laser types (CO2, Er:YAG and Diode) showed comparable outcomes in the treatment of OPL.

  14. Agyei D, Ahmed I, Akram Z, Iqbal HM, Danquah MK
    Protein Pept Lett, 2017;24(2):94-101.
    PMID: 28017145 DOI: 10.2174/0929866523666161222150444
    Bioactive proteins and peptides are recognised as novel therapeutic molecules with varying biological properties for potential medical applications. Development of protein and peptidebased therapeutic products for human use is growing steadily as they continue to receive an increasing rate of approval by the United States Food and Drugs Administration (US FDA). In this short review, we describe the current status and methodologies involved in the synthesis of protein and peptide biopharmaceuticals with an emphasis on the drivers and restrains to their exploitation in the therapeutic products sector.
  15. Kellesarian SV, Qayyum F, de Freitas PC, Akram Z, Javed F
    PMID: 28847683 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.08.012
    BACKGROUND: the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a useful therapeutic protocol for oral decontamination.

    METHODS: in order to address the focused question: Is aPDT a useful therapeutic protocol for oral decontamination?, an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to July 2017 in indexed databases using the combination of different key words including photochemotherapy, lasers, photodynamic therapy, disinfection, mouth, saliva and oral. The exclusion criteria included reviews, case-reports, case-series, commentaries, letters to the editor, interviews, and updates. Four randomized control trials were included and processed for data extraction.

    RESULTS: all studies reported that aPDT was effective in reducing the overall oral microbial load in saliva. Considering the effects of aPDT+photosensitizer (PS) compared with PS alone, there was no heterogeneity noticed for aPDT+PS (Q value=0.15, P=0.69, I(2)=0%). The overall mean difference for bacterial count in CFU/ml between aPDT+PS and PS alone was also not significant (weighted mean difference=-0.41, 95% CI=-1.12 to 0.29, p=0.24) at follow-up.

    CONCLUSION: the efficacy of aPDT for oral decontamination remains unclear. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of aPDT reducing the oral microbial load are need.

  16. Al-Sowygh ZH, Ghani SMA, Sergis K, Vohra F, Akram Z
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res, 2018 Jun;20(3):345-351.
    PMID: 29350883 DOI: 10.1111/cid.12584
    BACKGROUND: A close relationship between poor glycemic control and peri-implant break down has been demonstrated. It is hypothesized that levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) are higher with increased glycemic levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PURPOSE: In the present study, we examined the clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of AGEs among different glycemic levels in diabetic patients and assessed whether the levels of AGEs correlate with clinical peri-implant parameters.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three patients who participated in this study were divided into four groups; Group-1: HbA1c 6.1%-8%; Group-2: HbA1c 8.1%-10%; Group-3: HbA1c > 10%; Group-4: non-diabetic individuals with HbA1c  .05). Mean levels of AGEs in PISF were significantly higher in relation to higher levels of HbA1c levels. Significant positive correlations were found between AGEs and PD (P = .0221) and CBL (P = .0425); and significant negative correlation was found for PI (P = .0376) in patients with HbA1c levels >10%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters were poor and levels of AGEs were significantly high in patients with high glycemic levels. These findings suggest that AGEs may be considered as potential marker of inflammation in diabetic individuals with peri-implantitis.

