Methods: HUVECs were divided into six groups: control, treatment with 10 ng/ml TNF-α, and co-treatment of 10 ng/ml TNF-α with four different concentrations of AEPS (100, 150, 250, and 300 μg/ml) for 24 h. Subsequently, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression, U937 monocyte cells adhesion, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 expression in HUVECs were measured.
Results: Treatment of TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs with AEPS at different concentrations resulted in decreased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AEPS also inhibited TNF-α-stimulated U937 monocyte cells adhesion to HUVECs. In addition, AEPS reduced TNF-α-induced NF-κB p65 expression in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusions: The results indicated that AEPS suppressed TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression NF-κB signaling.
METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses.
RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05); however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05). The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40.
CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred retinal samples of right eye [57.0% females (n = 114) and 43.0% males (n = 86)] were selected from baseline visit. A custom-written software was used for vessel segmentation. Vessel segmentation is the process of transforming two-dimensional color images into binary images (i.e. black and white pixels). The circular area of approximately 2.6 optic disc radii surrounding the center of optic disc was cropped. The non-vessels fragments were removed. FracLac was used to measure the fractal dimension and vessel density of retinal vessels.
RESULTS: This study suggested that 14.1% of the region of interest (i.e. approximately 2.6 optic disk radii) comprised retinal vessel structure. Using correlation analysis, vessel density measurement and fractal dimension estimation are linearly and strongly correlated (R = 0.942, R(2) = 0.89, p