  17. Akram Z, Al-Shareef SA, Daood U, Asiri FY, Shah AH, AlQahtani MA, et al.
    Photomed Laser Surg, 2016 Apr;34(4):137-49.
    PMID: 26982216 DOI: 10.1089/pho.2015.4076
    The aim of this study was to assess the bactericidal efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic dynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) against periodontal pathogens.
  18. Akram Z, Baharuddin NA, Vaithilingam RD, Rahim ZH, Chinna K, Krishna VG, et al.
    J Oral Sci, 2017 Mar 31;59(1):93-102.
    PMID: 28049964 DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.16-0127
    This study investigated changes in periodontal outcomes after nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) and evaluated associations of change in salivary resistin level with periodontal outcomes in obese Malaysians with chronic periodontitis. Sixty-two obese adults with chronic periodontitis were randomly divided into a test group (n = 31), which received NSPT, and a control group (n = 31), which received no treatment. Plaque score (PS), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks after NSPT. Salivary resistin levels were evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PS was significantly lower in patients who received NSPT than in the control group at 6 and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). In the NSPT group the percentages of sites with shallow and moderate pockets decreased significantly, but there was no significant change in deep pockets. Resistin levels significantly decreased after NSPT (P < 0.05). Change in salivary resistin level was not significantly associated with periodontal outcomes. In obese Malaysians, NSPT significantly improved PS and GBI, and improved PPD and CAL for shallow and moderately deep pockets but not for deep pockets. Salivary resistin level was not associated with improvement in either periodontal variable.
  19. Akram Z, Rahim ZH, Taiyeb-Ali TB, Shahdan MS, Baharuddin NA, Vaithilingam RD, et al.
    Arch Oral Biol, 2017 Jan;73:311-320.
    PMID: 27567495 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.08.016
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of resistin between individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) and those without CP, and to evaluate the role of resistin in CP.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is there a difference in the resistin levels between individuals with CP and those without CP?" four electronic databases: Medline, PubMed (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), EMBASE, and Science direct databases from 1977 up to March 2016 for appropriate articles addressing the focused question. EMBASE and Medline were accessed using OVID interface which facilitated simultaneous search of text words, MeSH or Emtree. Unpublished studies (gray literature) were identified by searching the Open-GRAY database and references of the included studies (cross referencing) were performed to obtain new studies. In-vitro studies, animal studies, studies that reported levels of other cytokines but not resistin, letters to the editor and review papers were excluded.

    RESULTS: Ten studies were included. Nine studies compared resistin levels between CP and periodontally healthy (H) individuals and reported higher mean serum and GCF levels of resistin in CP patients than the H controls. Two studies showed comparable resistin levels from GCF and serum between diabetes mellitus with CP (DMCP) and CP groups. Three studies included obese subjects and showed comparable serum and GCF resistin levels between obese subjects with CP (OBCP) and CP subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: CP patients were presented with elevated levels of GCF or serum resistin as compared with H individuals. Resistin modulates inflammation in chronic periodontal disease and may be used as surrogate measure to identify subjects at risk for periodontitis. Resistin levels in patients with CP and systemic inflammatory disorders such as diabetes, obesity, or rheumatoid arthritis was not significantly higher than the levels in patients with only CP.

  20. Maqbool M, Tirmazi SSM, Shakoor A, Akram Z, Nazir R, Chohan AN, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2023;2023:1044541.
    PMID: 36845639 DOI: 10.1155/2023/1044541
    BACKGROUND: Despite of having improved endodontic file designs as well as the reinforced metal alloy file structure, intracanal endodontic file separation (EFS) is still a very problematic and worrisome dental incident, which usually occurs without any visible signs of permanent deformation. Further, there have been conflicting reports regarding the clinical significance of leaving separated files within root canals.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to look into the current perceptions and awareness about file separation during endodontic treatment among the dental house officers (DHOs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel validated questionnaire comprising of 15 close-ended questions was distributed anonymously via Google Forms through email to 1100 DHOs across Pakistan. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: the first component (Section I) collected demographic data and the second component (Section II) investigated the causes of EFS during root canal treatment. Following the completion of socioeconomic information, including age and gender, the DHOs were asked to answer a few questions about the various reasons for endodontic instrument fracture.

    RESULTS: A total of 800 responses were recorded, with an effective rate of 72.8%. The majority of the DHOs (p value < 0.001) perceived that endodontic instrument fracture occurred in the posterior (61.5%) and apical third of the canal (50.5%) and in older permanent dentition (67.3%), possibly due to patient anxiety (62%). Better choice of instrument (61.15%), operators' experience (95.3%), knowledge (87.5%), and proper root canal cleaning (91.1%) are believed to be the vital steps in reducing endodontic file separation/fracture. Furthermore, majority of them (p value < 0.001) perceived that stainless steel was a superior alloy for filing instruments. Manual files tend to be more prone to fractures due to repeated use than rotary files.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that young DHOs had adequate knowledge and awareness regarding the potential predisposing factors and handling techniques for EFS. This study thereby provides an evaluating tool to access the insights of the current perceptions and awareness of DHOs concerning EFS.

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